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VOL. V. 


J. H addon, Printer, Castle Street, London. 









Sic oportet ad librum, preset-tint miscellanei generis, legendum accedere lectorem, ut sold ad cnnvivium conviva 
civilis. Convivator annititur omnibus satisfacere i et tamen si quid apponitar, quod hujus ant illius palato non 
respondeat, et hie et ille urbane dissimulant, et alia fercula probant, ne quid contristent coiivivatorem. 


A reader should sit down to a book, especially of the miscellaneous kind, as a well-behaved visitor does to a ban- 
quet. The master of the Feast exerts himself to satisfy his guests ; but if, after all his care and pains, something should 
appear on the table that does not suit this or that person's taste, they politely pass it over without notice, and commend 
other dishes, that they may not distress a kind host. Tramlalion. 



VOL. V. 



El 1837. 



C^RULESCENS, in entomology, a small 
species of cancer, abundant in the seas between 
the tropics. Also, a black species of cryptoce- 
phalus ; with the striated elytrae casrulescens. 
Found in Barbary. Also, a species of cpram- 
byx, inhabiting Germany. Also, a species of 
chrysomela, of a greenish blue color. 

C^RULESCENS, in ornithology, a species of 
anas. This kind inhabits North America; the 
color is fuscous, beneath white ; wing-coverts 
and posterior part of the back bluish. This is 
the anser sylvestris freti Hudsonis of Brisson ; 
the blue-winged goose of Latham ; 1'oie des 
Esquimaux of Burton. Also, a species of rallus ; 
the blue-necked rail of Latham. A Cape of Good 
Hope bird. 

C/ERULEUS, in entomology, a species of 
cimex, entirely blue, without any spots. Also, 
the name of a species of carabus, rhinomacer, 
cucajus, scarabseus, and cryptocephalus. All 
European insects, except the last, which is found 
in the tropics of Africa. 

C.KRULEUS, in ornithology, a species of cucu- 
lus ; the blue Madagascar cuckoo of Latham ; 
and le taitson of Buffon. Also the name of a 
species of oriolus ; the blue oriole of Latham ; 
the Xanthormus caeruleus of Brisson ; and the 
blue jay of Ray. Also a species of Ramphas- 
tos; the blue toucan of Latham. Found in 
South America. 

C.SRULEUS, in zoology, a species of coluber, 
the scales of which are white on one side and 

CAER\VYS, a parish and market town of 
Flint, five miles S.S.E. from St. Asaph, and 
204 north-west from London. The word Caer 
signifies a city, and Gwys, a summons, the 
county assizes having been regularly held here, 
though now removed to Mould. In the middle 
of the town are four streets, in the centre stands 
a fine elm tree. At this place it was customary, 
in ancient times, for the princes of Wales to give 
a silver harp annually to the best bard or musi- 
cian; but this custom has been discontinued ever 
since the reign of queen Elizabeth. The market 
on Tuesday is the best in the county. 

WOOD, a genus of the monogynia order, and 
decandria class of plants; natural order thir- 
ty-third, lomentaceae ; CAL. quinquefid, with 
the lowest segment larger in proportion. There 
are five petals, the lowest most beautiful It is a 
leguminous plant. There are nine species, the 
most remarkable of which are, C. Brasiliensis, 
commonly called brasiletto. It grows naturally 
in the warmest parts of America, from whence 
IIP wood is imported for the dvers who use it 
Vol.. V. PART!. 

much. The demand has been so great, that none 
of the large trees are left in any of the British 
plantations; the largest remaining being not 
above two inches in thickness, and eight or nine 
feet in height. The branches are slender and 
full of small prickles ; the leaves are pinnated ; 
the lobes growing opposite to one another, broad 
at their ends, with one notch. The flowers are 
white, papilionaceous, with many stamina and 
yellow apices, growing in a pyramidal spike, at 
the end of a long slender stalk : the pods enclose 
several small round seeds. The color produced 
from this wood is greatly improved by solution 
of tin in aqua regia. 2. C. mimosa or mimo- 
sordes. Prickly leaflets, oblong, obtuse : stamens 
shorter than the corals, legumes woolly. A sen- 
sitive plant like the mimosa tribe, and a native 
of the East Indies. 

C/ESALPINUS (Andrew), an eminent phi- 
losopher, physician, and botanist, was born at 
Arezzo. After having been many years professor 
at Pisa, he became physician to Pope Clement 
VIII. He was the author of Questiones Peri- 
pateticse, a work, defending the philosophy of 
Aristotle against the doctrines of Galen, from 
which he appears to have approached very near 
to the theory of the circulation of the blood ; 
having explained the use of the valves of the 
heart, and pointed out the course which these 
compelled the blood to take on both sides during 
the contraction and dilatation of that organ. He 
wrote also a botanical work De Plantis, and is 
justly esteemed the founder of Systematic Boxany. 
His Hortus Siccus, consisting of 785 dried spe- 
cimens of plants, pasted on 266 folio pages, was 
extant in 1740. He died at Rome in 1603. 

C/ESAR (Caius Julius), the illustrious Ro- 
man general and historian, was of the family of 
the Julii, who pretended to be descended from 
Venus by /Eneas. See JULIUS CAESAR. He was 
born at Rome on the 12th of the month Quin- 
tilis (afterwards from him called July) A. U. C. 
653, and lost his father in 669. Being nephew 
to Marius, he was early proscribed by Sylla ; 
who was with much entreaty prevailed on to 
save his life- Ui at said to his friends when he 
consented, thai* he saw in that young man many 
Mariuses.' Caesar, by his valor and eloquence, 
soon acquired the highest reputation in the field 
and in the senate. Beloved and respected by his 
fellow-citizens, he enjoyed successively every 
magisterial and military honor the republic could 
bestow, consistent with its free constitution. But 
at length having subdued Pompey, the great rival 
of his growing power, his boundless ambition 
effaced the glory of his former actions : for, pur- 
suing his favorite maxim, ' that he had rather 


be the first man in a village, than the second in 
Rome,' he procured himself to be chosen perpe- 
tual dictator; and, not content with this uncon- 
stitutional power, his faction had resolved to 
raise him to the imperial dignity ; when the 
friends of the civil liberties of the republic rashly 
assassinated him in the senate-house. By this 
impolitic measure they defeated their own pur- 
pose, involving the city in that consternation and 
terror, which produced general anarchy, and 
paved the way to the revolution they wanted to 
prevent ; the imperial government being abso- 
lutely founded on the murder of Julius Caesar. 
He fell in the fifty-sixth year of his age, A. A. C. 
43. His Commentaries contain a History of his 
principal Voyages, Battles, and Victories. The 
London edition, in 1712, in folio, is preferred. 
A particular detail of Caesar's transactions will 
be found under the article ROME. 

C^SAR, in Roman antiquity, a title borne by 
all the emperors from Julius Caesar to the de- 
struction of the empire. It was also used ^s a 
title of distinction for the presumptive heir of the 
empire, as King of the Romans is now used for 
that of the German. This title took its rise from 
the surname of the first emperor, which, by a 
decree of the senate, all the succeeding emperors 
were to bear. Under his successor, the appel- 
lation of Augustus being appropriated to the 
emperors, in compliment to that prince, the title 
Caesar was given to the second person in the em- 
pire, though still it continued to be also given to 
the first; and hence the difference betwixt Cassar 
used simply, and Cfesar with the addition of Im- 
perator Augustus. The dignity of Caesar remained 
to the second of the empire, till Alexius Comne- 
nus having elected Nicephorus Melissenus Caesar, 
by contract, and it being necessary to confer 
some higher dignity on his own brother Isaacius, 
he created him Sebastocrator, with the prece- 
dency over Melissenus ; ordering, that in all ac- 
clamations, &c. Isaacius Sebastocrator should be 
named the second, and Melissenus Caesar the 

CAESAR (Sir Julius), a learned civilian, was 
descended by the female line from the dukes de 
Cesarini in Italy ; and was bora near Tottenham, 
in Middlesex, in 1557. He was educated at Ox- 
ford, advanced to many honorable employments, 
admitted LL. D. of Oxford and Paris, and for the 
last twenty years of his life was master of the 
rolls. He was remarkable for his extensive 
bounty and charity to all persons of worth, so 
that he seemed to be the almoner general of the 
nation. He died in 1639, in the seventy-ninth 
year of his age. It is very remarkable that the 
MSS. of this lawyer were offered, by the execu- 
tors of some of his descendants, to a cheese- 
monger for waste paper ; but, being timely in- 
fpected by Mr. Samuel Paterson, that gentleman 
Siscovered their worth, and had the satisfaction 
lo find his judgment confirmed by the profession, 
to whom they were sold in lots for upwards of 
500, in 1757. 

CJESAREA, an ancient city on the coast of 
Pho?nicia. It was conveniently situated for trade ; 
but had a very dangerous harbour, so that no 
ships could be safe in it when the wind was at 
south-west. Herod the Great, king of Judea, 


remedied this inconvenience at an immense ex- 
pence and labor, and made it one of the most 
convenient havens on that coast. He also beau- 
tified it with many buildings, and bestowed 
twelve years on the finishing and adorning it. 

C.KSAREA AUGUSTA, in ancient geography, a 
Roman colony, situated on the river Iberus in 
Spain, before called Salduba, in the territories 
of the Edetani; now commonly thought to be 


tiquity, were officers or ministers of the Roman 
emperors ; they kept the account of the revenues 
of the emperors ; and took possession, in their 
name, of such things as devolved or were con- 
fiscated to them. 

C^ESAROMAGUS, a town of theTrinobantes, 
in Britain ; by some supposed to be Chelmsford, 
by others Brentford, and by others Burflet. 

C7ESONES, a denomination given to those 
cut out of their mothers' wombs. Pliny ranks 
this as an auspicious kind, of birth ; the elder 
Scipio Africanus, and the first of the family of 
Caesars, were brought into the world in this way. 

C^ESTUS, in antiquity, a large gantlet made 
of raw hide, which the wrestlers made use of 
when they fought at the public games. It was a 
kind of leathern strap, strengthened with lead or 
plates of iron, which encompassed the hand, the 
wrist, and part of the arm, to defend these parts 
as well as to enforce their blows. 

C./ESULIA, in botany, a genus of the class 
syngenesia, order polygamia aequalis. Recep- 
tacle chaffy ; seeds involved in the chaff; down- 
less; calyx three-leaved. Two species only : 1, 
C. axillaris, with leaves lanceolate, tapering to 
the base, serrate, alternate ; a native of the East 
Indies. 2. C. radicans: with leaves lanceolate, 
tapering to the top, very entire, opposite. A na- 
tive of Guinea. 

CAESURA, in the ancient poetry, is when, 
in the scanning of a verse, a word is divided, so 
that one part seems cut off, and belongs to a dif- 
ferent foot from the rest : 

Mentijri nojli : nunjquam menjdacia prosunt ; 

where the syllables ri, li, quam, and men, are 
caesuras. Or, it denotes a certain division of the 
words between the feet of a verse ; whereby the 
last syllable of a word becomes the first of a foot : 
as in 

Armavi|rumque ca(no,Troj i /qui | primus ab | oris j 
where the syllables no and jtE are caesuras. 

C.ESURA, or C.SOURE, in the modern poetry, 
denotes a rest or pause towards the middle of an 
Alexandrian verse, by which the voice and pro- 
nunciation are aided, and the verse, as it were, 
divided into two hemistichs. 

CjETERIS PARIBUS, a Latin term in fre- 
quent use among mathematical and physical 
writers. The words literally signify other things 
being alike or equal. Thus we say, the heavier 
the bullet, caeteris paribus, the greater the range; 
i. e. by how much the bullet is heavier, if the 
length and diameter of the piece and strength of 
the powder be the same, by so much will the 
utmost range or distance of a piece of ordnance 
be the greater. Thus also, in a physical way, 


we say, the velocity and quantity circulating in 
a given time through any section of an artery, 
will, creteris paribus, be according to its diame- 
ter, and nearness to or distance from the heart. 

C.&TOBRIX, in ancient geography, a town 
of Lusitania, near the mouth of the Tagus, on the 
east side; now extinct. It had its name from 
its fishery ; and there still exist fish-ponds on the 
shore, made with plaster of Paris, which illus- 
trate the name of the ruined city. 

CZEYX, in mythology, a king of Thrace, who 
was metamorphosed into a halcyon. 

CAFER, in entomology, an African species of 
cirnex : color black, with a white band on the 
thorax ; ferruginous wing-cases, with four white 
spots. Also a species of green scarabaeus, with 
the margin of the thorax and elytrse spotted with 
white. Inhabiting the Cape of Good Hope. 

CAFER, in ornithology, a species of merops, 
with gray plumage and a yellow spot near the 
anus, tail long. Native of Ethiopia. Also, a 
species of picus, brown above, beneath light 
green, dotted with black, the under part of the 
wings and tail vermilion colored. Found at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

CAFFA, or KAFFA, a city and port town of 
Russia in Europe, situated on the south-east 
part of Crim Tartary. It is the most consider- 
able town in the country, and gives name to the 
straits mentioned below. It was anciently called 
Theodosia ; a name which has been restored 
since the Russians have obtained this country. 
It is 150 miles north-east of Constantinople. 

CAFFA, STRAITS OF, run from the Euxine or 
Black Sea, to the Palus Meotus, or Sea of Azoph. 

CAFFACA, in natural history, a name given 
by the Turks and Tartars to a peculiar kind of 
earth, of a gray color, having a light cast of green 
in it. It is very soft and unctuous, and resem- 
bles our fullers' earth ; but is more astringent, 
and adheres very firmly to the tongue ; these 
people use this earth when they bathe. 

CAFFEIN, the base of coffee. By adding 
muriate of tin to an infusion of unroasted coffee, 
M. Chenevix obtained a precipitate, which he 
washed and decomposed by sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. The supernatant liquid contained a pecu- 
liar bitter principle, which occasioned a green 
precipitate in concentrated solutions of iron. 
When the liquor was evaporated to dryness, it 
was yellow and transparent like horn. It did 
not attract moisture from the air, but was soluble 
in water and alcohol. The solution had a plea- 
sant bitter taste, and assumed with alkalies a 
garnet-red color. It is as delicate a test of iron 
as infusion of galls ; yet gelatine occasions no 
precipitate with it. 

CAFFER, Bos. See Bos. 

CAFFER, in entomology, a Cape of Good Hope 
species of cerambyx ; color brassy green, thorax 
spinous, wing-cases testaceous, and short an- 

CAFF1LA, a company of merchants or tra- 
vellers who join together, in order to go with 
more security through the dominions of the Grand 
Mogul, and other countries on the continent of 
the East Indies. The caffila differs from a ca- 
ravan, at least in Persia; for the caffila belongs 
properly to some sovereign or some powerful 

company in Europe, whereas a caravan is a com- 
pany of particular merchants, each trading upon 
his own account. 

CAFFRA, in entomology, a species of apis, 
hirsute and black, with the posterior part of the 
thorax and anterior part of the abdomen yellow. 

CAFFRA, in ornithology, a species of certhia ; 
color fuscous, the breast and abdomen pale, and 
the middle feathers of the tail longest. This bird 
and the Caffra apis are both natives of Caffraria, 
whence their name. 

CAFFRARIA, a country of Africa, extending 
across the southern part of the continent, and 
contained on the west between the twentieth and 
twenty-fifth degree of south latitude, and between 
the twenty-fourth and thirty-second degree of 
south latitude on the east. Some geographers 
have applied this name to the whole country ly- 
ing south of Cape Negro and the River Del 
Spiritu Santo, and reaching toward the north, 
between Lower Guinea and Monomatapa, as 
high as the equator. But the appellation should 
be confined to that portion of cou-ntry inhabited 
by the Caffres, from whom it takes its name ; 
a people with whom we are closely connected by 
our colonial possessions at the Cape, and differing 
widely in appearance, disposition, and manners, 
both from the negroes as well as the Hottentots of 
this continent. 

Of their countiy our knowledge is as yet de- 
fective, though it has been lately increased by the 
travels of Mr. Campbell and others. The Booa 
huanas, Barroloos, Damaras, Tambookies, and 
the inhabitants of Cafferland, who are particu- 
larly distinguished by the colonists of the Cape 
of Good Hope, by the name of Caffres, are the 
principal tribes of which we have any account : 
and it is to the latter of these that the descrip- 
tions of Paterson, Sparmann, Vaillant, and Bar- 
row, refer. 

Towards the east, this country is in many 
places extremely fertile. The mountains are co- 
vered with forests, and the plains with luxuriant 
herbage, refreshed and fertilised by innumerable 
streams. But towards the west it is a perfect 
desert. The inhabitants keep no cattle, and their 
whole subsistence depends upon the exchanging 
of copper rings and beads with the Booshuanas 
on the east, and the Namaqua Hottentots on the 
south. These rings they manufacture from cop- 
per ore, found in great abundance, in a chain 01 
mountains extending from the Orange River to 
the tropic. On the banks of the Great Fish River, 
which is the boundary between the Cape colony 
and Cafferland, Mr. Barrow experienced a very 
remarkable variation in the temperature of the 
air, during the space of two days, and the climate 
generally is very variable, but they have little 
rain, except in summer, when it is accompanied 
by thunder and lightning. 

Mr. Campbell has principally illustrated the 
towns of the interior, which we treat in their al- 
phabetical places, and particularly Lekatoo, 
which was also visited in 1801 by commissioners 
from the Cape colonial government. See AF- 

The history and habits of the Caffres have be- 
come additionally interesting to this country 
since the tide of emigration has been directed 


eastward of our Cape colony, and their charac- 
ter has become, to numerous British settlers, that 
of the most important plunderers upon earth. 

These tribes ars supposed to be of Arabic 
origin. They call themselves Kaussis. Like the 
Hottentots, they are a singularly insulated race. 
We are persuaded from a diligent comparison of 
the best accounts, that, also, like the Hottentots, 
they ;ire a greatly injured people, and have been 
goadod, by the bad usage of many generations, 
to the outrages they are still found to commit. 
The practice of the rite of circumcision alone 
seems to connect them with the history of the 
world. This they perform, like the Mahomme- 
dans, in the twelfth or thirteenth year, but con- 
nect with it no religious ceremony or notion, 
except that of respect to their ancestors. If they 
have any sort of religion besides, it is unaccom- 
panied with any public rites. Their language is 
soft and harmonious, and differs much from that 
of the Hottentots, although the names of their 
mountains and rivers are evidently of Hottentot 

The dwellings of these people resemble bee- 
hives, constructed on a wooden frame, and plas- 
tered both within and without with a composition 
of clay and the dung of cattle. They are then 
neatly covered with a kind of matting. 

Every Caffer bears arms, not as a profession, 
but as the exigence of his affairs seem to de- 
mand it. They are -all both shepherds and 
warriors, as have been the greatest and the best 
of mankind ; they evidently prefer the former 
mode of life, and there seems no just foundation 
for attributing to them a cruel or sanguinary 
disposition ; their moderation towards the colo- 
nists, in a variety of instances, directly indicates 
the contrary. And of treachery they have not a 
shade in their character. ' Le Caffre,' says M. 
Vaillant, ' cherche toujours son ennemi face a 
face; il ne peut lancer sa hassagai, qu'il ne soit 
a decouvert ; le Hottentot, au contraire, cache 
sous une roche, ou derriere un buisson, envoie 
la mort, sans s'exposer a la recevoir ; 1'un est le 
tigre perh'de qui fond traitreusement sur la proie; 
1'autre est le lion genereux qui s'annonce, se 
montre, attaque, et peril, s'il n'est pas vainquer.' 
His principal weapons are the hassagai, or 
omkontoo, as he calls it, a sort of spear with an 
iron head of a foot long, fixed to a tapering shaft 
of about four feet in length; and the keerie. 
The former he throws with wonderful dexterity, 
seldom failing of his mark, at the distance of 
fifty or sixty paces. The keerie is used either 
in a close engagement or at a distance. It is 
n club of about two feet and a half long, and at 
one end nearly three inches in diameter. To 
these we may add a shield of an oval shape, made 
of the thickest part of a bullock's hide, which 
he carries to defend himself against the darts and 
arrows of his enemy. Unlike his neighbours, 
the Hottentots and Bosjesmans, he does not use 
poison on his weapons, and rarely attacks by 

The Caffres are more attached to a pastoral 
than an agricultural life; though their soil, as 
far as it is known, and particularly to the east, 
offers great facilities for cultivation, and is so 
extremely fertile, that, with a very little labor, 

it might be made to produce the finest grain and 
fruits of the colony. So extremely negligent are 
they of these advantages, that a large species 
of water melon and niil'.et aie their principa, 
culinary plants. They likewise cultivate some 
tobacco and hemp, both of which they use for 
smoking. They rarely kill any of the cattla 
for food, except to show hospitality to a stranger. 
Milk is their ordinary diet, which they always 
use in a curdled state ; berries of various de- 
scriptions, and the seeds of plants, which the 
natives call plantains, are also eaten, and a few 
of the gramineous roots with which the woods 
and the banks of the rivers abound. Occasion- 
ally too, the palm-bread of the Bosjesmans is 
found amongst them. Their total ignorance of 
the use of ardent spirits, and fermented liquors, 
and their general temperance and activity, pre- 
serve them from the ravages of many disorders 
which abound amongst the other native tribes, to 
say nothing of the value of their independence. 
Their wealth consisting solely of their cattle, 
they devote the principal part of their time to 
the management of them, which is conducted 
with great regularity; and even the affairs of 
the dairy are superintended wholly by the men. 
By a sharp whistling sound, made either artifi- 
cially with a piece of bone or ivory, or by means 
of the hand applied to the mouth (as our Eng- 
lish boys frequently make it), they contrive to 
inure their cattle to a sort of mechanical train- 
ing. One signal of this kind disperses them in 
the morning to their pastures, another separates 
the cows from the herd to be milked, and a 
third collects them all for marching. Among 
their oxen many resemble the black cattle of the 
Highlands, others are as remarkable for their 
size, and are not unlike the Alderney cow. 
Some are used for riding, as they have no horses 
among them, and the horns of these they twist 
into a variety of fantastic shapes. The con- 
structing their habitations, y the breaking up of 
the ground and preparing it for the seed, and 
the gathering in of their harvest, fall to the lot 
of the women ; who also manufacture a coarse 
earthenware for boiling their food, and very neat 
reed baskets, which serve as milk pails. The 
commerce of this people is divided between 
the Dutch farmers and their eastern neighbours, 
the Tambookies. To the former they bring 
their cattle in exchange for small pieces of 
copper and iron, glass beads, and other trifles ; 
from the Tambookie nation they procure their 

Previous courtship is not considered necessary 
to marriage. When a man once selects the ob- 
ject of his wishes, nothing remains but to strike 
a bargain with the father ; the amount of which 
is generally an ox or a couple of cows ; and the 
damsel resigns herself to her fate, without emo- 
tion or surprise. The Tambookie wives, how- 
ever, are thought rather a dear commodity ; they 
are rarely obtained but by the chiefs ; and, among 
the common people, this custom of purchasing 
wives renders polygamy, though allowable, not 
frequent, as they can seldom afford the price of 
more than one. Their marriages are celebrated 
with feasts and dancing, which not unfrequently 
last for weeks together. ' A Caffre woman," 

C A F F R A II I A. 

Mr. Bartow says, 'is only serious when she 
dances ; and at such times her eyes are constantly 
fixed on the ground, and her whole body seems 
to be thrown into convulsive motions.' 

The government of the Caffres is monarchical, 
but administered by various subordinate chiefs, 
who are distinguished from the people at large by 
a brass chain suspended on the left side of the 
head, from a wreath of copper beads. The regal 
honor descends from father to son ; in default of 
the latter to a nephew ; and, in default of both, 
it becomes elective, an occasion, when it occurs, 
of considerable strife. Their rulers seem to have 
no control, however, over the lives or properties 
of those they govern. Their laws, apparently 
suggested by natural principles, are very few arid 
simple. If the death of a fellow creature be the 
effect of accident, a fine is paid to the relatives of 
the deceased, but premeditated murder is visited 
with instant death. Of imprisonment for any 
crime they have no conception ; restitution is the 
punishment inflicted for theft ; and the same laws, 
in cases of their delinquency, are applied equally 
to the chiefs and to their subjects. 

Mr. Barrow, in the course of his first expedi- 
tion into Caffre-land, penetrated to the capital, 
which is not far east of the Fish River, and con- 
ducted a negociation with their king Gaika, of 
which he gives a very interesting account. Hav- 
ing waited for some time in conversation with 
the mother of this chief, about thirty-five, and 
his queen, a very pretty girl of fifteen, the king 
made his appearance on an ox in full gallop, at- 
tended by five or six of his people. Business 
commenced, with little ceremony, undertheshade 
of a mimosa. Anticipating, with great prompti- 
tude and ease of manner, the general object of 
the visit, he began by observing, that none of the 
Uaffres who had passed the frontier were to be 
considered as his subjects. ' He said they were 
chiefs as well as himself, and entirely indepen- 
dent of him; but that his ancestors had always 
held the first rank in the country, and their su- 
premacy had been acknowledged by the colonists 
on all occasions; that all those Caffres and their 
chiefs who had a long time been desirous to enter 
under the protection of his family had been 
Aindly received, and that those who chose rather 
to remain independent had been permitted to do 
so without being considered in the light of ene- 
mies.' He then entered as freely into the history 
of his family. ' He informed us,' continues Mr. 
B. 'that his father died and left him when very 
young, under the guardianship of Zembei, one of 
Ids first chiefs, and his own brother, who had 
acted as regent during his minority ; but that 
raving refused to resign to him his rights, on 
loming at years of discretion, his father's friends 
jad showed themselves in his favor, and by their 
assistance he had obliged his uncle to fly ; that 
this man had then joined Khootar, a powerful 
chief to the northward, and with their united 
power had made war upon him : that he had been 
Hctorious and had taken Zembei prisoner.' In- 
stead of a cruel death, which we should have, 
magined the uncle now to have been exposed to,. 
Be was treated it seems with great lenity and 
respect, his wives and children were returned to 
him, and he was only so far considered a captive 

as never to be suffered to leave the village in 
which the king resided. 

They have some singular practices in the in- 
terment of their dead. The bodies of their chil- 
dren are deposited in ant-hills, which have been 
excavated by the ant-eater. On their chiefs only 
is bestowed the honor of a grave, which is gene- 
rally dug very deep in the places where their 
oxen, stand during the night; the rest of their 
dead are thrown promiscuously into a ditch, and 
left without covering to be devoured by the 
wolves, whom the Caffres never attempt to 
destroy, from a consideration of their services. 
With this apparent neglect of their bodies, a 
Cattre not only cherishes great respect for his 
deceased relatives, but to swear by their memory 
is to take the most sacred oath. 

The Caffre women possess cheerful and ani- 
mated countenances, are modest in their carriage, 
lively and curious, but not intruding; and, though 
of a color nearly approaching to black, their well- 
constructed features, their beautifully clean teeth, 
and their eyes dark and sparkling, combine to 
render many comparatively handsome. They 
have neither the thick lips nor the flat noses of 
African negroes. As the females of a nation but 
partially civilised, they are remarkable for a 
sprightly and active turn of mind, and in this 
respect are totally different from their neighbours 
the Hottentots. In point of general figure, how- 
ever, the latter seem to have the advantage in 
their youth. 

The men are tall, muscular and robust, of an 
open countenance, and manly graceful figure. 
Good nature and intelligence are depicted in 
their features, which never betray any signs of 
fear or suspicion. Their hair, which is short and 
curling, and their skin, which is nearly black, 
are rubbed over with a solution of red ochre ; 
and though a few wear cloaks of skin, most of 
them go quite naked. The women wear cloaks 
that extend below the calf of the leg ;. and their 
head-dress, which is a leather cap, is adorned 
with beads, shells, and polished pieces of iron 01 

CAFFRISTAN, or KUTTORE, an extensive 
mountainous region of India, bounding Cabul to 
the north, and extending northward from the 
thirty-fifth degree of latitude to Cashmere. The 
general level of this country is considerably 
above those on each side of it. Kuttore is the 
general name of this tract; that of Caffristan 
signifies the land of infidels. It is classed as a 
dependency of Cashgar, by the people of llin r 
dostan, but is little known to them. It seems 
to be governed by a number of petty chieftains, 
and has members worth the attention of the 
various enquirers of the neighbourhood. 

CAGANUS, or CACANUS, an appellation 
anciently given by the Huns to their kings. The 
word appears also to have been formerly applied 
to the princes of Muscovy^ now called czars. 
From the same also, probably, the Tartar title 
chain or kan, had its origin. 

CAGAO, in natural history, the Indian name 
of a large bird which inhabits the mountains, 
and feeds on pistachio nuts, and other fruit" 
which it swallows whole. It is very voracious, 
and is of the size of a hen, but has a longer neck. 

CAG ^ 

CAGE', v. & n. Fr. cage ; Ital. gaggia, gab- 
bia; Belg. kovi ; Lat. cavea; a place of con- 
finement ; a prison ; a coop for birds ; generally 
a place shut in and fastened. 

Take any bird and put it in a cage, 
And do all thin entente and thy coragp, 
To foster it tenderly with mete and drinke 
Of all deiutees that thou canst bethinke, 
And keepe it all so clenely as thou may ; 
Although the cage of gold be never so gay. 
Yet had this bird, by twenty thousand fold, 
Lever in a forest that is wide and cold, 
Gon eten worms, and swiche wretchednesse ; 
For ever this bird will don his besinesse 
To escape out of this cage whan that he may : 
His libertee the bird desireth, ay. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

See whether a cage can please a bird ? or whether 
a dog grow not fiercer with tying ? Sidney. 

He taught me how to know a man in love ; in 
which cage of rushes, I am sure you are not a prisoner. 


He cwoln, and pampered, with high fare, 
Sits down, and snorts, caged in his basket chair. 


Have you not seen the nightingale 
A prisoner like coopt in a cage ; 
How doth she chant her wonted tale 
In that her narrow hermitage ; 
Even then her charming melody doth prove 
That all her bars are trees, her cage a grove. 

Old Song. Sir . L' Estrange. 

The bird in thrall, the more contented lyes, 
Because the hawke so neere her she espyes, 
And though the cage were open, more would feare 
To venture out than to continue there ; 
So if thou couldst perceive what birds of prey 
Are hovering round about thce every day, 
To seize thy soule (when she abroad shall goe, 
To take the freedome she desireth so), 
Thou farre more fearfull, wouldst of them, become 
Then thou art now of what thou fiyest from. 

George Withers. 

Though slaves, like birds that sing not in a cage, 
They lost their genius, and poetick rage ; 
H>mers again and Pindars may be found, 
And his great actions with their numbers crowned. 


And parrots, imitating human tongue, 
And singing birds in silver cages hung j 
And every fragrant flower, and oilorous green. 
Were sorted well, with lumps of amber laid between. 

Dry den. 

The reason why so few marriages are happy, is, 
because young ladies spend their time in making nets, 
not in making cages. Swift. 

A man recurs to our fancy, by remembering his 
garment ; a beast, bird, or fish, by the cage, or court- 
yard, or cistern, wherein it was kept. 

Wattt on the Mind. 
The yelping cur her heels assaults ; 
The magpie blabs out all her faults ; 
Poll in the uproar, from her cage, 
With this rebuke outscrcamed her rage. Gay. 

So settling on his cage, by play, 

And chirp, and kiss, he seemed to say, 

You must not live alone. 
Nor would he quit that chosen stand, 
Till I with slow and cautious hand, 

Returned him to his own. 

Cou-per. The Faithful Bird. 


You gave me last week a young linnet. 
Shut up in a fine golden cage ; 

Yet how sad the poor thing was within it 
O how did it flutter and rage ; 

Then he moped and he pined, 

That his wings were confined, 
Till I opened the door of his den ; 

Then so merry was he, 

Because he was free, 
He came to his cage back again. 


CAGES, CAVEJE, in antiquity, were places in 
the ancient amphitheatres, wherein wild beast* 
were kept, ready to be let out for sport. These 
beasts were usually brought to Rome shut up in 
oaken or beechen cages, artfully formed, and 
covered or shaded with boughs, that the creatures, 
deceived with the appearance of a wood, might 
fancy themselves in their forest. The fiercer 
sort were pent in iron cages, lest wooden prisons 
should be broke through. The caveae were a 
sort of iron cages different from dens, which 
were under ground and dark ; whereas the caveae 
being airy and light, the beasts rushed out of 
them with more alacrity and fierceness than if 
they had been pent under ground. Iron cages 
have been formerly used for the security or 
punishment of prisoners. Bajazet is said to have 
died in one when prisoner to Timour the Tartar, 
but the correctness of this idea is doubted, and 
seemingly on good grounds, by some historians. 
They were used in France by Louis XIV., and 
in England by Edward I., who confined the 
countess of Buchan in this manner, at the castle 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

CAGGAW, in botany, a name given by the 
people of Guinea, to a plant which they boil in 
water, and use the decoction to wash the mouth 
with, as a cure for the tooth-ache. Its leaves 
are smooth and shining, like those of the laurel, 
but they are thin, and bend like those of the 

CAGIT, in natural history, a name given by 
the people of the Philippine Islands, to a spe- 
cies of parrot, very common in their woods ; it 
is of a middling size, and is all over of a fine 
green color. 

CAGLIARI, the capital of the island of Sar- 
dinia, is seated on the declivity of a hill, has a 
university, and is an archbishop's see. The har- 
bour, which is at the mouth of the river Mular- 
gia, is excellent, and the town has a good trade; 
but it is a place of no strength, and small size. 
It was taken, with the whole island, by the Eng- 
lish in 1708, who transferred it to the emperor 
Charles VI. ; but it was retaken by the Spaniards 
in 1717, and about two years afterwards ceded 
to the duke of Savoy, in lieu of Sicily. The ob- 
jects of traffic are salt, oil, and wine. Inhabitants 
about 30,000. 

CAGLIARI (Paul), called also Paulo Veronese, 
an excellent painter, born at Verona, in 1532. 
Gabriel Cagliari, his father, was a sculptor, and 
Antonio Badile, his uncle, was his master in 
painting. He was esteemed the best of the Lom- 
bard painters, and styled, il pittor felice, the 
happy painter. There is scarcely a church in 
Venice where some of his performances are not 
to be seen. De Piles says, ' his picture of the 
marriage at Cana, is almost the triumph of 


painting itself.' Philip II. of Spain, sent for him 
to paint the Escurial, and made him great offers; 
cut Paul excused himself from leaving his own 
lountry, where his reputation was so well estab- 
lished, that most of the princes of Europe 
ordered their ambassadors to procure something 
of his hand at any rate. Titian used to say, he 
was the ornament of his profession. And Guido 
lleni being asked which of his predecessors he 
would choose to be, were it in his power, after 
Raphael and Corregio, named Paul Veronese. 
He died of a fever at Venice in 1588, and had a 
tomb and a statue of brass erected to his mem- 
ory in the church of St. Sebastian. 

CAHIRCONRIGH, a conical mountain of 
Ireland, in Kerry, Munster, more than 700 yards 
above the sea level, and forming a sort of penin- 
sula between the bays of Castlemayn and Tralee. 

CAI1ILLO, in ichthyology, a name given by 
some authors to the lupus marinus, or wolf fish. 

CAHORS, a considerable walled town of 
France, in the department of the Lot, and 
ci-devant province of Querci. It is seated on a 
peninsula of the river, and built partly on a 
craggy rock. The principal street is narrow; 
and terminates in the market-place, in which is 
the town-house. The cathedral is a Gothic 
structure, and has a large square steeple. It has 
a university, and is forty-five miles north-west of 
Toulouse. It has a population of 1 1,728 inhabi- 
tants; and manufactures of woollen and fine linen, 
brandy, and oil. In the vicinity is raised the 
celebrated vin de grave. It had formerly a 
university, and is still a bishop's see. 

CA11YS, a dry measure for corn, used in 
some parts of Spain, particularly at Seville and 
at Cadiz. It is near a bushel of our measure. 

CAIA, in Roman antiquity, a common prae- 
nomen among the women, as Caius was among 
the men. Hence the custom of the bride saying, 
on being introduced into her husband's house, 
' Ubi tu Caius, ego Caia,' i. e. ' Where you are 
master, I will be mistress.' 

CAIA, in the Turkish military orders, an officer 
serving in the post of a deputy or steward, and 
acting for the body of janissaries. 

CAJA, in entomology, the specific name of 
the garden tiger moth, a well-known species of 
phalana. The anterior wings are whitish, with 
large fuscous spots: posterior ones red, with 
black spots. 

CAJ ANA, a town of European Russia, in Fin- 
land, the capital of the district of Cajana Lehn. 
It stands on lake Ulea, on the borders of Lap- 
land, where the Pytha forms a tremendous cata- 
ract. The inhabitants gain their living by tillage. 
It is seventy-two miles south-east of Uleaborg. 

CAIANI, in ecclesiastical history, a sect of 
heretics, thus denominated from one Caianus of 
Alexandria, their leader, otherwise called Aph- 

CAJANIA, a province of Sweden, the same 
with East Bothnia. See BOTHNIA. 

CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews, succeed- 
ed Simon, the son of Camith, about A. D. 16, or 
as Calrnet thinks, in 25, and married the daugh- 
ler of Annas, who was conjoined with him in the 
priestly office. His iniquitous conduct with re- 
gard to oui Siviour, with his strong, though 

7 CAJ 

undesigned, expression of the necessity of one 
dying to save others, are recorded by the evan- 
gelists. About two years after our Saviour's 
death, Caiaphas and Pilate were both deposed 
by Vitellius, then governor of Syria, and after- 
wards emperor : whereupon Caiaphas, unable to 
bear this disgrace, killed himself, A. D. 35. See 


CAIC, CAICA, or CAIQUE, in sea language, is 
used to denote the skiff or sloop belonging to a 
galley. The Cossacs give the same name to a 
small kind of bark used in the navigation of the 
Black Sea. It is equipped with forty or fifty 
soldiers; their employment is a kind of piracy. 

CAICOS, a cluster of islands in the Atlantic, 
between St. Domingo and the Bahama islands, 
on the edge of one of the Bahama banks. North 
of this bank are four or five islands of consider- 
able extent. The largest, called the Grand 
Caicos, is due north from St. Domingo, and 
about 400 miles from New Providence ; about 
sixty miles long, and two or three broad. There 
are here several good anchorages, particularly 
that at St. George's Key, where there is a port 
of entry, and a small battery. The harbour ad- 
mits vessels drawing fourteen feet water. But 
none of the settlements are very flourishing. 
Long. 72 W., lat. 21 N. 

CATCUS, in entomology, a species of sphinx, 
inhabiting Surinam. Color of the wings fuscous : 
posterior pair rufous, streaked with black ; ab- 
domen cinerous, with black rings. 

CAJEPUT OIL, the volatile oil obtained by 
distillation from the leaves of the cajeputa offici- 
narum, the melaleuca leucadertdron of Linnaeus, 
frequent on the mountains of Atnboyna, and 
other Molucca islands. It is prepared in great 
quantities, and sent to Holland in copper flasks. 
As it comes to us, it is of a green color, from the 
copper of the flasks ; very limpid, lighter than 
water, of a strong smell resembling camphor, and 
a strong pungent taste, like that of cardamoms, 
and is often adulterated with other essential oils, 
colored with the resin of milfoil. It burns en- 
tirely away, without leaving any residuum. In 
medicine it is used as a general stimulant and 
antispasmodic. Hence it is recommended in 
flatulent colic, paralysis, chorea, hooping cough, 
and convulsive disorders in general. The dose 
is from one to six drops. It is also of consider- 
able use externally applied for the relief of tooth- 
ache, rheumatic pains, sprains, &c. Insects have 
a great aversion to this oil ; the vapor of which 
appears to intoxicate and kill them. Cajeput 
oil is a perfect solvent of caoutchouc, from 
which solution a fine drying varnish may be 

CAJETA, in ancient geography, a port and 
town of Latium, so called from ^Eneas's nurse ; 
now called Gaeta. 

CAJETAN (Cardinal), was born atCajeta, in 
Naples, in 14G9." His proper name was Thomas 
de Vio ; but he adopted that of Cajetan from the 
place of his nativity. lie defended the authority 
of the pope, which suffered greatly at the council 
of Nice, in a work entitled, Of the Power of the 
Pope ; and for this work he obtained the bishop- 
ric of Cajeta. He was afterwards raised to the 
archiepiscopal see of Palermo, and in 1517 was 


made a cardinal by pope Leo X. The year 
after, he was sent as legate into Germany, t<; 
quiet the commotions raised against indulgences 
by Martin Luther; but Luther, under protec- 
tion of Frederic, elector of Saxony, set him at 
defiance; for though he obeyed the cardinal's 
summons in repairing to Augsburg, yet he ren- 
dered all his proceedings ineffectual. He died 
in 1534. He wrote Commentaries upon Aris- 
totle's Philosophy, and upon Thomas Aquinas's 
Theology; and made a literal Translation of the 
Old and New Testament. 

CAIFA, CAIPHA, or HAIFA, a sea-port town 
of Palestine, on the south side of the bay of 
Acre. From a poor village this has sprung up 
on the ruins of an ancient city, at the foot of 
Mount Carmel. It is built without plan, and 
defended by walls on the land side, which were 
constructed by Daher, a late chief of Acre ; he 
also established a custom-house here, at a time 
when the port of Acre was choked. It is now 
governed by an Arab ; the inhabitants are Ma- 
hommedans and Greeks. In March, 1799, the 
Turks evacuated Caifa at the approach of the 
French general, Kleber, leaving abundant stores 
in the place. The French established a garri- 
son here, and built ovens for the use of the army, 
which tlie British soon after made an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to destroy. Distant thirteen miles 
south-west of Acre. 

CAI-FONG, or KAI-FONG, a city of China, 
the capital of the province of Honan. It stands 
only two leagues from the Hoang-ho, or Yellow 
River, and is situated so low that the bed of the 
river is higher ground than the city, and, to 
guard against inundations, strong dykes or em- 
bankments have been constructed, which extend 
above ninety miles. When it was besieged by 
100,000 rebels, in 1642, the commander of a 
body of forces sent for its rel.ief, resolved to 
attempt drowning the enemy, by breaking down 
the embankment. His stratagem was successful ; 
but, while the enemy was destroyed, the inun- 
dation overwhelmed also the city, and 300,000 
of the inhabitants perished. At that time it was 
nine miles in circumference. It has been sub- 
sequently re-built, but in an inferior style. Its 
jurisdiction comprehends four cities of the 
second class, and thirty of the third. Distant 
315 miles south-west of Pekin. 

CAILLE (Nicholas Louis de la), an eminent 
mathematician and astronomer, was born at Ru- 
migny, in the diocese of Rheims, in 1713. In 
1729 he went to Paris, where he studied the clas- 
sics, philosophy, and mathematics. Afterwards 
he studied divinity at the college of Lisieux, was 
ordained a deacon, and officiated in the church 
of the college of Mazarin several years ; but he 
never entered into orders, apprehending that his 
astronomical studies might too much interfere 
with his religious duties. In 1739 he was con- 
joined with M. de Thury, son of M. Cassini, in 
verifying the meridian of the royal observatory, 
through the whole kingdom of France. In No- 
retnber, the same year, whilst he was engaged 
in the operations which this grand undertaking 
Required, he was elected into the vacant mathe- 
fcatical chair, which the celebrated M. Varignon 
Sad so worthily filled. Here he began to deliver 

8 CAI 

lectures about the end of 1740; and an obser- 
vatory was erected for his use in the college, and 
furnished with the best instruments. In May 
1741, he was admitted into the Royal Academy of 
Sciences, as an adjoint member for astronomy. 
Besides many excellent papers in their memoirs, 
he published Elements of Geography, Mechan- 
ics, Optics, and Astronomy. He carefully com- 
puted all the eclipses of the sun and moon that 
had happened since the Christian era, which 
were printed in a book published by two Bene- 
dictines, entitled L' Art de Verefier les Dates, 
&c., Paris, 1750, in 4to. Besides these, he com- 
piled a volume of Astronomical Ephemerides, 
from 1745 to 1755 ; another from 1755 to 1765 ; 
a third from 1765 to 1775 ; an excellent work, 
entitled Astronomiae Fundamenta Novissimis 
Solis et Stellarum Observationibus Stabilita; 
and the most correct solar tables that ever ap- 
peared. Having gone through a seven yeara 
series of astronomical observations in his own 
observatory, he formed a project of going to 
observe the southern stars at the Cape of Good 
Hope. This was highly approved of by the 
academy, and by the prime minister Comte d' 
Argenson, and readily agreed to by the states of 
Holland. At length, on the 21st of November, 
1 759, he sailed for the Cape, and arrived there 
on the 19th of April, 1751. Here he accom- 
plished the measurement of a degree of latitude, 
and returned to Paris the 27th of September, 
1754; and at his coming into port, he refused a 
bribe of 100,000 livres, offered by one that 
thirsted less after glory than gain, to be sharer 
in his immunity from custom-house searchers. 
After receiving the congratulatory visits of his 
more intimate friends and the astronomers, he 
drew up a reply to some strictures, which pro- 
fessor Euler had published relative to the 
meridian, and then he settled the results of the 
comparison of his own, with the observations of 
other astronomers, for the parallaxes. His fame 
was now established upon a firm basis, and he 
was unanimously elected a member of the Royal 
Society at London ; of the institute of Bologna ; 
of the Imperial Academy at Petersburgh ; and ot" 
the royal academies of Berlin, Stockholm, and 
Gottingen. In 1760 he was attacked by a severe 
fit of the gout ; which, however, did not inter- 
rupt his studies ; for he then planned out a 
History of Astronomy, through all Ages, with a 
Comparison of the Ancient and Modern Obser- 
vations, and the Construction and Use of the 
Instruments employed in making them. In 
order to pursue this task, in a suitable retire- 
ment, he obtained a grant of apartments in the 
royal palace of Vincennes ; and whilst his astro- 
nomical apparatus was erecting there, he began 
printing his catalogue of the southern stars, and 
the third volume of his Ephemerides. The state 
of his health was, towards the end of 1763, 
greatly reduced. This induced him to settle his 
affairs ; his MSS. he committed to the care and 
discretion of his esteemed friend M. Maraldi. 
It was at last determined that a vein should be 
opened : but this brought on an obstinate lethar- 
gy, of which he died, aged forty-nine. 

CAILLOMA, a town of Peru, in the provincp 
of Collahuas, famous for the silver mines of its 


neighbourhood. The country around is barren, 
but the mountains are supposed to contain many 
untouched veins of precious metal. It is forty- 
six miles N.N. E. of Arequipa. 

CAIMACAN, or CAIMACAM, in the Turkish 
iffairs, a dignity in the Ottoman empire, answer- 
ing to lieutenant or rather deputy, among us. 
There are usually two caimacans; one resides at 
Constantinople, as governor thereof; the other 
attends the grand vizier in quality of his lieu- 
tenant, secretary of state, and first minister o 
his council, and gives audience to ambassadors 
Sometimes there is a third caimacan, who attend., 
the sultan; whom he acquaints with any public 
disturbances, and receives his orders concerning 

CAIMAN, the American name of a crocodile. 

CAIN, the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and 
th^ first man born into this world. He is gene- 
rally styled the first murderer ; but, although it is 
certain that he killed his brother Abel, it appears 
by no means equally certain that he intended it 
Death, except that of the beasts sacrificed by 
Abtl, was then hardly known; and the extent of 
suffering which the human body could bear, 
without inducing death, was totally unknown. 
It seems, therefore, probable, that Cain had 
killed his brother in a fit of passion, when he 
intended nothing more than a severe drubbing. 
This seems further confirmed by the punishment 
inflicted on him by the Searcher of hearts; which 
was only banishment, a punishment often inflicted 
since for manslaughter. He is the first builder 
on record. Philo pretends that he built seven 
cities. Alsted. Chron. p. 257. 

CAINAN, or KENAN, the son of Enoch, great- 
grandson of Adam, and the fourth of the Ante- 
diluvian patriarchs, was born A.M. 325: begat 
Mahalaleel in 395, and died in 1235, aged 910. 
There was another Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, 
and father of Salah ; mentioned only in the Sep- 
tuagint, Gen. x. 24., and xi. 12; and in Luke, 
iii. 36: of this name no notice is taken in the 
Hebrew text, the Samaritan, or the Vulgate. 

CAINIANS, or CAINITES, a sect of heretics 
in the second century, so called on account of 
their great respect lor Cain, and Judas, and 
others of the same class, who, according to 
them, had a mighty knowledge of all things. 
Dr. Lardner, however, disputes the credibility 
of the relations, of Epiphanius and Irenaeus, 
concerning this people. 

CAJOLE', v. ~\ Fr. cajoler ; Goth, goela, 

CAJOL'ER, ygagoela, to entice. See to 

CAJOL'ERY, n. j GULL. It describes a pur- 
pose, and that of the worst kind, deception; to 
cajole is to entrap by flattery, coaxing and 

The one affronts him, while the other cajoles and 

pities him : takes up his quarrel, shakes his head at 

it, clasps his hand upon his breast, and then protests 

and protests. L' Estrange. 

Thought he, 'tis no mean part of civil 

State prudence, to cajole the devil. Hudibrat. 

A plan to rob the house was laid, 
The thief with love seduced the maid ; 
Cajoled the cur, and stroked his head, 
And bought his secresy with bread. 


) CAI 

If the king were present, Cleon, there would be 
no need of my answering to what you have just 
proposed. He would himself reprove you for en- 
deavouring to cajole him into an imitation of foreign 
absurdities, and for bringing enmity upon him, by 
such unmanly flattery. As he is absent, I take upon 
me to tell you, in his name, that no praise is lasting 
but what is rational. 

Q. Curtius. Trans. 


CA IRA, French, the name, or rather chorus 
of a political French song, very popular all over 
France, in the beginning of the revolution. 
The words literally signify, it will do, or it 
will go on, and are said to have been used 
almost proverbially by the late Dr. Franklin, 
concerning the . American revolution ; from 
which circumstance they were adopted as the 
chorus of the French revolution song. Songs, 
however, as well as states, are subject to revolu- 
tions. This song and the Marseilloise hymn, 
another popular French song, were both prohi- 
bited from being sung in public by the French 
directory, soon after the revolution in September 
1797, they being considered as rallying signs of 
the party in opposition. 

CAIRNS, or CARNES, the vulgar name of those 
heaps of stones which are to be seen in many- 
places of Britain, particularly Scotland and 
Wales. They are composed of stones of all di- 
mensions, thrown together in a conical form, <i 
flat stone crowning the apex. Various causes 
have been assigned by the learned for these 
heaps of stones. They have supposed them to 
have be^n, in times of inauguration, the places 
where the chieftain elect stood to show himself 
to best advantage to the people; or the place 
from whence judgment was pronounced ; or to 
have been erected on the road side in honor of 
Mercury; or to have heen formed in memory of 
some solemn compact, particularly where accom- 
panied by standing pillars of stones ; or for the 
celebration of certain religious ceremonies. Sucli 
might have been the reasons, in some instances, 
where the evidences of stone chests and urns are 
wanting: but these are so generally found that 
they seem to determine the most usual purpose 
of the piles in question to have been for sepul- 
chral monuments. Even this destination might 
render them suitable to other purposes, particu- 
larly religious, to which by their nature they 
might be supposed to give additional solemnity. 
According to Toland, fires were kindled on the 
tops of flat stones, at certain times of the year, 
particularly on the eves of the first of May and 
the first of November, for the purpose of sacri- 
ficing; at which time all the people having ex- 
tinguished their domestic fires, rekindled them 
from the sacred fires of the cairns. In general, 
therefore, these accumulations appear to have 
been designed for the sepulchral protection of 
heroes and great men. The stone chests, the 
repository of the urns and ashes, are lodged in 
the earth : sometimes only one, sometimes more, 
are found thus deposited ; and Mr. Pennant 
mentions an instance of seventeen being disco- 
vered under the same pile. Cairns are of dif- 
ferent sizes, some of them very large Mr. Pen- 
nant describes one in the island of Arian 114 



feet over, and of vast height. They may justly 
be supposed to have been proportioned in size 
to the rank of the person, or to his popularity : 
the people of a whole district assembled to show 
their respect to the deceased ; and, by an active 
honoring of his memory, soon accumulated heaps 
equal to those that astonish us at this time. But 
these honors were not merely those of the day ; 
as long as the memory of the deceased endured 
not a passenger went by without adding a stone 
to the heap; they supposed it would be an 
honor to the dead, and acceptable to his manes. 
To this moment there is a proverbial expression 
among the Highlanders, allusive to the old prac- 
tice : a suppliant will tell his patron, ' Curri mi 
doch er do charne,' ' I will add a stone to your 
cairn ;' meaning, when you are no more, I will 
do all possible honor to your memory. Cairns 
are to be found in all parts of our islands, in 
Cornwall, Wales, and all parts of north Britain ; 
they were in use among the northern nations ; 
Dahlberg, in his 323d plate, has giv-en the figure 
of one. In Wales they are called carneddau : 
but the proverb taken from them there, is not of 
the complimental kind : ' Karn ar dy hen,' or, 
' A cairn on your head,' is a token of impre- 

CAIRO, or GRAND CAIRO, (Victorious), 
sometimes called the queen of cities, stands upon 
the east bank of the Nile, a little above the 
Delta, or plain of Lower Egypt. Founded, 
according to the oriental writers, in the sixteenth 
century,it received its present name from Moaz, the 
first caliph, m memory of his conquest of Egypt. 
H*>re he erected a splendid palace; but two cen- 
turies elapsed before Cairo could be considered 
as anything but the famed residence of a military 
sovereign. In the Crusades the neighbouring 
capital of Egypt, Fostat, was reduced to ashes, 
to disappoint the Christians of their booty ; and 
the inhabitants sought an asylum in Cairo, which 
from that period became the capital of this coun- 
try. It was greatly enlarged, adorned, and for- 
tified, by the emperor Saladin, and was in the 
height of its prosperity about the commencement 
of the fifteenth century. As a central emporium 
for the trade of Europe and Asia, and closely 
connected with Alexandria, it was a first rate 
commercial city, and respectable also for men of 
science and learning. But the conquest of Egypt 
by the Turks, and the discovery of a passage to 
India by the Cape of Good Hope, diverted this 
flourishing trade, and all the intercourse of Europe 
with the east into a different channel, and caused 
a decline from which it has never arisen. But 
Cairo is still described as a large city, equal 
in extent to Paris. It is of a crescent form, more 
than nine miles in circumference ; and seen from 
the Nile, from which it is about a mile distant, it 
presents a most magnificent scene, in which the 
citadel towering above innumerable other lofty 
edifices, and countless minarets, all springing as 
it were out of a grove of the richest foliage, are 
the most conspicuous objects. On a nearer ap- 
proach the streets are found to be crooked, nar- 
row, and unpaved ; and from the crowds of men 
and animals, pressing along through dust and 
filth, &re any thing but -agreeable. The houses 
me chiefly of wood, or unburnt bricks dried in 

the sun, and consist only of a single story. Some, 
however, are constructed of a soft stone. The 
houses are crowded into groupes, with large 
intervening spaces, all of which, as well as the 
courts and gardens within the walls, are covered 
with water by the welcome inundation of the 
Nile. The terraced roofs of the houses are de- 
scribed by Sonnini as covered with innumerable 
turtle doves, crows, kites, and vultures, which 
are never disturbed by the inhabitants, and con- 
sequently exhibit a degree of tameness and fami- 
liarity which appears surprising to an European. 
In the interior the better houses have a large hall, 
rising the whole height of the house, and covered 
with a small dome. Every thing here is arranged 
with a view to coolness ; the floor is inlaid with 
marble and colored earthenware, and fountains 
spring up into marble basins. Mats and mattresses 
cover the floor, over which is spread a rich car- 
pet, on which they sit cross-legged. . Around the 
wall is a sort of sofa with cushions, to support 
the back and elbows ; and above, at the height of 
seven or eight feet, a range of shelves adorned 
with porcelain. The walls are either chequered 
with sentences from the Koran, or with painted 
foliage and flowers. The windows have neither 
glass nor moving sashes, but open lattice work, 
which frequently costs more than our glazing; 
and into which a dim light enters from the inner 
courts, pleasingly qualified by their verdure. 
The widest street in Cairo is one which traverses 
the whole length of the city, but would be re- 
garded only as a lane in Europe. The others 
are so narrow, that a slight covering is frequently 
thrown over them, to exclude the sun's rays. 
Most of the streets, or at least every district, has 
a gate which is shut as soon as it is dark. A 
canal supplied by the Nile, called the Calisch, 
and which is from fifteen to twenty feet broad, 
runs through the city. Its mouth, when the 
waters of the river begin to increase, is closed by 
a mound of earth, which is not removed till they 
have risen to a certain height. The opening 
then takes place, and a magnificent festival is 
celebrated on the occasion. The bashaw places 
himself in a tent, which stands by the side of the 
canal ; nuts, melons, and some small coins, are 
thrown in, and a discharge of fire-works takes 
place. From the river to the city the canal is 
only an ill kept ditch, without any lining, or even 
any regular boundary. The Arabs indeed assert, 
that it is paved with marble, but if so, it is en- 
tirely concealed beneath the mud. Along the 
line of it, in the city, there are a number of 
large squares, from a quarter to three quarters of 
a mile round, into which its water is conducted. 
During the season of inundation, these of course 
bear the appearance of lakes, and, being bordered 
by the finest houses in Cairo, present a scene of 
great beauty, especially when covered with plea- 
sure boats and barges, and enlivened by music 
and fire works. When the inundation subsides 
the lake becomes a marsh, and a repository of 
mud, from which the most offensive vapors ex- 
hale. The whole, however, is quickly dried up 
by the intense heat of the sun, and it is then soon 
covered by luxuriant vegetation. It now often 
becomes a theatre for those exhibitions which 
form the delight of the inhabitants; and in which 



jugglers, tumblers, mountebanks, and dancing 
girls, display in succession their various feats. 
The citadel, which stands on a rocky eminence, 
is three miles in circumference, and affords one 
of the most splendid views in Egypt. It includes 
the palace of the pacha, the barracks of the janis- 
saries, and some remains of antiquity ; among 
which is Joseph's well, dug to the depth of 276 
feet through the solid rock. The diameter of the 
well varies at different depths, and, where it is 
contracted, stages are formed for oxen to drive a 
wheel for raising the water. A huge pile of 
building within the citadel is called Joseph's pa- 
lace, the great hall of which has been much ad- 

Among the other public buildings of this city, 
the resevoirs for water, and the baths, are worth 
notice ; the warehouses as well as the market places, 
are spacious and commodious ; but the mosques, of 
which more than 300 are erected within the walls, 
form, with their numerous and lofty minarets, the 
chief ornament of the place. The Jews have a 
synagogue here , and the Greeks, and other sects 
of .Christians, places of worship. 

A caravan arrives at Cairo from Abyssinia, 
loaded with the rich productions of the interior 
of Africa, and, being joined by another from the 
western part of Africa, it proceeds towards Ara- 
bia. This perilous journey is undertaken partly 
for religious, and partly fcr commercial purposes. 
Having performed the prescribed ceremonies at 
the holy city, and exchanged their merchandise 
for the commodities of the east, the immense body 
of travellers, amounting, it is said, sometimes 
to 100,000, return from Mecca by the same route. 
Its manufactures are linen cloth, silk stuffs, sugar, 
sal-ammoniac, salt-petre, and coarse gunpowder; 
glass lamps, and several kinds of leather. The 
mode of hatching chickens by means of artificial 
heat, which has been long known in Egypt, is 
still practised here. Cairo also contains a book- 
market, where a prodigious number of beautiful 
manuscripts are exposed for sale. Here Dr. 
Clarke purchased for seven pounds a complete 
copy of the Arabian Nights, having many tales 
which have not been translated into the European 
languages ; but it was unfortunately lost. Many 
of the Mamelukes collect large and expensive 
libraries. The police here is well managed, and 
a general quiet results. The principal occasions 
on which it is disturbed, are those of marriage 
and circumcision. The bride, a few days before 
the ceremony, walks in procession to the bath, 
where she remains till the nuptials, when a second 
procession takes place. On these occasions, all 
the magnificence which a family is able to dis- 
play is ostentatiously paraded. The bride, pre- 
ceded by a band of music, walks below a mag- 
nificent canopy, surrounded and followed by nu- 
merous attendants. Every article of finery which 
can be collected is carried by the attendants, a 
small portion being assigned to each. The pro- 
cessions for the other purpose are also splendid, 
and attended by numerous horsemen and bands 
of music. 

The population of Cairo is variously stated, 
from the extreme amounts of 250,000, 300,000, 
to 700,000, souls ; it is composed of people of 
all countries and religions. Among those of 

oriental origin, and who have it in their power 
to indulge in them, the luxurious manners and 
customs of the east prevail. Sailing on the Nile 
is one great amusement of all classes in Cairo, 
and vessels of a light construction are elegantly 
fitted up for this purpose. Boulac, about a mile 
to the west of Cairo, on the right bank of the 
river, is its principal port. It suffered severely 
from the French, who plundered and burned it 
to the ground. 

About a mile distant, higher up the river, stands 
Fostat, or Old Cairo, as it is sometimes called, 
formerly the capital of Egypt, and still a popu- 
lous place. The great canal, which formed a 
communication between the Nile and the Red sea, 
passes off from the river near this place, and 
proceeds towards Cairo, where it divides the city 
as we have already mentioned. This place is 
inhabited in a great measure by Copts, who have 
twelve churches, and, among others, one of pe- 
culiar sanctity, which they report to have been 
the residence of the Virgin Mary, when she was 
compelled to fly into Egypt. Their c'hurches 
generally consist of a nave and two aisles, with 
galleries supported by pillars, and adorned in 
front with columns that support the roof. The 
part containing the altar is separated by a parti- 
tion that is finely adorned with carving, and inlaid 
with ivory and tortoise-shell. The patriarch of 
the Coptic church is established at Old Cairo. 
A street is called by his name, in which is the 
church of St. Macarius, where he is elected and 
enthroned. The Jews have also an ancient syna- 
gogue here. Dr. Pococke saw two ancient 
manuscripts of the law, and a manuscript of the 
Bible amongst them, pretended to have been 
written by Ezra. To the north-east there is an 
ancient mosque, called Amrah, said to contain 
nearly 400 pillars, collected from various more 
ancient edifices. In Old Cairo are granaries, 
which are honored with the name of Joseph; 
they are square courts, surrounded with walls 
fifteen or twenty feet high, and without any roof. 
The grain is only covered with matting, which ill 
protects it from birds, for whose depredations an 
allowance is said to be made to the keepers. 
The aqueduct, a rustic edifice, by which water 
is conveyed to the castle of New Cairo, is a su- 
perior work ; it is a hexagon building, each side 
being eighty or ninety feet in length, and about 
as many in height ; on the outside there is an 
easy ascent for oxen, who turn the Persian 
wheels by which the water is raised to the top. 
The whole is supported by arches from ten to fif- 
teen feet wide, of which Pococke counted 289, 
but Sonnini 350. Opposite to it is the mouth of 
the canal before mentioned. On an island in the 
middle of the river (Rhoda), is the celebrated 
Mikias Nilometer, or measurer of the Nile, the 
purpose of which is to ascertain the rising of the 
river during the annual inundation. It is com- 
posed of a noble marble pillar, surmounted by 
a Corinthian capital, which rises from the centre 
of a basin having a communication with the Nile, 
and, being graduated, indicates the increase in the 
height of that important stream. A splendid 
dome supported by columns, surmounts the pil- 
lar. This building is said to be 1000 years old. 

CAIRO, a small town of Italy, in Piedrnout, 




in tnc Duchy of Montferrat, between Acqui and 
Finale, on the road to Savona. Here is a consi- 
derable carrying trade, and here was fought on 
21st September, 1794, a bloody battle between 
the French and the Austro-Sardinians, in which 
the latter were defeated. In 1796 the town was 
taken by the French. It stands on the river 
Bormida ; twelve mile? E.N.E. of Ceva, eighteen 
south of Acqui, and twenth-five E.N.E. of Mon- 
dovi. Population 4000. 

CAIRO is also th name of a post-township 
of the United States, in Greene County, New 

CAISSON, in military affairs, a wooden frame 
or chest, made square, the side planks about 
two inches thick : it may be made to contain 
loaded shells. Caissons are buried under ground, 
at the depth of five or six feet, under some work 
the enemy intends to possess himself of; and 
when he becomes master of it, fire is put to the 
train, which inflames the shells and blows up the 
assailants. Sometimes a quantity ofloose powder 
is put into the chest on which the shells are 
placed, sufficient to put them in motion, and 
raise them above ground ; at the same time that 
the blast of powder sets fire to the fuze in the 
shells, which must be calculated to burn from 1 
to 2 seconds. Also a kind of flat-bottomed 
boat in which brick or stone work is built, then 
sunk to the bottom for forming the foundations. 
Some of the caissons which were usedbyLabelye, 
for the erection of Westminster-bridge, contained 
above 150 load of fir timber. They are also 
used in dock-yards to raise ships, the water 
being let in so as to allow the caisson to be 
brought under the bottom of the vessel, it is 
then pumped out, and the buoyancy of the large 
caisson raises the vessel. The ship's sides and 
bottom tending to fall outwards, by their own 
weight, and the sides and bottom of the caisson 
tending to be forced inwards, by the external 
pressure of the water, it is obvious, that by 
placing props or shoars between, both will be 
supported, while the ship will ride with all her 
stores on board, and masts standing nearly as 
easy as when in water. 

CAITAIA, in zoology, the name of an Ame- 
rican monkey, remarkable for its smell, having 
somewhat of a scent of musk ; its hair is long 
and of a whitish-yellow color ; its head is round ; 
its forehead depressed, and very small ; its nose 
small and flatted, and its tail arched. It is easily 
tamed, but very clamorous and quarrelsome. 

CAITHNESS, otherwise called the county of 
Wick, is the most northern county of Scotland. 
It is bounded on the east by the ocean, and by 
Strathnaver and Sutherland on the south and 
south-west; from these it is divided by the 
mountain Orde, and a continued ridge of hills 
as far as Knockfin, and thence by the whole 
course of the river Hallowdale. On the north it 
is washed by the Pentland frith, which divides it 
from the Orkneys. It extends thirty-five miles 
from north to south, and about twenty from east 
to west. The coast is rocky, and remarkable for 
a number of bays and promontories. Of these, 
the principal are Sandside-head, to the west, 
pointing to the opening of Pentland-fi ith ; Orcas, 
now Holbom-hcad and Dunnet-Hcad, both 

pointing northward to the frith. Scribister-bay, 
on the north-west, is a good harbour, where 
ships may ride securely. Rice-bay, on the east 
side, extends three miles in breadth ; but is of 
dangerous access, on account of some sunk rocks 
at the entrance. At the bottom of this bay ap- 
pear the ruins of two strong castles the seat of 
the earl of Caithness, called Castle Sinclair, and 
Gernego, joined to each other by a draw-bridge. 
Duncan's-bay, otherwise called Dunsby-head, is 
the north-east point of Caithness, and the most 
extreme promontory in Britain. At this place 
the breadth of the frith does not exceed twelve 
miles. It is the ordinary ferry to the Orkneys. 
Here is likewise Clythness pointing east and 
Noshead pointing north-east. The sea in this 
place is very impetuous, being in continual agi- 
tation from violent counter-tides, currents, and 
vortices. The only island belonging to this 
county is that of Stroma, in the Pentland frith, 
two miles from the main land. The county of 
Caithness, though chiefly mountainous, flattens 
towards the sea-coast, where the ground is arable, 
and produces good harvests of oats and barley, 
sufficient for the natives, and yielding a surplus 
for exportation. Caithness is well watered with 
small rivers, brooks, lakes, and fountains, and 
affords a few woods of birch, but is in general 
bare of trees; and even those the inhabitants 
plant are stunted in their growth. Lead is 
found at Dunnet, copper at Old Urk, and iron 
ore at several places ; but these advantages are 
not improved. The air of Caithness is tempe- 
rate, though in the latitude of 58, where the 
longest day in summer lasts eighteen hours ; 
and when the sun sets he makes so small an 
arch of a circle below the horizon, that the people 
enjoy twilight until he rises again. The fuel 
used by the inhabitants of Caithness consists of 
peat and turf, which the ground yields in great 
plenty. The forests of Moravins and Berridale 
afford abundance of red deer and roe-bucks : the 
country is well stored with hares, rabbits, growse, 
heathcocks, plover, and all sorts of game ; besides 
a peculiar species of birds called snow-fleets ; 
which are about the size of a sparrow, exceed- 
ingly delicious, and come hither in large flights 
about the middle of February, and depart in 
April. The hills are covered with sheep and 
black cattle, which are so numerous that a fat 
cow has been sold for 4s. sterling. The rocks 
along the coasts are frequented by eagles, hawks, 
and all kinds of sea-fowl, whose eggs and young 
are taken in vast quantities by the natives. The 
rivers and lakes abound with trout, salmon, and 
eels; and the sea affords a very advantageous 
fishery. Various obelisks and ancient monu- 
ments appear in this district, and several Romish 
chapels are still standing. Caithness is well 
peopled with a race of hardy inhabitants, who 
employ themselves chiefly in fishing and breed- 
ing sheep and black cattle, and are remarkably 
industrious. This county sends out in some 
years about 20,000 head of black cattle, but in 
bad seasons the farmers kill and salt vast num- 
bers for sale. Great numbers of swine are also 
reared. They are short, high-backed, long- 
bristled, sharp, slender, and long-nosed ; have 
long erect ears, and a most ferocious look. Vast 




numbers of salmon are taken at Castle-hill, 
Dunnet, Wick, and Thurso. In November 
great numbers of seals are a'so taken. 

CAITIFF, n. &, adj. or\ Ital. cattivo, a 

CAI'TIVE, (captive; a slave ; a 

CAI'TIVELY, wretch; Fr. chetlf ; 

CAI'TIVEXESS. 3 Rom. caitiv, from 

Lat. captivus, a slave; whence it came to signify 
a bad man, with some implication of meanness ; 
as knave in English, and fur in Latin ; so certain- 
ly does slavery destroy virtue. 'H/ucrv ri}c 
nptrijc mroaivvTai tt\oiov i/pap- Homer. A 
slave and a scoundrel are signified by the same 
words in many languages. A mean villain ; a 
despicable knave ; it often implies a mixture of 
wickedness and misery. 

The spyrit of the Lord on me, for which thing he 
anoyntide me ; he sente me to pveche to pore men, 
to hecle contryt men in herte, and to preche remis- 
sioun to caitifs, and sighte to blinde men, and to 
deliver broken men into remissioun. 

Wiclif's New Test. Luke iv. 

Vile caitiff"! vassal of dread and despair, 
Unworthy of the common breathed air ! 
\VIiy livest thou, dead dog, a longer day, 
And dost not unto death thyself prepare ? Spenser. 

Tis not impossible 

Hut one, the wicked'st caitiff on the ground, 
May seem as shy, as grave, as just, as absolute, 
As Angelo. Sluikspeare. 

The wretched caitiff, all alone, 
As he believed, began to moan, 
And tell his story to himself. Hudibras. 

CAIUS (Dr.) See KAYE. 

CAKE', v. & n. ^ Per. kak ; Arab, kaak ; 

CAKE'BKEAD, >Swed. kaka ; Teut. hack : 

CAKE'HOUSE. j Belg. koek ; Welsh caccen, a 
small flat bread ; a sweet biscuit ; concreted, co- 
agulated matter. To cake is to form into a solid 
mass ; to clot together. A cake, metaphorically, 
and in vulgar speech, is one who is soft, lumpish, 
and heavy ; a fool without vivacity. 

And whan the miller saw that they were gon, 
He half a bushel of her flour hath take, 
A nd bad his wif go knede it in a cake. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

You must be seeing christenings ! do you look for 
ale and cakes here, you rude rascals? Shakspeare. 

This is that very Mab, 

That plats the manes of horses in the night, 

And cakes the elflocks in foul sluttish hairs. Id. 

There is a cake that groweth upon the side of a 
dead tree, that hath gotten no name, but it is large, 
and of a chestnut colour, and hard and pithy. 

Bacon's Natural History. 

The dismal day was come ; the priests prepare 
their leavened cakes, and fillets for my hair. Drydcn. 

Then when the fleecy skies new cloath the wood, 
And cakes of rustling ice come rolling down the flood. 


He rinsed the wound, 

And washed away the strings and clotted blood, 
That caked within. Addixun. 

This burning matter, as it sunk very leisurely, had 
time to cake together, and form the bottom, which 
covers the mouth of that dreadful vault, which lies 
underneath it. Addism on Italy. 

The good woman on her return, finding the cakes 
all burnt, rated the king (Alfred) very severely, that 
he always seemed well pleased to eat her warm cakes, 
tho' Le was thus negligent in toasting them. Humtt. 

CAKILE, sea- rocket, in botany, a genus of 
plants ; class tetradynamia, order siliculosa ; 
silicle lanceolate, four sided : no valves : two 
deciduous joints, each containing a single seed ; 
the lower joint with a tooth each side at the tip. 
Two species. 1. C. maritima, found on our own 
sea-shores, with leaves pinnatifid, and linear 
slightly-toothed divisions. 2. C. ./Egyptiaca, a 
native both of Egypt and Italy. 

CALABAR, OLD and NEW, settlements of 
Western Africa, are situated, the former on a 
river of the same name, which is of considerable 
magnitude, and forms, at its mouth, a species of 
estuary ; and the latter on a stream named by 
the Portuguese the Rio Real. They are perhaps 
eighty miles apart. The soil is a loose but 
fertile sand, yielding yams in abundance, fine 
sugar canes, Cayenne pepper, &c. The country 
is overrun with brushwood, amongst which the 
natives plaut their yams. The roads are scarcely 
to be called more than foot-paths, but the interior 
is not known for above twenty or thirty miles. 
The natives are well formed, particularly the 
women before they become mothers ; afterwards, 
it is said, their breasts become unusually pen- 
dent, and to European sight very disgusting. 
There is a remarkable amphibious animal in this 
district, called the manatea, about six feet long, 
and nine in circumference, having a head as 
large as an ox, and large fins like hands. The 
inhabitants observe an eighth day holiday, and 
spend a large portion of the time in drinking 
palm wine to intoxication, and in sleep. The 
principal place on Old Calabar River is called 
Duke Town, and contains about 2000 inha- 
bitants ; at the distance of two or three miles is 
Henshaw Town, and King John Ambos Town, 
with each about 300 inhabitants. About eight 
miles north is Creek Town, situated on a small 
navigable stream, and containing about 1500 
people. Old Town was formerly the capital, 
but it has been almost abandoned of late, and 
is now inferior to Duke Town. The traders' 
houses are built of wood brought from Liverpool, 
and thatched with bamboo leaves. In the in- 
terior are Aqua and Howatt ; but the greater 
number of slaves, which are exported, are drawn 
from the coast. Mr. Nicholls, in 180.5, attempted 
to reach the Niger by the way of Calabar ; but 
was seized with the fever of the country, and 
fell a victim to it three months after his arrival. 
The atmosphere which is breathed here is, in 
truth, highly noxious to Europeans, the air 
being stagnant, and loaded with marsh mias- 
mata. Duke Town is in about long. 8 E., 
lat. 5 4tf N. 

The Rio Real flows down from the north-west, 
from a remote source ; and can be ascended by 
boats and shallops only, but vessels of any size 
anchor in the road at its mouth. The town of 
New Calabar is the centre of the Dutch com- 
merce in this part of Africa. It stands on an 
island formed by the river, and contains upwards 
of 900 inhabitants. 

CAL'ABASH. Span, calaba^a, KaXirte; Fr. 
calabasse, a species of gourd or pompion, the 
fruit of the adansonia or baobab tree. 

CALABASH, in botany. See CUCURBITA. 

CALABASH, in commerce, a light kind of ves- 




sel. formed of the shell of a gourd, emptied and 
aned, serving to put divers kinds of goods in, 
as pitch, resin, and the like. The Indians, botli 
of the North and South Sea, put the pearls they 
have fished in calabashes, and the negroes on the 
coast of Africa do the same with their gold-dust. 
The smaller calabashes are also frequently used 
by these people as a measure, by which they sell 
these precious commodities to the Europeans. 
The same vessels likewise serve to hold liquors, 
and answer as cups, and bottles, for soldiers and 



CALABOZO, a town in the province of Ve- 
nezuela, South America, founded in the early 
part of the last century by a commercial company 
of Guipuscoa. It is situated between the 
Guarico to the west, and the Orituco to the east; 
but nearer the former than the latter. The 
streets and houses have an agreeable aspect, and 
it has a neat church. The fine pasturage of the 
adjacent country rears numerous herds of cattle. 
The town is subject to occasional inundations 
from the mighty streams adjacent, and the 
climate is very hot, though tempered by the 
north-east breezes. There are five dependent 
villages or missions, containing altogether 98,000 
head of cattle. The town itself has about 
5000 inhabitants, and is 156 miles south of 

CALABRIA, a country of Italy, in the king- 
dom of Naples, which was almost entirely 
desolated by the earthquakes of 1783. The 
reiterated shocks extended from Cape Spartivento 
to Amantea, above the gulf of St. Eufemia, and 
also affected that part of Sicily which lies oppo- 
site to the southern extremity of Italy. Those 
of the 5th and 7th of February and the 28th of 
March were the most violent, and completed the 
destruction of every building throughout the 
above-mentioned space. Not one stone was left 
upon another, south of the narrow isthmus of 
Squill ace ; and a very large proportion of the 
inhabitants were killed by the falling of their 
houses, near 40,000 lives being lost. Some 
were dug out alive, after remaining a surprising 
\ength of time buried among the rubbish. Mes- 
sina became a mass of ruins ; its beautiful pa- 
lazzata was thrown in upon the town, and its 
quay cracked into ditches full of water; Reggio 
was almost destroyed ; Tropea greatly damaged ; 
and every other place in the province levelled to 
the ground. Before and during the concussion the 
clouds gathered, and then hung immovable and 
heavy over the earth. At Palmi the atmosphere 
had so fiery an aspect, that many people thought 
part of the town was burning. It was afterwards 
remembered, that an unusual heat had affected 
the skins of several persons just before the shock; 
the rivers assumed a muddy ash-colored tinge, 
and a sulphureous smell was almost general. A 
frigate passing between Calabria and Lipari felt 
so severe a shock, that the steersman was thrown 
from the helm, and the cannons were raised up 
to their carriages, while all around the sea ex- 
haled a strong smell of brimstone. Stupendous 
alterations were occasioned in the face of the 
country ; rivers choked up by the falling in of 

the hills, were converted into lakes, which if not 
speedily drained by some convulsion, or opened 
by human labor, would have stagnated and filled 
the air with pestilential vapors, and destroyed the 
remnants of population. Whole acres of ground, 
with houses and trees upon them, were broken 
off from the plains, and washed many furlongs 
down the deep hollows which the course of the 
rivers had worn ; there, to the astonishment and 
terror of beholders, they found a new foundation 
to fix upon, either in an upright or an inclining 
position. In short, every species of phenomenon, 
incident to these destructive commotions of the 
earth, was to be seen in its utmost extent and 
variety in this ruined country. Their Sicilian 
majesties, with the utmost expedition, despatched 
vessels loaded with every thing that could be 
thought of on the occasion for the relief and 
accommodation of the distressed Calabrians ; a 
general officer went from Naples with engineers 
and troops to direct the operations of the persons 
employed in clearing away and rebuilding the 
houses, and to defend the property of all the 
sufferers. The king ordered this officer to take 
all the money the royal treasures could supply 
or borrow ; for, rather than it should be wanting 
on this pressing call, he was determined to part 
with his plate, nay, the very furniture of his 
palace. A messenger sent off from a town near 
Reggio on the 8th of February, travelled four 
days without shelter, and without being able to 
procure a morsel of bread. To add to all their 
other sufferings, the Calabrians found themselves 
and the miserable wreck of their fortunes ex- 
posed to the depredations of robbers and pirates; 
and to this accumulated distress succeeded a 
most inclement season, which obstructed every 
effort made to alleviate it; almost daily earth- 
quakes kept the inhabitants in continual dread, 
not of being destroyed by the fall of houses, 
for none were left, but of being swallowed up 
by the splitting of the earth, or buried in the 
waves by some sudden inundation. See EARTH- 
QUAKE. Calabria is divided into Ulterior and 

CALABRIA, is one of the twelve provinces of 
Naples ; and is bounded on the south by Cala- 
bria Ulterior, on the north by Basilicata, and on 
the west and east by the sea. Cosenza is the 

CALABRIA, is washed by the Mediterranean Sea 
on the east, south, and west, and bounded by 
Calabria Citra on the north. Reggio is the ca- 

CALACINE, or CALLACHENE, in ancient 
geography, an extensive district of Assyria, north- 
east of the Tigris, and south of the Gordian 
mountains of Armenia. 

CALADE, in the menage, the sloping de- 
clivity of a menage ground, upon which we ride 
down a horse several times, putting him to a 
short gallop, with his fore hams in the air, to 
learn him to ply or bend his haunches, and form 
his stop upon the aids of the ciflves of the legs, 
the stay of the bridle, and the caveson seasonablv 

CALAGUAL7E RADIX, in the materia medica, 

CAL 1 

the root so called is knotty, and somewhat like 
that of the polypody tribe. It has been exhi- 
bited internally at Rome, with success, in dropsy ; 
and it is said to be efficacious in pleurisy, con- 
tusions, and abscesses. 

CALAHORRA, an episcopal town of Spain, 
in Old Castile, seated on a fertile soil, on the 
side of a hill which extends to the banks of the 
river Ebro. It is sixty-miles north-west of Sa- 

CALAIS, a sea-port town of France, the chief 
town of a district in the department of the Pas 
de Calais, the seat of a prefecture of police, and 
of a tribunal of commerce. It is situated on 
marshy ground, which, by means of sluices, may 
be overflowed at pleasure, and is nearly surrounded 
by a moat and a wall, which is used as a public 
promenade. Calais is defended by a citadel on 
the north-west side, near the sea, nearly as large 
as the town. Fort Nieulay, an oblong square, 
was built in 1680, is supported by piles, and 
connected with this citadel by a mole. The 
harbour is not large, and is much obstructed with 
sand, even common merchantmen can only come 
in at high water. It consists of a large quay, 
terminated by two long wooden piers. A century 
ago it is said to have been capable of admitting 
vessels of 300 or 400 tons, but it has now only 
three fathoms at high water. Proposals have re- 
peatedly been made to improve and deepen the 
harbour ; but these have not as yet been listened 
to, though the expense would probably not ex- 
ceed 1,500,000 livres. The country around is 
well cultivated, particularly between Calais and 
Gravelines, and houses environed with wood, 
rich meadows, and corn-fields, everywhere ap- 
pear. The town is a parallelogram, having its 
long side towards the sea. The streets are wide 
and regular, well paved, and tolerably clean ; 
and the houses are well built. The public 
buildings worth notice are the arsenal, built by 
Cardinal Richelieu, the churches and monas- 
teries, a tolerably good theatre, and the hotel at 
the Lion D' Argent, which in fact is itself a 
small town. The principal manufactures are 
stockings and soap ; and it possesses a very con- 
siderable coasting trade. It is also the great 
mart for the salt and gin of Holland ; and the 
fishing of cod, herrings, and mackerel, is carried 
on to a great extent. Two fairs are held an- 
nually here ; one on the 10th January, which 
continues for ten days ; and another on the 1 1th 
July, for nine days ; the principal articles of 
traffic are cattle, jewellery goods, iron and cop- 
per ware. This trade is much facilitated by the 
canals which communicate with Gravelines, 
Ardres, St. Omer, Dunkirk, and several other 
places in the north of France. Regular packet- 
boats, in the time of peace, sail twice a week or 
oftener, with the mail between Calais and Dover. 
The inhabitants derive a considerable part of 
their support from the intercourse with England. 

In the twelfth century, the town was nothing 
more than a village belonging to the counts of 
Boulogne, but was afterwards so well fortified, 
that Edward III. in 1346, after the battle of 
Cressy, could only reduce it by famine. It 
continued in the possession of England till 
1558, when it was taken by surprise by the duke 

5 CAL 

ot Guise. By the subsequent treaty of Chateau- 
Cambresis, it was stipulated that the French 
should retain it for eight years, at the expiration 
of which, queen Elizabeth sent troops to de- 
mand it ; but the surrender was evaded on the 
ground that the English had violated the treaty 
by the bombardment of Havre-de- Grace. In 
1596 it was taken by assault by the Spaniards, 
but restored to France at the peace of Vervins. 
It was bombarded in 1694 by the English, 
under Sir Cloudesly Shovel, but without much 
damage. Louis XVIII. landed here from his 
long exile on the 24th of April, 1814 : a monu 
ment is erected on the spot to commemorate the 
event. Near the town also is a monument on 
the spot where Blanchard descended. Calais 
was not the scene of a single execution, it is 
said, during the French revolution. It is twenty 
miles north-east of Boulogne, twenty-five south- 
west of Dunkirk, fifty-five north of Abbeville, 
170 north of Paris, and seventeen and a half 
south-east of Dover. Population 8500. 

CALAIS (St.), is a small town of France, in the 
department of the Sarthe. Population 3646. 

CALAIS is also the name of a township of the 
United States, in Caledonia county, Vermont, 
105 miles north-east of Bennington. 

CALAIS, in fabulous history, the twin brother 
of Zethes. They were said to have been the 
sons of Boreas and Orythyia, and to have had 
wings. They went on the voyage to Colchis 
with the Argonauts, delivered Phineus from the 
harpies, and were slain by Hercules. 

CALAIS, STRAITS OF, a department of France, 
bounded on the east by the department of the 
North ; on the south by that of the Somme; on the 
west by the British Channel, and on the north 
by the straits of Dover. It is formed partly out 
of the ci-devant province of Artois, and partly 
from that of Picardy. Calais, St. Omer, Be- 
thune, Hesdin, Arras, and Bapaume are its chief 

CALAMAN'CO. Lat. caula monicha, a sort 
of woollen stuff, so called from being used by 
monks. In the middle ages Dr. Johnson says it 
signified a hat. It is manufactured in England, 
Brabant, and Flanders, particularly at Lisle, 
Tournay, Antwerp, and a few other towns. It has 
a fine gloss ; and is chequered in the warp, whence 
the cheques appear only on the right side. Some 
calamancoes are quite plain, others hare broad 
stripes adorned with flowers, some with plain 
broad stripes, some with narrow stripes, and 
others watered. 

He was of a bulk and stature larger than ordinary, 
had a red coat, flung open to shew a calamanco waist- 
coat. Tatler. 

CALAMATA, or CALAMETA, a considerable 
town of European Turkey, in the Morea, and 
province of Belvedera. It was taken by the 
Venetians in 1685; but the Turks retook it 
with all the Morea. It stands on the river Spi- 
narza, eight miles from the sea, on the site of the 
ancient Sparta. 

CALAMBA, or CALAMBAC, in commerce, a 
kind of wood brought from China, usually sold 
under the denomination of agallochum, or aloes- 

CALAMIANES, a group of twelve islands 

CAL it; 

in the Eastern seas, lying north and north-east 
of Paragoa, the most westerly of the Philippines, 
and about half-way between Mindora and Pala- 
wan. They are surrounded by rocks and shoals, 
which render the navigation intricate. The 
largest two are called Busvagon and Calamiane, 
the latter being about twenty-three miles long 
by five broad, and the whole forming a province 
which passes uhdar its name. The sultan of 
Borneo and the Spaniards divide the principal 
and best parts of them, independent of whom, 
some natives rove in the interior. They are of 
mild disposition, and the country produces a pe- 
culiar kind of birds' nests, which form an article 
of traffic, some rice, honey, wax, and pearls. 
Long. 120 20' E., lat. 12 N. 

MI A FOSSILIS, w. s. An ore of zinc, containing zinc, 
iron, and sometimes other substances. It is consi- 
derably heavy ; moderately hard and brittle ; 
of a consistence between stone and earth : the 
color is sometimes whitish or gray : sometimes 
yellowish, or of a deep yellow ; sometimes red ; 
sometimes brown or blackish. It is plentiful in 
several parts of Europe, Spain, Sweden, Bo- 
hemia, Saxony, France, and England, particu- 
larly in Derbyshire, and also in Wales. The 
calamine of England, however, is by the best 
judges allowed to be superior in quality to that 
of most other countries. It seldom lies very 
deep, being chiefly found in clayey grounds near 
the surface. In some places it is mixed with 
lead ores. It is the only true ore of zinc, and 
is used as an ingredient in making brass. New- 
mann relates various experiments with this mi- 
neral, the result of which was to show, that it 
contained iron as well as zinc. See ZINC. The 
lapis calaminaris, calcined, powdered, and sifted, 
forms a heavy brownish-yellow powder, which, 
when mixed with wax and oil, forms the ceratum 
lapidis calaminaris, ceratum epuloticum of the 
old dispensaries, the most commonly used of all 
the simple unguents. It is also employed in 
collyria against defluxions of thin acrid humors 
upon the eyes, for drying up the moist running 
ulcers, and healing excoriations. It is the basis 
of an officinal epulotic cerate. 

\Ve must not omit those, which, though cot of so 
much beauty, yet are of greater use, viz. loadstones, 
whetstones of all kinds, limestones, calamine, or lapis 
calaminaris. Locke. 

CAL'AMINT, n. s. Lat. calamintha, the name 
of a plant. See MALISSA. 

CALAMINTHA, in ancient geography, a 
town of Lybia, mentioned by Herodotus. 

CALAMiTA, or CALAMITIS, is used to denote 
the magnet or loadstone. 

CALAMITA ALBA, in natural history, the name 
of an earth dug in Spain and Italy, o f '* nard 
texture, a white color, and stypt'c taste. They 
pretend that this attracts flesh as ihe magnet does 
iron, and thence call it magnes carneus. 

CALAMITIS, a name given by some to the 
osteocolla, which, when in small pieces, some- 
times pretty exactly resembles the barrel of a 
quill ; others have called some of the fossile co- 
ralloides by the same name, there being fre- 
quently in them the resemblance of several quills 
cemented together, in stone. 


CALAMITY, n. } Lat. calamitas; Ir. 

CALAM'ITOUS, adj. S calamite ; Ital. caUtmita 
The primary idea is destruction of corn, when 
standing on the ground; from hence it has de- 
rived its general and extensive application to 
every species of outward injury, inflicted either 
by design or accident. Thus it comprehends 
every description of misery, disease of body, in- 
felicity of mind, wretchedness of condition. 
Who after thraldome of the gentle squire, 

Which she beheld with lamentable eye, 

Was touched with compassion entire, 

And much lamented his calamity, 

That for her sake fell into misery. Spenser. 

Why should calamity be full of words-. 

Shaktpeare. King Richard III. 


You are transported by calamity, 
Thither where more attends you ; and you slander 
The helms o' the state, who care for you like fatherSi 
When you curse them as enemies. 

Id. Corialantu. 

Another ill accident is drought, and the spindling of 
the corn, which with us is rare, but in hotter coun- 
tries common ; insomuch as the word calamity was 
first derived from calamous, when the corn could not 
get out of the stalk. Bacon. 

Thither let us tend 

From off the tossing of these fiery waves, 
There rest, if any rest can harbour there, 
And reassembling our afflicted powers, 
Consult how we may henceforth most offend 
Our enemy, our own loss how repair, 
How overcome this dire calamity, 
What reinforcements we 'may gain from hope ; 
If not, what resolution from despair. Milton. 

Strict necessity 

Subdues me, and calamitous constraint! 
Lest on my head both sin and punishment, 
However insupportable, be all 
Devolved. Id. 

This infinite calamity shall cause 
To human life, and household peace confound. Id. 

Much rather I shall chuse 
To live the poorest in my tribe, than richest. 
And be in that calamitous prison left. Id. 

In this sad and calamitous condition, deliverance 
from an oppressour would have even revived them. 


What calamitous effects the air of this city wrought 
upon us the last year, you may read in my discourse 
of the plague. Harvey on Consumptions. 

This is a gracious provision God Almighty hath 
made in favour of the necessitous and calamitous ; the 
state of some, in this life, being so extremely wretched 
and deplorable, when compared with others. 


From adverse shores in safety let her hear 
Foreign calamity, and distant war ; 
Of which, great heaven, let her no portion bear. 


CAL'AMUS, n. s. Lat. A sort of reed or 
sweet scented wood, mentioned in Scripture with 
the other ingredients of the sacred perfumes. It 
is a knotty root, reddish without, and white 
within, which puts forth long and narrow leaves, 
and brought from the Indies. The prophets 
speak of it as a foreign commodity of great va- 
lue. The sweet reeds have no smell when they 

CAL 17 

are green, but when they are dry only. Their 
form differs not from other reeds, and their smell 
is perceived upon entering the marshes. 

Take them also unto thee principal spices of pure 
myrrh, of sweet cinnamon, and of sweet calamus. 

Exodus, xxx. 23. 

CALAMUS, in botany, a genus of the monogy- 
nia order, and hexandria class of plants : natural 
order fifth, tripetaloideae : CAL. is hexaphyllous : 
COR. none, the fruit is a dry monospermous ber- 
ry, imbricated backwards. There are nine 
species, the principal one is, C. rotang. The 
stem is without branches, has a crown at top, and 
is everywhere beset with straight spines. This 
is the true Indian cane, which is not visible on 
the outside ; but the bark being taken off disco- 
vers the smooth stick, which has no marks of 
spine on the bark. Sumatra is said to be the 
place where most of these sticks grow. Such 
are to be chosen as are of proper growth between 
two joints, suitable to the fashionable length of 
canes as they are worn ; but such are scarce. 
The calamus rotang is one of the plants from 
which the drug called dragon's blood is obtained. 
The petrocarpus draco and dracasna draco, also 
afford this resin. It is generally much adulte- 
rated, and varies in goodness and purity. The 
best kind is of a dark red color, which, when 
' powdered, changes to crimson : it is soluble in al- 
cohol, but not in water. It readily melts and 
catches flame : has no smell, but discovers some 
degree of warmth and pungency to the taste. 
The ancient Greeks were acquainted with the 
astringent power of this drug, in which character 
it was formerly much employed in haemorrhages 
and alvine fluxes. 

CALAMCS, in the ancient poets, denotes a sim- 
ple kind of pipe, the musical instrument of the 
shepherds, \isually made either of an oaten stalk 
or a reed. 

CALAMUS, AROMATICUS, or sweet-scented 
flag, in the materia medica, a species of flag 
called acorus by Linnaeus. 

CALAMUS SCRIPTORIUS, in antiquity, a reed 
or rush to write with. The ancients made use of 
styles to write on tables covered with wax, and of 
reed, or rush, to write on parchment, or Egyptian 
paper. Also, a kind of canal at the bottom of the 
fourth ventricle of the brain, so called from its 
resemblance to a pen. 

CALAMY (Edmund), an eminent pvesbyte- 
rian divine, born at London in 1600, and edu- 
cated at Cambridge, where his attachment to the 
Arminian party excluded him from a fellowship. 
Dr. Felton, bishop of Ely, however, made him 
his chaplain; and, in 1639, he was chosen mi- 
nister of St. Mary Aldermary, in London. Upon 
the opening of the long parliament, he distin- 
guished himself in defence of the Presbyterian 
cause ; and had a principal hand in writing the 
famous Smectymnus, which he says, gave the 
first deadly blow to episcopacy. The authors 
of this tract were five, the initials of those names 
formed the name under which it was published, 
viz. Stephen Marshal, Edmund Calamy, Thomas 
Y oung, Matthew Newcomen, and William Spar- 
stow. He was afterwards an active member in 
the assembly of divines, and used his utmost en- 
deavours to prevent those violences committed 
VOL. V. 


after the king was brought from the Isle of 
Wight. In Cromwell's time he lived privately, 
but was assiduous in promoting the king's re- 
turn ; for which he was afterwards offered a 
bishopric, but refused it. lie was ejected for 
nonconformity in 1662 ; and died of grief at the 
sight of the great fire of London in 1666. 

CALAMY (Edmund), grandson of the preceding, 
by his eldest son Mr. Edmu ^d Calamy, who 
was ejected out of the living of moxton in Essex 
on St. Bartholomew's day, 1662. He was born in 
London, April 5th, 1671. After having learned 
the languages, and gone through a course of na- 
tural philosophy and logic, at a private academy 
in England, he studied philosophy and civil law, 
at the university of Utrecht, and attended the 
lectures of the learned Grsevius. While he re- 
sided there, an offer of a professor's chair in the 
university of Edinburgh was made him by prin- 
cipal Carstairs, sent over on purpose to find a 
person properly qualified for the office. This he 
declined, and returned to England in 1691, 
bringing with him letters from Graevius to pro- 
fessors Pocock and Bernard, who obtained leavf 
for him to prosecute his studies in the Bodleiau 
library. He entered into an examination of tl> 
controversy between the conformists and the noi. 
conformists ; which determined him to join th- 
latter; and coming to London, in 1692, he was 
chosen assistant to Mr. Matthew Sylvester, at 
Blackfriars ; and in 1674 ordained at Mr. An-. 
nesly's meeting-house. In 1702 he was chosen 
one of the lecturers in Salter's-hall ; and in 1703 
succeeded Mr. Vincent Alsop in Westminster. 
He drew up the table of contents to Mr. Baxter's 
History of his Life and Times, which was sen' 
to the press in 1696 ; and added to it an Index/ 
He next composed an abridgment of it, with an 
Account of many other Ministers who were 
ejected after the Restoration ; Their Apology 
containing the grounds of their nonconformity ; 
and aContinuation of their History till 1691. This 
work was published in 1702. He afterward pub- 
lished a Defence of Nonconformity, in tracts, 
in answer to Dr. Hoadley. In 1709 he made a 
tour to Scotland ; and had the degree of D. D. 
conferred on him by the universities of Edin- 
burgh, Aberdeen, and Glasgow. In 1713 he pub- 
blished a second edition of his Abridgement of 
Baxter's History, in which, among other addi- 
tions, there is a continuation of the history 
through King William's reign, and Queen Anne's, 
down to the passing of the Occasional Bill ; and 
in the close is subjoined the reformed liturgy, 
which was drawn up and presented to the 
bishops in 1661. In 1718 he wrote a Vindica- 
tion of his grandfather and others, against cer- 
tain reflections cast upon them by Mr. Echard 
in his History of England; and in 1728 ap- 
peared the Continuation of the Account of the 
Ministers, Lectureis, Masters, Fellows of Col- 
leges, and Schoolmasters, who were ejected after 
the Restoration. He died June 3rd, 1732, 
greatly regretted both by the dissenters and 
members of the established church, with many 
of whom he lived iu great intimacy. Besides 
the pieces already mentioned, he published 
many sermons. He was twice mariied and had 
thirteen children. 





CALANDRE, a name given by the French 
writers to an insect that does vast mischief in 
granaries. It is properly of the scarabaeus or 
beetle class ; it has two antennae formed of many 
round joints, and covered with a soft and short 
down; from the anterior part of the head there 
is thrust out a trunk, which is so formed at the 
end, that the creature easily makes way with it 
through the coat or skin that covers the grain, 
and gets at the meal or farina on which it feeds ; 
the inside of the grain is also the place where the 
females deposit their eggs, that the young pro- 
geny may be born with provision about them. 
When the the female has pierced a grain of corn 
for this purpose, she deposites in it one egg, or 
at the utmost two, but she most frequently lays 
them single ; these eggs hatch into small worms, 
which are usually found with their bodies rolled 
up in a spiral form, and after eating till they ar- 
rive at their full growth, they are changed into 
chrysales, and from these, in about a fortnight, 
comes out the perfect calandre. The female 
lays a considerable number of eggs ; and the in- 
crease of these creatures would he very great ; 
but while in the egg state, and even while in that 
of the worm, they are subject to be eaten by 
mites; these little vermin are always very plen- 
tiful in granaries, and they destroy the far greater 
number of the larger animals. 

CALAPIA, in entomology, an American spe- 
cies of cancer, having a crenulated thorax, with 
the posterior angles dilated, hand-claws crested. 

GALAS (John), an unfortunate protestant 
merchant at Toulouse, inhumanly butchered 
under form of law, to gratify the sanguinary im- 
pulse of ignorant Popish zeal. He had lived 
forty years at Toulouse. His wife was an 
Englishwoman of French extraction, and they 
had five sons ; one of whom, Lewis, had turned 
Catholic, through the persuasion of a Catholic 
naid who had lived thirty years in the family, 
in October, 1761, the family consisted of Galas, 
his wife, Mark Antony their son, Peter their se- 
cond son, and this maid. Anthony was educated 
for the bar, but, being of melancholy turn, was 
continually dwelling on passages from authors on 
the subject of suicide, and one night in that 
month hanged himself on a bar laid across two 
folding doors in their shop. The crowd col- 
lected by the confusion of the family on so shock- 
ing a discovery, took it into their heads, that he 
had been strangled by the family to prevent his 
changmghis religion, and that this was a common 
practice among Protestants. The officers of justice 
adopted the popular tale, and were supplied by 
the mob with what they accepted as evidences of 
the fact. The fraternity of White Penitents got 
the body, buried it with great ceremony, and 
performed a solemn service for him as a martyr ; 
the Franciscans did the same : and after these 
formalities no one doubted the guilt of the de- 
voted heretical family. They were all con- 
demned to the torture, to bring them to confes- 
sion; they appealed to the parliament; who, as 
weak and wicked as the subordinate magistrates, 
sentenced the father to the torture, ordinary and 
extraordinary, to be broken alive upon the wheel, 
and then to be burned to ashes ; which decree, 
to the disgrace of humanity, was actually carried 

into execution. Peter Calas, the other son, was 
banished for life ; and the rest were acquitted. 
The distracted widow found some friends, and 
among the rest M. Voltaire, who laid her case 
before the council of state at Versailles, and the 
parliament at Toulouse were ordered to trans- 
mit the proceedings. These the king and coun- 
cil unanimously agreed to annul ; the capitoul, 
or chief magistrate of Toulouse, was degraded 
and fined ; old Calas was declared to have been 
innocent ; and every imputation of guilt was re- 
moved from the family, who also received from 
the king and clergy considerable gratuities. 

CA'LASH, n. s. From Fr. caleche. It is a 
light kind of carriage, with very low wheels, 
open on all sides for the conveniency of the 
air and prospect, or at most enclosed with light 
mantles of cloth to be opened and shut at plea- 

Daniel, a sprightly swain, that used to slash 
The vigorous steeds that drew his lord's calath. King. 

The ancients used calashes, the figures of several of \ 
them being to be seen on ancient monuments. They 
are very simple, light, and drove by the traveller him- 
self. Arbuthnot on Coins. 

CALASIO (Marius), a Franciscan professor of 
Hebrew at Rome. He published there, in 1621, 
a concordance of the Bible, which consisted of 4 
vols. folio. This valuable work, is in fact a com- 
plete lexicon of the Hebrew,with its various depen- 
dent dialects ; forbesides the Hebrew words in the 
Bible, which are in the body of the boojc with 
the Latin version over against them, there are in 
the margin the differences between the septua- 
gint version and the vulgate ; so that at one view 
may be seen wherein the three texts agree, and 
wherein they differ. Moreover at the beginning 
of every article there is a kind of dictionary, 
which gives the signification of each Hebrew 
word ; and affords an opportunity of comparing 
it with the Syriac, Arabic, and Chaldee. A valu- 
able edition of this work was published in Lon- 
don, 1747, edited by the Rev. W. Romaine, assis- 
ted by Rowe Mores, and Lutzena a Portuguese 

CALASIRIS orCALASSis, in antiquity, a linen 
tunic fringed at the bottom, and worn by the 
Egyptians under a white woollen garment : which 
last they pulled off when they entered the temples, 
being only allowed to appear there in linen. 

CALATHUS, in antiquity, a kind of hand 
basket made of light wood or rushes ; used by the 
women to gather flowers, but chiefly to put their 
work in. The figure of the calathus, as repre- 
sented on ancient monuments, is narrow at the 
bottom, and widening upwards like that of a top. 
The Calathus or work basket of Minerva is no less 
celebrated among the poets than her distaff. It 
was also the name of a cup for wine used in sa- 

CALATOR, from icaXaw, to call, in antiquity, 
a crier, appointed to publish any thing aloud, or 
call the people together. 

CALATRAVA, a city of Spain in New Cas- 
tile on the river Guadiana, forty-five miles south 
of Toledo. 

CALATHAVA, KNIGHTS OF, a military order in 
Spain instituted under Sancho III. king of Cas- 

CAL 19 


me, upon the following occasion : When that 
prince took the strong fort of Calatrava from the 
Moors of Andalusia, he gave it to the templars, 
who, not being able to defend it, returned it him 
again. Don Raymond, of the order of Cister- 
cians, accompanied with several persons of qua- 
lity, then made an offer to defend the place, 
which the king thereupon delivered to them, and 
instituted that order. It increased so much under 
the reign of Alphonsus, that the knights desired 
to have a grand master, which was granted. Fer- 
dinand and Isabella afterwards, with the consent 
of pope Innocent VIII. re-united the grandmas- 
tership of Calatrava to the Spanish crown ; so 
that the kings of Spain are now become perpetual 
administrators thereof. Their rules and habits 
were at first those of the 
Cistercians, but their pre- 
sent habit is a mantle 
of white silk, tied with a 
cordon and tassels, and on 
the left arm the cross of the 
order is embroidered. Their 
cross is a cross fleury gules 
as in the annexed figure, 
and is worn at the stomach, 
pendants to a red ribbon. It is styled the 
gallant order of Calatrava. 

CALAURIA, in ancient geography, an island 
of Greece in the Saronic bay, over against the 
port of Troezen, at the distance of forty stadia. 
Hither Demosthenes went twice into banishment; 
and here he died. Neptune was said to have ac- 
cepted this island from Apollo in exchange for 
Delos. The city of this name stood on a high 
ridgenearly in the middle of the island, command- 
ing an extensive view of the gulph and its coasts. 
Here was the temple of Neptune ; the priestess 
of which was a virgin, who was dismissed when 
marriageable. The Macedonians, when they had 
reduced Greece, were afraid to violate the sanc- 
tuary, by forcing from it the fugitives, his suppli- 
ants. Antipater commanded his general to bring 
away the orators, who had offended him, alive ; 
but Demosthenes could not be prevailed on to 
surrender. His monument remained in the 
second century, within the enclosure of the tem- 
ple. The city of Calauria has been long aban- 
doned. Traces of buildings, and of ancient 
walls, appear nearly level with the ground ; and 
some stones, in their places, each with a seat and 
back, forming a little circle, once perhaps a bath. 
The temple, which was of the Doric order, and 
not large, as may be inferred from the fragments, 
is reduced to an inconsiderable heap of ruins. 
The island is now called Poro. 

C. ALBUM, in entomology, an European spe- 
cies of curculio, particularly distinguished by 
having an incur vated line on the wing-cases at 
the base, also the specific name of the common 
butterfly, a well known species of the European 
papiliones. This insect has angulated wings of 
a fulvous color, spotted with black : the posterior 
wings marked beneath with a white curved line 
resembling the letter C, whence its name. 

CALCANEUM, calx, the heel, calcar pterna, 
os calcis. The largest bone of the tarsus, which 
forms the heel. See ANATOMY. 

CALCANTHUM, red vitriol. See VITRIOL. 

CALCAR, in glass-making, a small oven, or 
reverberatory furnace, in which the first calcina- 
tion of sand and salt of potashes is made for the 
turning them into what is called frit. This furnace 
is made in the fashion of an oven ten feet long, 
* seven broad in the widest part, and two deep. 
On one side of it is a trench six inches square, 
the upper part of which is level with the calcar, 
and separated only from it at the mouth by bricks 
nine inches wide. Into this trench they put sea 
coal, the flame of which is carried into every part 
of the furnace, and is reverberated from the roof 
upon the frit, over the surface of which the 
smoke flies, and goes out at the mouth of the 
calcar ; the coaU burn on iron grates, and the 
ashes fall through. 

CALCAII (John de), a celebrated painter, was 
the disciple of Titian, and perfected himself by 
studying Raphael. Among other pieces he drew 
a nativity, representing the angels around the in- 
fant Jesus ; and so ordered the disposition of hi.4 
picture, that the light all proceeds from the child. 
He died at Naples, in 1 546, in the flower of his age. 
He designed the anatomical figures of Vesalius, 
the portraits of the painters of Vasari. 

CALCAR, in conchology, a species of Turbo, of 
which Chemnitz gives several distinct varieties 
from India,the South Seas, and the Mediterranean. 
Also a species of nautilus, found in the Adriatic, 
and described by Plancus among his miscroscopic 

CALCAR, in entomology, a small German spe 
cies of curculio, of a black color, with single 
toothed thighs and testaceous antenna? and feet. 

CALCARATA. in entomology, a small species 
of buprestis, with bidentated striated wing-cases, 
shanks of the middle legs toothed : body copper- 
colored : found on German trees. 

CALCARATUS, a species of cerambyx, color 
violaceous-black, thighs rufous, the posterior ones 
dentated. Also a species of cimex, color fuscous, 
abdomen sanguineous above, the posterior thighs 
six-toothed. Both these inhabit Europe. 

CALCAREOUS, in mineralogy, the third 
order of the class earths, according to Gmelin's 
system, consisting principally of carbonate of 

CALCAREOUS SPAR, crystallised carbonate of 
lime. It occurs crystallised in more than 600 
different forms, all having for their primitive 
form an obtuse rhomboid. It occurs also in mas- 
sive and imitative shapes. 

The colors of calc-spar are gray, yellow, red 
and green, lustre vitreous : fracture foliated, with 
a threefold cleavage, translucent. It is less hard 
than fluor spar, and is easily broken ; specific 
gravity, 2'7, 43'6, carbonic acid, and 56-4 lime. 
It effervesces powerfully with acids, and some 
varieties are phosphorescent on hot coals. It is 
found in veins in all rocks, from granite to allu- 
vial strata. The rarest and most beautiful crys- 
tals are found in Derbyshire. 

CALCA'RIOUS. Lat. calx, calcis; lime; 
lapis coctus, from \a\g, denoting a stone or frag- 
ments of stones, from which cement or mortar is 
made. Vossius. Scheidius on the other hand, 
by mutations of icXaw, frango, obtains K\at, 
whence ica\|. 

On the east side, ia the most broken part of die 



precipices, is a stratmn of bones of all sizes, belong- 
ing to various animals and fowls, enchased in an in- 
crustation of a reddish calcarious rock. Swinburne. 

CALC BARIUM, in antiquity, a largess be- 
stowed on Roman soldiers for buying shoes. In 
monasteries, calcearium denoted the daily service 
of cleaning the shoes of the religious. 

CAL'CEATED, adj. Lat. calcatus; shod; 
fitted with shoes. 


CALCEDONIANS, a denomination given by 
f'optic writers to the Melchites, on account of 
their adherence to the council of Calcedon. 

CALCEDO'NIUS, n. s. Lat. the calcedony. 
A kind of precious stone. See CHALCEDONY. 

Calcedonius is of the agate kind, and of a misty 
grey, clouded with blue, or with purple. 

Woodward on Fossils. 

CALCEOLARIA, from calceolis, a slipper, 
Slipper-wort; a genus of plants, class, diandria ; 
order, monogynia : CAL. one-leaved perianth : 
COR. monopetalous : STAM. two filaments ; incum- 
bent anthers : PIST. a roundish germ : with Aery 
short style ; and blunt stigma : PER. capsule sub- 
conic ; seeds numerous. Nine species ; almost 
all natives of Pern; generally with yellow clus- 
tering flowers, some of which are beautiful and 
well worth cultivating. 

CALCHAS, in fabulous history, a famous di- 
viner, who followed the Greek army to Troy. 
He foretold Miat the siege would last ten years ; 
and that the fleet, which was detained in the port 
of Aulis by contrary winds, would not sail till 
Agamemnon's daughter had been sacrificed to 
Diana. He had received the power of divination 
from Apollo. Calchas was informed, that as soon 
as he found a man more skilled than himself in 
divination, he must perish ; and this happened 
near Colophon, after the Trojan war. lie was 
unable to tell how many figs were in the branches 
of ~a certain fig-tree ; and when Mopsus mention- 
ed the exact number, Calchas died through 

CALCHOPHONOS LAPIS, among the an- 
cients, a name given to a stone of a black color, 
and considerable hardness, which, when cut into 
thin plates, and struck against by any other hard 
body, gave a sound like that of brass : it seerns 
to have been one of the hard black marbles. 

CALCIFRAGUS, stone-breaking, an appel- 
lation given by some to the scolopendrium, by 
others to pimpernel, on account of their lithron- 
triptic quality. 

CALCIMURITE, in mineralogy, a species of 
earth, or stone, of the consistency of clay, found 
near Thionville. Its color is blue or olive green, 
and it contains magnesia, mixed with a conside- 
rable portion of calcareous earth, and some iron. 
The olive green colored, contains no argil. The 
blue is used by potters. 

CALCINATION. The fixed residences of 
such matters as have undergone combustion, says 
Dr. Ure, are called cinders in common language, 
and calces, or now more commonly oxides, by 
chemists ; and the operation, when considered 
with regard to these residues, is termed calcina- 
tion. In this general way it has likewise been ap- 
plied to bodies, not really combustible, but only 
deprived of some of their principles by heat. 

20 CAL 

Thus we hear of the calcination of chalk, to con 
vert it into lime, by driving oft' its carbonic acid 
and water ; of gypsum or plaster stone, of alum, 
of borax, and other saline bodies, by which they 
are deprived of their water of crystallisation ; 
of bones, which lose their volatile parts by this 
treatment; and of various other bodies. See 
CHEMISTRY. For the ancient definition, see the 
next article. 

CALCINE', v.^\ See CALCARIOUS. To re- 

CALX', n. I duce to a calx. Calcination 

CAL'CINATE, v. Vis thus described by Junius, 

CALCINA'TIOX, i as quoted by Dr. Johnson : 

CAL'CINABLE. j Such a management of bodies 
by fire as renders them reducible to powder ; 
wherefore it is called chemical pulverisation. 
This is the next degree of the power of fire be- 
yond that of fusion ; for when fusion is longer 
continued, not only the more subtle particles of 
the body itself fly off, but the particles of fire 
likewise insinuate themselves in such multitudes, 
and are so blended through its whole substance, 
that the fluidity, first caused by the fire, can no 
longer subsist. From this union arises a third 
kind of body, which, being very porous and 
brittle, is easily reduced to powder ; for, the fire 
having penetrated everywhere into the pores of 
the body, the particles are both hindered from 
mutual contact, and divided into minute atoms. 
Our lampcs brenning bothe night and day, 

To bring about our craft, if that we may ; 

Our furaeis eke of calcination, 

And of waters albitication. 

Unslekked lime and gleire of an ey. 

Chaucer's Canterbury T.ik*. 

Gold, that is more dense than lead, resists pe- 
remptorily all the dividing power of fire ; and will 
not be reduced into a calx, or lime, by such operations 
as reduce lead into it. Digty- 

Divers residences of bodies are thrown away, as 
soon as the distillation or calcination of the body that 
yieldeth them is ended. Boyle. 

This may be effected, but not without calcittution, or 
reducing it by art into a subtile powder. 

Browne's Vulgar Errowrs. 
Fiery disputes that union have calcined, 

Almost as many minds as men we find. Denliam. 

This chrystal is a pellucid fissile stone, clear as 
water, and without colour, enduring a red heat, with- 
out losing its transparency, and, in a very strong heat, 
calcining with fusion. Newton's Opticks. 

The solids seem to be earth, bound together with 
some oil ; for if a bone be calcined, so as the least 
force will crumble it, being immersed in oil, it will 
grow firm again. Arbuthnot on Aliments. 

In hardening, by baking without melting, the heat 
hath these degrees ; first, it indurateth, then maketh 
fragile, and lastly it doth calcinate. 

Bacon's Nat. Hist. 

' The earth that drinketh in the rain that cometh 
oft upon it,' is but a faint emblem of a calcined mind. 
Expos. N. T. Heb. vi. 

CALCIS LIQUOR, solution of lime formerly 
called aqua calcis. Take one pound of lime, 
and boiling water, three gallons ; pour the water 
on the lime, let it stand for some time, and then 
pour it into stopped glass bottles together with 
the lime that remains. It is exhibited internally 
in cardialgia, spasms, diarrhoea, in doses of two 
and three ounces, &c. ; and in proportionate doses 
in convulsions of children arising from acidity; or 



ulcerated intestines, intermittent fevers, &c. Ex- 
ternally it is applied to burns and ulcers. 

CALCIS MURIATIS LIQUOR, take of muriate 
of lime two ounces, distilled water three fluid 
ounces; dissolve the salt in the water, and filter 
it through paper. 


CALCIUM, the metallic basis of lime, first 
procured by Sir H. Davy, by the process which 
he used for obtaining BARIUM ; which see. It 
was in such small quantities, that little could be 
said concerning its nature. It appeared brighter 
and whiter than either barium or strontium; and 
burned when gently heated, producing dry lime. 
There is only one known combination of cal- 
cium and oxygen, which is the important sub- 
stance called lime. See LIME. 

CALCOGRAPIIY, from K a\ K o S , brass and 
ypa^w, to write, the art of writing on brass. 

CALC SINTER. Stalactitical carbonate of 
lime. It is found in pendulous conical rods, 
massive, and in many shapes. Fracture lamellar, 
or divergent fibrous. Lustre silky or pearly. 
Colors various, but rarely green. Translucent, 
very brittle. Large stalactites are found in the 
grotto of Antiparos, the woodman's cave in the 
llartz, the cave of Auxelle in France, in the cave 
of Castleton in Derbyshire, and Macalister cave 
in Sky. They are formed by the filtration of 
carbonated lime water, through the crevices of 
the roofs of caverns. 

CALCTUFF, an alluvial formation of car- 
bonate of lime, probably deposited from cal- 
careous springs. It has a yellowish-gray color ; 
a dull lustre ; a fine grained earthy fracture ; and 
is usually marked with impressions of vegetable 
matter. Its specific gravity is nearly the same 
with that of water. It is soft, and easily cut or 

CALCULARY, a congeries of little strong 
knots, dispersed through the whole parenchyma 
of a pear. The calculary is most observed in 
rough-tasted or choak-pears. The knots lie more 
contiguous and compact together towards the 
pear, where they surround the acetary. About 
the stalks they stand more distant ; but towards 
the cork or stool of the flower they still grow 
closer, and there at last gather into the firmness 
of a plumb stone. The calculary is no essential 
part, but rather a disease of the fruit ; the several 
knots whereof it consists being only so many 
concretions or precipitations out of the sap, as 
we see in wines, and other liquors. 

CALCULATION is particularly used for the 
computations in astronomy -and geometry, for 
making tables of logarithms, ephemerides, find- 
ing the time of eclipses, &c. See ASTRONOMY, 

CAL'CULE, v. & n. ~\ Fr. calculer; Ital. cal- 

CAL'CULATE, v. | culare; Span, calcular; 

CALCULATION, {Lat. calculus, from calx, 

CAL'CULATIVE, j calcia. Calculi, were 

CAL'CULATOR, | small stones used in 

CAL'CULATORY. J counting, reckoning, 
and computing. Hence to calcule, or calculate, 
is to enumerate, reckon, cast up, from parti- 
culars to the aggregate. 

His tables Toletanes forth he brought, 
Ful wcl corrected, that there: lacked nought 

Nother his collect nc his expans were, 

Nother his rotes ne his other gere, 

As beii his centres, and his argumentes, 

For his equations in every thing, 

And by his eighte speres in his working, 

He knew ful wel how far Anath was shove, 

Fro the hed of thiike Aries above, 

That in the ninthe spere considered is, 

Ful sotilly he culculed all this. 

Chaucer. Canterbury Tales, 

The general calcule, which was made in the las: 
perambulation, exceeded eight millions. 

Howel's Vocal Forest. 

Cypher, that great friend to calculation; or rather, 
which changeth calculation into easy computation. 

Holder on Time. 

But if you would consmer tne true cause. 
Why all these fires, why all these gliding ghosts, 
Why birds, and beasts, from quality and kind, 
Why old men, fools, and children calculate, 
Why all these things change, from their ordinance, 
Their natures and pre-formed faculties, 
To monstrous quality ; why you shall find, 
That heaven hath infused them with these spirits, 
To make them instruments of fear, and warning, 
Unto some monstrous state. Sliakspeare. 

If then their calculation be true, for so they reckon 


Being different from calculations of the ancients, 
their observations confirm not ours. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

The whole body of the clergy and their families, 
make near 100,000 souls, that is about an eighteenth 
part of the nation. And reckoning the population of 
England and Wales at eight millions of people, 
every clergyman would have a congregation of four 
hundred and forty-four persons to attend to, in the 
ssme way of calculation. 

Simpson's Plea for Religion. 

CALCULOSE', adj. ) From Lat. calculus. 

CAL'CULOUS. f Stony ; gritty. 

The volatile salt of urine will coagulate spirits of 
wine ; and thus, perhaps, the stones, or calculose con- 
cretions in the kidney or bladder, may be produced. 
Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

I have found, by opening the kidneys of a calculous 
person, that the stone is formed earlier than I have 
suggested. Sharp, 

CALCULUS, in antiquity, a little stone or peb- 
ble, was used in making computations, taking 
suffrages, playing at tables, and the like. In 
after times, pieces of ivory, and counters of 
silver, gold, &c. were used in lieu thereof, but 
still retaining the ancient names. The Roman 
judges anciently gave their opinions by calculi, 
which were white for absolution, and black for 
condemnation. Hence calculus albus, in ancient 
writers, denotes a favourable vote, either in a 
person to be absolved and acquitted of a charge, 
or elected to some dignity or post; as calculus 
niger the contrary. This usage is said to have 
been borrowed from the Thracians, who marked 
their happy or prosperous days by white, and 
their unfortunate by black, pebbles, put each 
night into an urn. Besides the diversity of 
color, there were some calculi also which had 
characters engraven on them, as those which 
were in use in taking the suffrages in the senate 
and at assemblies of the people. These calculi' 
were made of thin wood, polished, and covered 
over with wax. Their form is still suen in some, 



medals of the Cassian family ; and the manner 
of casting them into the urns, in the medals of 
the Licinian family. These calculi were marked 
with the letters A for absolve, i. e. I acquit; C 
for condemno, I condemn ; N L, non liquet, i. e. 
it is not clear, must be further examined and ad- 
ditional information given. Calculi lusorii were 
the chess-men, or little balls, which were em- 
ployed in the game of chess, which the poets 
allude to, both as to their matter, their color, and 
their use. They were made either of ivory, of 
. old, silver, or glass. 

CALCULUS, in chemistry, this word, physiolo- 
gically and medically applied, designates those 
concretions of a morbid kind which are found in 
the viscera and cavities of animal bodies, as the 
kidneys and urinary bladder, the liver, gall- 
bladder, and ducts ; and occasionally in the 
intestinal canal ; to these last, however, the 
term concretion, rather than calculus, is more 
usually applied, and under that word we shall 
notice them, confining our account in the present 
article to urinary and biliary calculi. 

Of urinary calculi. These are found at dif- 
ferent times in the kidneys, the ureters, the 
urinary bladder, the urethra, and the prostate 
gland. They are for the most part made up of 
those materials, disproportionately combined, 
which always exist in other proportions in the 
urine itself. To this law, however, there are 
occasional exceptions. One of the principal in- 
gredients in urine, as will be seen by turning to 
the articles CHEMISTRY and URINE, is uric acid, 
and accordingly we find the largest proportion of 
the concretions now to be noticed to contain uric 
acid as a master princple; indeed Majendie, who 
has published a small treatise especially on the 
subject of urinaiy calculi, seems to think that, 
neither in a pathological nor practical point of 
view, is it of much importance to take cognizance 
of any other ; in this opinion he is however 
manifestly erroneous ; for although the uric acid 
calculus is, as above intimated, of by far the 
most frequent occurrence, we very often meet 
with others which are exceedingly different in 
chemical composition, and for the counteraction 
of which a different medicinal process is deman- 
ded. See MEDICINE. It ought always to be 
recollected that there are very few instances in 
which the substances that give the character to 
calculi are found singly. When we talk of uric 
acid calculus, and especially of the other concre- 
tions, we mean merely that the name by which 
they are designated expresses the predominance 
of the principle. 

Urinary calculi may be classed under the 
several following heads. 

1 . Uric or lilhic acid calculi, which are formed 
mainly of uric acid. 

2. Urate of ammonia calculi. 

3. Ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate, or, as 
they are called, triple calculi. 

4. Calculi of phosphate of lime. 

5. Calculi of oxalate of lime (mulberry cal- 

6. Calculi of the carbonate of lime. 

7. Calculi of cystic pxide. 

Uric acid calculus This, as above stated, is 
much more frequent in its occurrence than any 

other. Some have averaged their number at 
about half of the whole number of concretions 
that are found. Calculi of this kind are of 
various sizes, from that of a common nut to that 
of a large egg. They more resemble the com- 
mon hard compact stones that are found in the 
roads, than do the other calculi ; their shape is for 
the most part oval ; they have an internal central 
nucleus from which rays proceed. Their color 
is for the most part of a yellowish brown or 

When treated with the blow-pipe this calculus 
blackens and gives out a"n ammoniacal odor. It 
is soluble in pure alkalies. 

The red sand so ' commonly voided in gra- 
velly complaints consists almost entirely of uric 

The urate of ammonia calculus is in its pure 
state by no means common, but this composition 
is often found in cases where the uric acid is in 
excess, and in this way a mixed calculus is 
formed. This calculus is of a clayish color, 
and it is more earthy in its fracture than the 
uric acid concretion ; it is also much more soluble 
in water, and a distinguishing property of it, 
from the mere uric acid calculus, is its solubility 
in the alkaline sub-carbonates, while the latter 
requires the alkali to be pure to dissolve it. 

The ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate, is scarcely 
ever found unmixed ; its most usual combination 
is with the species next to be described, viz. the 
phosphate of lime, and the union constitutes the 
fusible calculus of Wollaston, so named because 
it is susceptible of being melted or fused into a 
vitreous matter by the blow-pipe. 

The ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate is white, 
or of a pale gray ; its texture is much softer than 
that of the uric acid calculus. This species fre- 
quently attains a very large size. When voided 
in the form of gravel it is white. 

This calculus is soluble in acids, and not in 
pure alkalies. 

The phosphate of lime calculus is of a pale 
brown or gray color, and smooth on its exter- 
nal surface. It is made up of laminae that are 
easily separated. This, like the triple calculus, 
is easily soluble in the mineral acids, especially 
the muriatic. It requires an intense and long 
continued heat from the blow-pipe to fuse it. 
The calculi that are found in the prostate gland 
are of this species. 

Oxalate of lime, or mulberry calculus, is much 
darker in its color than the other varieties. Its 
external surface is marked by projecting tubercles 
giving with its color something of a mulberry 
appearance. Sometimes it is smooth and palet 
externally ; in this case it is also in smaller mas- 
ses, and has been compared to a hemp-seed. 
This kind of calculus (the mulberry) is ex- 
ceedingly hard. 

Muriatic and nitric acids, if concentrated and 
heated, dissolve this species of calculus; but it is 
necessary for easy solution that the concretion 
be first powdered. Pure alkalies do not act upon 
it, but the alkaline carbonates, when digested 
with it, separate the oxalic acid from it which is 
replaced by the carbonic acid. 

The carbonate of lime calculus is exceedingly 
rare Mr. Brande tells us that among several 



Hundred calculi from the human bladder, which 
Ae examined, he ntver met with a single instance 
of it. 

Cyotic oxide calculus is so named from its 
being composed of a peculiar animal substance 
which lias the chemkal habitudes of an oxide, and 
from Dr. Wollaston, the discoverer of it, having 1 
at first supposed it to be confined to the bladder : 
this calculus more nearly resembles the ammo- 
niaco-magnesian phosphate in its external ap- 
pearance than any other, but it is more compact 
and less laminated. 

This calculus is soluble both in acids and 
alkalies. The acetic, tartaric, and citric acids do 
not however act upon it freely, neither does 
alcohol, nor water, nor the carbonate of am- 

A j-aiit/tic oxide calculus, and a fibrinous cal- 
culus, have been described by Dr. Marcet as 
differing from every other known species. The 
first is of a reddish color, not so readily soluble 
in acids as in alkalies ; its solution in nitric acid 
when evaporated giving a yellow color (whence 
the name) ; it is considerably more soluble in 
water than uric acid calculus, and less easily 
soluble in acids than the cystic oxide. The other 
calculus seemed similar in its properties to 
fibrine, and hence Dr. Marcet proposed that, in 
the event of other instances of the same kind 
being found, the name fibrinous should be given 
to it 

The following is an outline of the classification 
proposed by Fourcroy and Vauquelen after the 
analysis of more than 600 of these concretions. 
We copy the table from the last edition of Dr. 
Henry's Elements of Chemistry. 

GENUS I. Calculi composed chiefly of one 

Species 1. Calculus of uric acid. 

2. Calculus of urate of ammmonia. 

3. Calculus of carbonate of lime. 

4. Calculus of oxalate of lime. 

GENUS II. Calculi composed of two 

Species 1. Calculus of uric acid and earthy 
phosphates in distinct layers. 

2. Calculus of uric acid and earthy phosphates 
intimately mixed. 

3. Calculus of urate of ammonia and the 
phosphates in layers. 

4. Calculus of the same ingredients intimately 

5. Calculus of earthy phosphates mixed, or 
else in fine layers. 

6. Calculus of oxalate of lime and uric acid in 
distinct layers. 

7. Calculus of oxalate of lime and earthy 
phosphates in layers. 

GENUS III. Calculi composed of three or 

four ingredients. 

Species 1. Calculus of uric acid or urate of 
ammonia, earthy phosphates, and oxalate of 

2. Calculus of uric acid, urate cf ammonia, 
earthy phosphates and silex. 

The urinary concretions found in the blad- 

ders of inferior animals contain no uric acid : 
they consist mainly of carbonate and phosphate 
of lime cemented by animal matter. 

For an account of the symptoms which gravelly 
concretions produce, and for the dietetic and 
medicinal management of gravel and stone, see 
the articles MEDICINE and SURGERY. 

CALCULI, BILIARY, called gall-stones. Four- 
croy described one species of these as consisting 
chiefly of adipocire ; but Chevreul has given the 
name of cholesterine to the crystalline matter of 
biliary concretions, because it does not, like true 
adipocire, produce a soap with alkalies. 

Cholesterine is described as a peculiar animal 
principle, insoluble in water, and nearly so in 
cold alcohol : but soluble in nitric acid. It is 
fusible at 280, and if rapidly heated to about 
400 it evaporates in dense smoke. 

Some biliary calculi appear to be mere 'inspis- 
sations of bile, being soluble however in alcohol 
and water; and these inspissations are often 
found mixed in various degrees and proportions 
with the cholesterenic species, thus constituting 
concretions of intermediate characters. 

The biliary calculi of the ox seem to consist 
almost entirely of the yellow matter of bile in a 
concrete state ; this is used as a pigment. For 
further information on biliary concretions, see 
the article MEDICINE. 

differencing quantities, or of finding an infinitely 
small quantity, which, being taken infinite times, 
shall be equal to a given quantity ; or, it is the 
arithmetic of the infinitely small differences of 
variable quantities. The foundation of this cal- 
culus is an infinitely small quantity, or an infi- 
nitesimal, which is a portion of a quantity 
incomparable to that quantity, or that is less than 
any assignable one, and therefore accounted as 
nothing ; the error accruing by omitting it being 
less than any assignable one. Hence two quan- 
titie^, only differing by an infinitesimal, are re- 
puted equal. Thus, in astronomy, the diameter 
of the earth is an infinitesimal, in respect of the 
distance of the fixed stars ; and the same holds 
in abstract quantities. The term, infinitesimal, 
therefore, is merely relative, and involves a rela- 
tion to another quantity ; and does not denote 
any real ens, or being. Now infinitesimals are 
called differentials, or differential quantities, 
when they are considered as the differences of 
two quantities. Sir Isaac Newton calls them 
moments ; considering them as the momentary 
increments of quantities, e. g. of a line, genera- 
ted by the flux of a point, or of a surface by 
the flux of a line. The differential calculus, 
therefore, and the doctrine of fluxions, are the 
same thing under different names; the former 
given by M. Leibnitz, and the latter by Sir 
Isaac Newton : each of whom lay claim to the 
discovery. There is, indeed, a difference in the 
manner of expressing the quantities resulting 
from the different views wherein the two authors 
consider the infinitesimal;.; the one as moments, 
the other as differences. Leibnitz, and most 
foreigners, express the differentials of quantities 
by the same letters as variable ones, only pre- 
fixing the letter d : thus the differential of JT is 
called d .r ; and that of y, du ; now d a- is a 



positive quantity, if x continually increase ; ne- 
gative, if it decrease. The English, with Sir 
Isaac Newton, instead of d x write x (with a dot 
over it); for dy,y, &c. which foreigners object 
against, on account of that confusion of points 
which they imagine arises when differentials are 
again differenced ; besides that the printers are 
more apt to overlook a point than a letter. The 
rules for differencing quantities are the very 
same as those for finding their fluxions. See 

differencing exponential quantities, or of finding 
and summing up the differentials or moments of 
exponential quantities ; or at least bringing them 
to geometrical constructions. By exponential 
quantity, is here understood a power, whose ex- 
ponent is variable ; e. g. JT X . *. xy. where the 
exponent x does not denote the same in all the 
points of a curve, but in some stands for two, 
in others for three, in others for five, &c. To 
difference an exponential quantity is the same 
problem as to find its fluxion. See FLUXIONS. 

a method of integrating, or summing up mo- 
ments, or differential quantities ; i. e. from a dif- 
ferential quantity given, to find the quantity from 
whose differencing the differential results. The 
integral calculus, therefore, is the inverse of the 
differential one : and is similar to the inverse 
method of fluxions, the rules of which also apply 
to the calculus integralis. See FLUXIONS. 

is the same with specious arithmetic, or algebra, 
so called from its using the letters of the alpha- 
bet ; in contradistinction to numeral arithmetic, 
which uses figures. See ALGEBRA. 

CALCULUS MINERVA, among the ancient 
lawyers, denoted the decision of a cause, wherein 
the judges were equally divided. The expression 
is taken from the history of Orestes, represented 
by ./Eschylus and Euripides ; at whose trial, be- 
fore the Areopagites, for the murder of his 
mother, the votes being divided for and against 
him, Minerva interposed, and gave the casting 
calculus or vote, on his behalf. 

provement on the integral calculus suggested by 
M. D'Alembert. It applies successfully to some of 
the most difficult problems, such as those relating 
to vibrating cords, the propagation of sound, the 
equilibrium and motion of fluids, tautochrones 
in resisting media, &c. 

When we have a function, z, of two variable 
quantities, x and y, or of a greater number, we 
know that by differencing first with respect to x, 
and then with respect toy, we have the differential 
d z ~ p d x -{- g d y, p and.g being co-efficients 
that aftect d x and d y respectively. Thus the 
complete differential of z is p d x -\- q dy ; where 
p d x and q d y are the differentials to which are 
kjiven the name of partial. 

It is usual to denote these co-efficients of dx 

and d y, in this manner , - : signifying what 

d x dy 

happens with regard to the function z, by making 
it first vary as x and dividing by d x, and then 
causing it to vary as y and dividing by dy; so 

that the complete value of d x is represented by 

^ d x + - : and it is under this form that 
d x d y 

equations of partial differences commonly present 
themselves. Thus every equation between z, x,y, 

d z d z 
j , -j , and, if we please, between one or 

several constant quantities, will be an equation 
of partial differences : such is, for example, the 

d z d z 

equation, a \- b x y o ; which sig- 
nifies, that, in order to the solution of the problem 
producing this equation, we must find a function 
of x and y, such that the co-efficient of the dif- 
ferential d x multiplied by a, plus that of d y 
multiplied by 6, shall be zz x y. This is one of 
the simplest of this kind of equations, and is 
called an equation of partial differences of the 
first order. One of the second order, is of the form 

d* ? J 2 - ,13 7 /7 3 - 

I U> Z |TD_ I _l_ - 

dx* axdy dx 3 dy 3 

-f- P o, is one of the third order. 

To give an idea of the nature and resolution 
of equations of partial differences, let us take one 

of the most simple, such as -7 zz P, where P 

is any function whatever of x, y, and constant 
quantities. It is required, therefore, to find a 
function z of x and y, which, differentiated ac- 
cording to y and divided by d y, shall be equal to 
the given function P. In order to this, multi- 
plying all by d y, we shall have dy zz P dy; 

whence it follows that P d y is only a part of the 
differential of z, namely that which is found by 

d 2 
making it vary as y : thus the integral of -j dy, 

which is 2 (since the preceding expression re- 
sulted from the differentiation), making it only 
vaiy as y will be equal to S. P d y plus, a func- 
tion which can only be in terms of x, and which, 
similar to the constant quantity added to every 
integral to render it complete, can only be de- 
termined b^y the conditions of _ the problem. 
Representing indefinitely this function of .r by F 
(j), we shall have z S. P d y + F (x). So 

likewise, if we had - zz P, we should find 'L 

S. P d x + F (y). 

We present an example : Let the equation be 

-j- zz a xy -f- y 3 ; we shall have evidently S. P dy zz 
-^--pi-; for in this expression we have only 

a .r i/' 

y -^+b 


y variable. Thus z will be zz 

-4 i 

+ F (*). Differencing this equation regard ing y 

d z 
only as variable, we shall have dy zz (axy -\- y 3 } 

d y zz P d y ; for F (x\ ought not by the nature 
of the question to give any differential, x being 
reputed constant with regard to y. 

We have, in this example, supposed z to be a 
function of only two variables, y and x ; but it 
might have been a function of three variables, 


and have one or two partial differentials. Then, whose relation is expressed by a determinate law 

and in the first case, the arbitrary function might we find what that function becomes when the 

bp a function of two other variables : thus, sup- law itself is supposed to experience any variation 

posin- 2 was a function of *, y, u, and that we had indefinitely small, occasioned by the variation of 

d z one or of several of the terms which express that 

only one of the partial differences of z, as , j aw< This calculus is almost the only means of 

the method of integrating would be the same; 
we should integrate only with regard to x, and 
the function to add would be a function oft/ and u, 
denoted by F (y, u). Finally, in the case where we 

d z d z 

resolving a multitude of problems de maximis et 
minimis, wherein the difficulty is fur greater than 
in such problems de maximis et minimis, as are 
the object of the ordinary differential or fluxionary 
calculus. Such, in this new order of difficulties, 

should have two partial differences, as j-^, 

of the three which would form the complete dif- 
ferential, we should have only to add a function 
of ?/, F (u), namely, that of the variable whose 

is the problem wherein it is required to ascertain 
the curve -which will conduct a falling body in 
virtue of its acceleration to a given point, right 
line, or curve, in the least time. 

In general every problem of this nature is re- 

partial difference is absent; and thus it would duced to finding the maximum or the minimum 

be with a greater number of variable quantities 
But, omitting more complicated examples, we 

of a formula such as S. Z d x, where Z is a func- 
tion of x, or of constant quantities, or of x and 

pass to the integral calculus of partial differences ; y t or o f X) ^ an d z, or of more variables : Z may 

even contain integrals, as S V, &c., or integrals 
of integrals, as S V S v, &c. ; and the methods of 
taking the variations of these expressions which 
constitute the rules of the calculus. See La- 
grange's Analytical Functions. Cousin, Bossut, 
and Lacroix, have likewise explained its princi- 
ples, and shown its applications, in their treatises 
on the Integral Calculus. 

CALCULUS TIBURTINUS, a sort of figured 
stone, found in great plenty about the cataracts 

which is the method of finding a function of 
several variables, when we know the relation of 
the differential co-efficients of the total differential. 
What we here call differential co-efficients, are 
the factors which affect the differentials d x, d y, 
d t, Sec. : these co-efficients may be denoted by 
d z d z d z 

p, q, r, &c. ; SO that p = ,, q = , r - ^ 

&c. : and if from hence we pass to the superior 

d d z dd z 

orders, we shall havep 1 , 2 -, </' rz: -7 5* r ' of the Anio, and other rivers in Italy ; of a 

white color, and in shape oblong, round, or 

d d z 

Sec. Thus, according to this manner of 

considering the calculus, it is required, having 
given the relation between p, q, r, &c., to deter- 
mine the function z ; or, otherwise, havinsr given 
the equation d z pdx + qdy + rdt, &c., 
and knowing the relation between p, </, and r, or 
between the differential co-efficients, and one or 
two of the variables x and y, the problem is re- 
duced to the finding of z. 

Let, therefore, the equation be d z~pd x -\- 

q d y (limiting ourselves here to a function of to the honor of this goddess, having long stood 
two variable quantities), and suppose th^ relation near the villages of Gobindpore and Chuttanutty. 

The situation, though very advantageous both 

echinated. These are a species of the strire la- 
pidea;, and so like sugar-plumbs, that it is a 
common jest at Rome to deceive the unex- 
perienced by serving them up at desserts. 

CALCUTTA, a city of Bengal, the capital of 
British India, and a bishop's see, stands upon 
the eastern bank of the river Bhagrarutti or 
Hooghly, about 100 miles from the Indian Ocean. 
It derives its name from Caly, the goddess of 
time according to the Hindoo mythology, and 
Cutta, a house or temple : a celebrated erection, 

between ;; and q to be thus expressed : 9 
ap + b, where and b are constant quantities ; 
the value of z is thus obtained. In the preceding 
equation, putting for q its value ap + b, we have 
dz~=.pd.t + (ap -\-b}dy; whencedz b dy=.p 
(d x -f- a d >/). But the first member of this equa- 
tion is integrable, and gives z b y ; the second 
ought therefore to be so, if the differential pro- 
posed has an integral : and that this may have 
place it is necessary that p be a function of x -j- 
a y ; whence it follows that the integral sought 
will be z b y F (x -f- a y). Thus, we may 
form a variety of suppositions of relations be- 
tween z, x, y and p, q, or of these latter between 
themselves and with the former; and there will 

for external and internal commerce, vessels of 
the largest size coming up from the sea, and the 
Ganges opening a communication with the most 
northern parts of Ilindostan, is considered un- 
healthy ; the country round being marshy, and 
extensive lakes, with an immense tract of jungle, 
coming up close to the town. The Sunderbunds, 
a collection of marshy jungles, though they 
have been reduced by recent improvements, are 
still very extensive, and generate in this hot 
climate those diseases against which few Euro- 
pean constitutions can long struggle. The ap- 
proach to Calcutta is very striking, at full tide 
the river is about a mile broad, and both banks 

result so many particular cases of equations of are lined with the villas of European residents, 
partial differences to integrate. Euler, in his The spires of the churches, temples and minarets, 
Integralis, has given complete instnic- the company's botanical gardens, and the citadel 

tions on this subject: the reader may likewise 
advantageously consult Traites du Calcul dif- 
ferentiel et du Calcul Integral du. M. Lacroix. 

The calculus of variations, suggested by La- 
grange, is that by which, having given an ex- 
pression or function of two or more variables 

of Fort William, combine in a magnificent 
coup d'o?il, and exhibit a first impression of the 
importance of the British possessions on this con- 
tinent highly interesting and striking. This 
capital extends in a very various breadth, about 
six miles along the river. Between the town 



and Fort William is a noble esplanade, on one 
side of which appear the best houses of Cal- 
cutta, in a line with the new government- 
house. This is an Ionic structure on a rustic 
base, the central is the state part of the building, 
which was erected during the government of the 
marquis Wellesley. On the north side there is 
a flight of steps, under which carriages drive to 
the entrance, and on the south a circular colon- 
nade, surmounted with a dome. The wings at 
the four corners contain the private apartments, 
and are connected together by well ventilated 
circular passages. The other public buildings 
are the town-house, the two English churches, 
the courts of justice, and the various places of 
native Portuguese, Armenian, Greek and Ca- 
tholic worship. The metropolitan, under the 
title of bishop of Calcutta, assisted by three 
archdeacons, has the superintendence of all the 
ecclesiastical affairs of India ; the other clergy 
are called chaplains, and are all considered as 
belonging to the military; except those who 
have charge of the two English churches. There 
is also a resident clergymen of the church of 
Scotland, and a church of that communion. 

The southern part of Calcutta is occupied al- 
most entirely by Europeans, who have adopted 
a style of building, at once magnificent in ap- 
pearance, and well adapted to the climate. Every 
house of respectability is detached, enclosed 
with walls, and fronted with an elegant veranda 
shading a flight of steps. The northern part, 
which contains perhaps three-fourths of the 
city, is chiefly inhabited by natives, and is of a 
totally, different appearance. The best houses 
are of brick, two stories high, and having ter- 
races on the roof, but the far greater part are 
mere mud or bamboo cottages ; the streets are 
narrow, crowded, unpaved, and filthy. The 
white ant commits great ravages in all parts of 
the town, and will sometimes wholly destroy the 
timbers of a house before any damage appears. 
Fires are also very frequent in the north part. 

What was once the village of Chouringhee, 
and a mere collection of native huts, is now a 
splendid suburb of Calcutta, extending into the 
country a considerable distance. The sides of 
the principal square are 500 yards in extent, 
the middle being occupied by a large tank. Here 
is the old fort and the custom-house, in front of 
which a handsome quay has been lately con- 
structed. In the back of this village is the 
burying-ground, no graves being allowed in the 

Fort William, the strongest fortress in India, 
stands about a quarter of a mile below the town. 
It is an octagon, not exact in its sides. Five of 
them next the land are regular, but the others 
being designed to guard against an attack by 
water, are accommodated to the bearing of the 
guns upon all objects in the river. The interior 
is very open and extensive ; presenting large 
grass-plats and gravel-walks, shaded by trees 
intermixed with piles of balls, shells, rows of 
cannon, and accommodated for 12 or 15,000 
men ; a house for the commandant, a cannon 
foundry, and an arsenal, well supplied with stores. 
The works are so contrived as scarcely to be 
seen on the land side, but on a very near approach. 

Upwards of twenty well furnished bazaars sup- 
ply the city with all the requisites of life, and the 
materials of a very lucrative and extensive com- 
merce with every part of the east. Vessels of all 
sizes, and to the amount of 50,000 tons burden, 
are often seen off the town : but the larger ships 
generally stop at Diamond harbour. There are 
several docks for building ships, and its com- 
merce amounts to nearly 10,000,000 per annum. 
The tables of all classes here are supplied with 
game, and those of the wealthy with abundance 
of plantains, pine-apples, melons, peaches, and 
oranges. In 1802 the population was computed 
at 600,000; a few years after, (including the 
suburbs), at 1,000,000, of which about one-half 
may be given to the city. And the surrounding 
districts were said, in the same year, to contain 
within a space of twenty miles 2,225,000, or 
more than 1760 persons to a square mile. In the 
town there are supposed to be about 80,000 
houses. In the year 1690 the English first 
founded a factory here, by virtue of a firman 
granted to them by the emperor Aurengzebe. 
In the year 1696, in consequence of a rebellion 
in Bengal, they were allowed to fortify it. This 
place is that called the Old Fort, and it is 210 
yards in length and about 115 in breadth; and 
consisting of a rampart and four bastions, with 
two gates. It contains all the company's store- 
houses, and a few dwelling-houses. In the year 
1698, the prince Azeen Ooshan, grandson of 
Aurungzebe, granted the Company a perpetual 
lease of the three villages before mentioned ; in 
the subsequent year, in compliment to king Wil- 
liam, the factory was dignified with the title of 
Fort William. It and the town continued to 
flourish till the year 1756, when it was taken by 
the nabob Suraja Dowlah, and the greater part 
of the garrison were suffocated in the infamous 
black hole, which is now used as a store room. 
The nabob now changed its name to Alynagur, 
but when it was retaken by lord Clive and admi- 
ral Watson, in 1757, its former title was restored. 
The new fort was begun in 1 758. Calcutta con- 
tains, besides the supreme court of justice, a court 
for the district of Calcutta, and a number of 
police magistrates to superintend the peace of the 
town. There are also courts of appeal from 
the Calcutta circuit, and from all the other courts 
of justice of Bengal and its dependencies. The 
natives out of Calcutta are tried by their own 
laws. Here are also a College, well endowed by 
government, and which cultivates any branch of 
oriental literature with great success ; an Asiatic 
Society, and other literary institutions ; a theatre, 
assembly rooms in abundance, &c. 

During the late war with France, the Euro- 
pean inhabitants were all embodied into a militia 
corps of infantry and cavalry, and formerly the 
city was nearly surrounded by a trench called 
the Mahratta ditch, but it has been for some time 
dry. Ascending the river from Calcutta we ar- 
rive at Barnagore, a village on the east bank, 
where the Dutch had formerly a fort. Serampore, 
on the right bank, ten miles above Calcutta, is a 
Danish settlement, consisting of a few factors' 
houses, and a native town, with a battery for 
saluting. Here are the chief establishments of 
the Bap'isi mission. Accounts are kept here in 




current rupees, an imaginary coin, annas and 
pici, twelve pici being one anna, and sixteen 
annas a rupee. 

In 1811-12, there arrived at Calcutta 

V&asels. Tonnage. 

193 under English colors . . . 78,504 

11 under Portuguese colors . . 4,180 

8 under American colors. . . 2,313 

389 under Indian colors, of all sizes 66.227 



The clearances out were about of similar 
amount. Calcutta stands in N. lat. 22 34 ., E. 
long. 88 28' 

CALCARIA JUDICIARIA, in our ancient bar- 
barous customs, the method of trial by boiling 
water. See ORDEAL. 

CALDARIUM, in the ancient baths, 1. A 
brazen vessel of hot water, placed in the hypo- 
caustum, to be drawn thence into the piscina or 
bath, to give it the proper heat: 2. A stove or 
sudatory, being a close vaulted room, wherein 
by hot dry fumes, without water, people were 
brought into a profuse perspiration. 

CALDERON (Don Pedro, De la Barca), a 
Spanish officer, who, after having signalised him- 
self in the military profession, quitted it for the 
ecclesiastical, and then commenced dramatic 
writer. His dramatic works make 1 7 vols. 
in 4to. Some Spanish writers have compared 
him to Shakspeare. He nourished about 1640. 

CALDERWOOD (David), a divine of the 
church of Scotland, and a distinguished writer 
in behalf of the Presbyterians. He was settled 
about 1604 at Crelling near Jedburg. Being 
desirous of bringing the church of Scotland 
nearer to a conformity with that of England, 
King James I. earnestly endeavoured to restore 
the episcopal authority, and enlarge the powers 
of the Scotch bishops. This was very warmly 
opposed by many of the ministers, particularly 
by Mr. Calderwood ; who, when James Law, 
bishop of Orkney, came to visit the presbyteries 
of Merse and Teviotdale, declined his jurisdic- 
tion, by a paper dated May 5th, 1608. In May, 
the next year, king James went to Scotland ; and 
on the 17th June held a parliament at Edin- 
burgh : when the clergy met in one of the chur- 
ches, to advise with the bishops. This assembly 
was contrived in order to resemble the English 
convocation. To this Mr. Calderwood ob- 
jected ; and on hearing of their intention to pass 
a bill, empowering James to alter the constitu- 
tions of the church, he, with several other 
ministers, protested, and said that they would 
rather submit to any penal law than obey such 
an authority. This protest was presented to the 
clerk register, who refused to read it before the 
states. However, though not read, it had its 
effect ; for although the bill had the consent of 
parliament, yet the king caused it to be laid 
aside, and not long after called a general assem- 
bly at St. Andrews. Soon after, the parliament 
was dissolved, and Mr. Calderwood was sum- 
moned to appear before the high commission 
court at St. Andrews, to answer for his mutinous 
and seditious behaviour. The king came to that 
city in person ; and Mr. Calderwood, refusing to 

comply with what the king in person required of 
him, was imprisoned. Afterwards the privy 
council ordered him to banish himself out of the 
king's dominions before Michaelmas, and not to 
return without licence. Having unsuccessfully 
applied to the king for a prorogation of his 
sentence, he retired to Holland, where, in 1623, 
he published his celebrated piece entitled Altare 
Damascenum, in which he attacks the church of 
England with great asperity. He returned home 
and remained some time in obscurity. During 
his retirement, he collected all the memorials 
relating to the ecclesiastical affairs of Scotland, 
from the beginning of the Reformation to the 
death of king James ; which collection is still 
preserved in the university library in Glasgow. 
In 1643 he was employed in drawing up the 
Porm of the Directory for the public Worship of 
God by the General Assembly. He died at Jed- 
burg about 1652. 

CAL'DRON, Lat. caldarium ; Fr. chaudron. 
A large pot or boiler. 

In the midst of all 

There placed was a caldron wide and tall. 
Upon a mighty furnace, Doming hot. 

Faerie Queene. 
Fire burn; and cauldron bubble. Shakspeare. 

And now about the cauldron sing 
Like elves and fairies in a ring. 
Enchanting all that you put in. Id. 

And the priest's custom was, that when any man 
offered sacrifice, the priest's servant came while the 
flesh was in seething, with a flesh-hook of three teeth 
in his hand : and he struck it into the pan, or kettle, 
or caldron, or pot, all that the flesh-hook brought up 
the priest took for himself. 1 Sam. ii. 14. 

Some strip the skin ; some portion out the spoil ; 
The limbs, yet trembling, in the caldrons boil j 
Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil. 

Dryden't JEneid. 

In the late eruptions, this great hollow was like a 
vast caldron, filled with glowing and melted matter, 
which, as it boiled over in any part, ran down the 
sides of the mountain. Addlson. 

CALDWALL (Richard), a learned English 
physician, born in Staffordshire, about 1513. 
He studied physic at Oxford ; and was examined, 
admitted into, and made censor of, the college 
of physicians at London, all in one day. Six 
weeks after he was chosen one of the elects ; and 
in 1570, president. He wrote several medical 
pieces, and translated a book on the art of 
surgery, written by one Horatio More, a Floren- 
tine physician. Camden says that Caldwall 
founded a chirurgical lecture in the college of 
physicians and endowed it with a handsome 
salary. He died in 1585. 

CALE, or KALE, a species of brassica. 

CALE (la), a French punishment, inflicted 
when a soldier, or sailor, maliciously wounds 
another. The offender is tied to the yard arm, 
suddenly plunged into the sea and then drawn 
up again, as often his offence merits. 

CALEB, in botany, a genus of the polygamia 
a?qualis order, and syngenesia class of plants ; 
natural order, forty-ninth, compositae. Receptacle 
paleaceous, the pappus hairy, calyx imbricated. 
There are eight species, natives of the West Indies. 

CALEB, the son of Jephunneh, of the tribe 


of Judah, one* of the twelve spies who were sent 
to view the land of Canaan, and the only one 
who joined with Joshua in giving a favorable 
report of it. His capture of Hebron, defeat of 
the Anakims, and portioning of his daughter 
Achsah, are recorded in Josh. xiv. 6. 15, xv. 13. 
19, and Judg. i. 9, 15. This hero had three sons 
and a numerous posterity. 

CALEDONIA, the ancient name of Scot- 
land. From Tacitus, Dio, and Solinus. we find 
that ancient Caledonia comprehended all that 
country lying north of the Forth and Clyde. 
In proportion as the Silures or Cimbri advanced 
toward the north, the Caledonians, being more 
circumscribed, were forced to emigrate into the 
islands on the western coasts of Scotland. It is 
in this period, probably, we ought to place the 
first great migration of the British Gael into 
Ireland; that kingdom being much nearer to 
Galloway and Cantire, than many of the Scottish 
isles are to the continent of North Britain. To 
the country which the Caledonians possessed, 
they gave the name of Cael-doch ; which is the 
only appellation the Scots, who speak the Gaelic 
language, know for their own division of Britain. 
Cael-doch is a compound of Gael or Gael, the 
first colony of the ancient Gauls who emigrated 
into Britain, and doch, a district or division. 
The Romans, by transposing the letter 1 in Gael, 
and by softening into a Latin termination the ch 
of doch, formed the well known name of Cale- 
donia. This appears to be a much more natural 
etymology than that of Camden, from the old 
British word kaled, hard, because the people 
were a hardy rustic race. See SCOTLAND. 

CALEDONIA, NEW, an island in the South Sea, 
discovered by Captain Cook, and next to New 
Holland and New Zealand, the largest that has 
been discovered in that sea. It extends from 
19 37' to 22 30' S. lat. and from 163 37' 
to 167 14' E. long. Its length from north- 
west to south-west is about eighty leagues ; but 
its greatest breadth does not exceed ten leagues. 
This island is diversified by hills and valleys, 
amongst which issue abundance of rivulets. 
Along its north-east shore the land is flat ; well 
watered, and cultivated; but the mountains and 
higher parts of the land are in general barren. 
The country in general bears a great resemblance 
to those parts of New South Wales, which lie 
under the same parallel. Its natural productions 
are also generally the same, and the woods are 
without underwood, as in that country. The 
whole coast is surrounded by reefs and shoals 
which render access to it dangerous ; but every 
part seems inhabited. The natives begin their 
cultivation by setting fire to the grass, &c. with 
which the ground is covered, but have no notion 
of preserving its vigor by manure ; they, how- 
ever, recruit it by letting- it lie for some years 
untouched. New Caledonia seems to differ "from 
all the other islands yet discovered in the South 
Sea, in being entirely destitute of volcanic pro- 
ductions. New species of several plants were 
found, particularly a new passion-flower ; and a 
few young bread-fruit trees not sufficiently 
grown to bear fruit; plantains and sugar-canes 
are' found here also in small quantity, and cocoa 
hut trees are small and thinly planted. Caputi 

or Melaleuca trees were also found in flower 
Mosqui*oes are very numerous. A great variety 
of birds were seen, for the most part entirely 
new ; particularly a beautiful species of parrot 
before unknown. A new species of fish, of the 
^renus tetraodon, was caught by captain Cook's 
people, and after some hesitation cooked and 
eaten. Its oiliness, happily, though it had no 
other bad taste, prevented them from taking 
above a morsel or two. In a few hours after 
they had retired to rest, they were awakened by 
alarming symptoms, being all seized with an 
extreme giddiness : their hands and feet benum- 
bed, so that they were scarcely able to move; 
and great languor and oppression Doming over 
them. Emetics were administered with some 
success, but sudorifics relieved them. But the 
effects of this poison did not go off entirely for 
six weeks. There are great numbers of turtles 
on this island. The houses are circular huts, 
something like a bee-hive, and full as close and 
warm ; they commonly erect two or three near 
each other under a cluster of lofty fig-trees, 
whose leaves are impervious to the sun. Their 
canoes are clumsy vessels, made of two trees 
hollowed out, having a raised gunnel about two 
inches high, and closed at each end with a bulk 
head of the same height ; so that the whole is 
like a long square trough, about three feet shorter 
than the body of the canoe. Two thus fitted are 
fastened to each other about three feet asunder, 
by means of cross spars, which project about a 
foot over each side. A deck is laid over them, 
made of plank and small round spars, on which 
they have a hearth, and generally a fire burning; 
they are navigated by one or two latteen sails, 
extended to a small latteen yard, the end of 
which is fixed to a notch in the deck. The inha- 
bitants are robust, in general well proportioned, 
and of honest dispositions. A few measured 
six feet four inches. Some wear their hair long 
and tie it up to the crown of their heads ; others 
suffer only a large lock to grow on eacli side, 
which they tie up in clubs; many others as well 
as all the women wear it cropt short. The men 
go almost entirely naked. The dress of the 
women who are of modest character, is a short 
petticoat or fringe, consisting of filaments or 
little cords, about eight inches long, fastened to 
a very long string, which they tie several times 
round their waist. The married women wear a 
black- and the unmarried a white petticoat. The 
general ornaments of both sexes are ear-rings, 
necklaces, amulets, and bracelets made of shells, 
stones, &c. Their fishing tackle they prize: 
above everything. Notwithstanding their inoffen- 
sive disposition, these islanders are well provided 
with clubs, spears, darts, and slings : their clubs 
are about two feet and a half long, and variously 
formed ; some like a scythe, others like a pick- 
axe ; some with a head like a hawk, others with 
round heads ; but all neatly made, and ornamen- 
ted. The slings are simple, but they form the 
stones into a shape something like an egg. 
They drive the dart by the assistance of short 
cords knobbed at one end and looped at the 
other, called by the seamen beckets. These 
contain a quantity of red wool taken from the 
gn;at Indian bat. Bows and arrows arc wholly 


unknown among them, and their language bears 
little affinity to that spoken in the other South 
Sea islands; their only musical instrument is 
a kind of whistle of brown wood, about two 
inches long. Many of them were observed to 
have their legs and arms much swelled with a 
kind of leprosy. Lieutenant Pickersgill was 
showed a chief whom they named Tea-beoma, 
and styled their arrekee or king ; but nothing 
further is known of their government, and no- 
thing at all of their religion. The French ex- 
pedition called here in 1793, and found the in- 
habitants much altered for the worse both in their 
manners and condition. Many groups of herds 
were deserted, and cultivated land abandoned : 
in 1774 it was supposed to have had 50,000 in- 
habitants, but seems at this last visit to have 
declined greatly. Long. 163 3; ' lat. 20 S. 

CALEDONICA, in ornithology, a species of 
ardea, the Caledonian night heron of Latham. 
The general color of the plumage is ferruginous 
arid white beneath : legs yellow ; crest on the back 
of the head of three feathers ; bill and frontlet 
black, eye-brows white, area of the eyes green. 

medicine, heating or warming medicines. 

CALEFACTION may be denned, the pro- 
duction of heat in a body from the action of fire, 
or that impulse impressed by a hot body on others 
around it. It is used in pharmacy, by way 
of distinction from coction, which implies 
boiling. Medicines of this kind diffuse a sen- 
sation of warmth by their immediate impression 
on the nerves, without any actual increase of the 
temperature ; they also tend to accelerate the 
circulation, and therefore to augment the actual 
heat. It has been ascertained that the animal 
temperature is generated by the chemical changes 
which take place in the blood in the course of 
circulation, in consequence of the absorption 
and evolution of different gaseous fluids. When- 
ever, therefore, the rapidity of the circulation at 
large is increased, by general stimulants ; or the 
vessels of any part are, by a local stimulas, ex- 
cited to greater action, and transmit a larger pro- 
portion of blood ; the evolution of heat will 
necessarily be augmented ; and there will be a 
sensation of warmth in the general system in all 
its parts. 

CALENBERG, a principality of Lower Sax- 
ony, one of the four divisions of Brunswick ; boun- 
ded on the north by the duchy of Verden, on the 
east by the principality of Zell, on the south by 

:i> CAL 

tbo^e of Grunenliagen and Wolfenbuttle, and on 
th? west by Westphalia. See BRUNSWICK. 

CALENBERG, a castle of Germany, in the 
principality seated on the river Leine, fifteen 
miles south of Hanover, and subject to the 
King of Hanover. Long. 9 43' E., lat. 52 20' N . 

CALENDAR, in astronomy and chronology. 
See CHRONOLOGY. The late revolutionary calen- 
dar of the French was a distribution of time 
entirely new, adopted by the Convention, soon 
after the abolition of royalty, in 1792; and still 
continued with little alteration until 1801. The 
year commenced at midnight, on the beginning 
of that day, on which the true autumnal equinox 
falls, by the observatory of Paris. It was divided 
into twelve equal months, of thirty days each ; 
after which five supplementary days were added, 
to complete the 365 days of the ordinary year. 
These five days did not belong to any month. 
They were first named sans-culottides, in honor 
of the sans-culottes, or inferior ranks of society ; 
but this name was changed soon after the revo- 
lution in July 1794. Each month was divided 
into three decades of ten days each ; distinguished 
by first, second, and third decade. The years 
that received an intercalary day, when the posi- 
tion of the equinox requires it, which we call em- 
bolismic, bissextile, or leap-years, the French 
called Olympic; and the period of four years, 
ending with an Olympic year, an olympiad. The 
intercalary day, on that occasion, was placed after 
the ordinary five supplementary days, and being 
the last day of the Olympic year, was dedicated to 
Olympic games to be celebrated in honor of the 
revolution; and to the renovation of the national 
oath, ' To live free or die.' The months had 
all new names expressive of their respective 
relations, either to the season of the year, the 
temperature of the air, or the state of the vege- 
tation. Each day from midnight to midnight, 
was divided into ten parts, each part into ten 
others, and so on to the last measurable portion 
of time. The days of the decade were denomina- 
ted from the first ten numbers, thus ; Primdi, 
Duodi, Tridi, Quatridi, Quintidi, Sextidi, Sep- 
tidi, Octidi, Nonidi, Decadi. In the almanac, 
or annual calendar, instead of the numerous 
names of saints, in the popish calendars, every 
day was inscribed with the name of some animal, 
utensil, work, fruit, flower, or vegetable, suited 
to the day or the season. As a curious relic of 
the revolution, and containing some improvements 
mixed with far more serious objections, we sub- 






Vintage month, 

< Brumaire, 

Fog month, 


Sleet month, 

f Nivose, 

Snow month, 

< Pluviose, 

Rainy month. 


Windy month. 

f Germinal, 

Bud month, 

< Floreal, 

Flower month, 

C Prairial, 

Pasture month, 

f Messidor, 
< Thermidor, 

Harvest month, 
Hot month, 
Fruit month, 

from Sept. 22. to Oct. 21. 

Oct. 22. 

Nov. 21 
Dec. 21. 

Jan. 20. 

Feb. 19. 

March 21 

April 20.- 

May 20. 

June 19. 

July 19. 

Aug. 19. 

Nov. 20. 
Dec. 20. 
Jan. 19. 
Feb. 18. 
March 20. 
April 19. 
May 19. 
June 18. 
July 18. 
Aug. 17. 
Sept. 16. 


Les Vertus, 
Le Genie, 
Le Travail, 



The Virtues, 



Sept. 17. 
Sept. 18. 
Sept. 19. 

CALENDAR OF PRISONERS, in law, a list of 
all the prisoners' names in the custody of each 
sheriff. See EXECUTION. 

retained much of the ceremony and wantonness 
of the calends of January, which for many ages 
was held a feast, and celebrated by the clergy 
with great indecencies, under the names of festum 
kalendarium, or hypodiaconorum, or stultorum, 
i. e. the feast of fools. The people met masked 
in the church, and in a ludicrous way proceeded 
to the election of a mock pope, who exercised a 
jurisdiction over them suited to the festivity of the 
occasion. Fathers, councils, and popes, long la- 
bored to restrain this licence, to little purpose. 
The feast of the calends was in being as low as 
the close of the fifteenth century. 

CAL'ENDER, v. & n. ) Lat. cylindrus ; Fr. 

CAL'ENDERER, n, > calandrer ; a hot press, 
an iron cylinder filled with hot coals. To ca- 
lender is, with this instrument to hot-press ; to 
dress cloth ; to lay the nap of cloth smooth. A 
calender is also a press in which clothiers smooth 
their cloth. 

CALENDER is a machine used for pressing 
silks, stuffs, calicoes, or linens ; to make them 
smooth, even, and glossy. It is also used for 
watering, or giving the waves to tabbies and 
mohairs. The word came into our language per- 
haps immediately from the French calandre, 
which is derived from the Latin cylindrus : be- 
cause the whole effect of the machine depends 
upon cylinders. 

These commonly consist of two large wooden 
rollers, round which the pieces are wound ; they 
are then put between two large, close, polished 
planks of wood, or plates of iron, the lower 
serving as a fixed base, and the upper being- 
movable, by means of a wheel like that of a 
crane, with a rope, fastened to a spindle, which 
makes its axis ; this upper part is of a prodigious 
weight, sometimes twenty or thirty thousand 
pounds. It is the weight of this part, together 
with its alternate motion, that gives the polish, 
and makes the waves on the stuffs, by causing the 
cylinders on which they are put to roll with great 
force over the lower board. The rollers are taken 
off, and put on again by inclining the machine. 
The French used formerly an extraordinary ma- 
chine, called the royal calender, made b*y order 
of M. Colbert ; the lower table or plank of which 
was made of a block of smooth marble, and the 
upper lined at bottom with a plate of polished 
copper. This was called the great calender, they 
have also a small one with tables of polished iron 
or steel. Calenders without wheels are some- 
times wrought by a horse harnessed to a wooden 
bar, which turns a large arbor placed upright ; 
at the top of which, on a kind of drum, is wound 
u. rope, the two ends of which, being fastened to 
the extremities of the upper plank of the engine, 
give it motion. But the horse calender is in lit- 
tle esteem. Worsteds are sometimes calendered 
in the thread. Domestically this operation is also 


Les Recom- 



Sept. 20. 
Sept. 21. 

known by the name of mangling ; and a section 
of the useful machine once so common in En- 
gland, is seen below. 

This is in fact merely a strone level table, with 
a stout cover, and made of well seasoned wood 
to prevent its casting. The cloth being smoothly 
spread upon it, the coffer A, which is placed 
upon two smoothly turned rollers of iron, is made 
to move alternately from one end of the table to 
the other, until the cloth is sufficiently smoothed, 
when a fresh portion is spread upon the table, 
and the operation repeated until the process is 
finished with the whole. The cloth may be very 
regularly and quickly drawn along the table, by 
unwinding it from a roller at one end, and 
winding it upon a similar roller at the other. If 
it be desirable occasionally to employ heat, it may 
be done by casting the iron rollers of the coffer, 
A, hollow, and filling the cavity with small cylin- 
ders of cast iron, previously heated. The motion 
is communicated to the coffer, A, by two belts, 
cords, or chains B, B, which, after passing over 
a pulley at either end of the table, are wound 
round the cylinder or barrel C. By turning a 
handle or winch, W, the barrel is moved round, 
and the motion communicated to the box in 
either direction. 

While the foregoing machine has been found 
very serviceable in large families, and will shorten 
the operation of ironing, as it is termed, by dis- 
posing quite as neatly of bed linen and large 
clothes ; for purposes of business, what has been 
called the five bowl calender is generally used. 
This machine is usually set in motion by a horse, 
or in large manufactories by water wheels, or the 
steam engine ; we give in our plate CALENDER- 
ING an elevation of it. Fig. 1 . is a front elevation. 
The frame work, A, consists of three strong pieces 
of hard wood, and sometimes of cast iron, two 
of them upright (made generally of 12-in. by 
6 stuff), and connected by a transverse piece at 
top equally stout, and perhaps by a cross rail 
below ; both being well secured by screw bolts, 
as upon them bears the whole stress of the ma- 
chine. What are called the bowls, or calenders, 
are placed one above the other between the top 
and the bottom. Of these the bowls marked e 
and i, are generally of the same diameter, and 
made of hard wood or iron. In working the 
machine, the whole five bowls are made to revolve 
on their respective axes, each moving in an in- 
verted direction to that next it, or with which it 




/-//</, . /'/////'.I-///-// ty TTiotnaSTn/fi. 7.'t,t'/t,-<i/'..-r,/,-^tfay / 



moves; and the revolutions are in an inverse 
ratio to the diameters, exposing an equal portion 
of the circumference of each to that of the other 
against which it presses. A belt passing over 
and turning the pullies at D, communicates the 
motion ; a pully being fast upon the axis of the 
main cylinder g. /'and h receive their motions 
by means of the wheels C C being worked with 
B, affixed to the axis of g e and i, by their regular 
friction upon /"and h. The cloth is placed first 
down the front of e, and behind f; then in front 
of g, and behind A, finally it comes out in front 
of i, and falls down on a clean board or into a 
box contrived to receive it. The folding it up 
smoothly and carefully, now prepares the cloth 
for pressing. This is generally done by placing 
a certain number of pieces between thin smooth 
boards of wood, and pieces of glazed pasteboard 
above and below every piece of cloth. For the 
common screw press, water presses on the prin- 
ciple of Mr. Bramah's forcing press have been 
lately introduced, and by this means, while the 
strength of a child is sufficient for the operation, 
its power may be rendered greater than almost 
any ordinary exertion of human force. Their 
successful operation, however, depending greatly 
upon local circumstances, they have not as yet 
superseded the common screw press in Glasgow 
and Manchester. See HYDRAULICS. 

f, and A, as we have said, are generally hard 
wood or cast iron cylinders, and the main cy- 
linder or bowlg, used formerly to be made of wood. 
But in Lancashire, what have been called paper 
bowls are now generally preferred. Its first cost is 
five or six times as great as that of a wooden 
one, but its advantage is, that it never warps or 
splits, and takes eventually a much smoother 
surface, while it presses better against every part 
of the cloth. The construction of the paper 
bowl is thus explained in Dr. Brewster's Ency- 
clopaedia. The axis of the cylinder is a square 
bar of malleable iron, of the proper length. 
Upon this is first put a strong round plate of cast 
iron, of the diameter intended for the cylinder 
when finished. A quantity of thick stout paste- 
board is then procured, and cut into round 
pieces, rather larger in the diameter than the 
iron plate. In the plates, and in every piece of 
the pasteboard, a square hole must be cut in the 
centre to receive the axis ; and the circle being 
divided into four or five equal parts, a hole must 
also be cut at each of the divisions, an inch or 
two within the rim. These pieces of pasteboard 
being successively put upon the axis, a long rod 
of malleable iron, with a head at one end, and 
screwed at the other, is also introduced through 
each of the holes near the rim, and this is con- 
tinued until a sufficient number are thus placed 
to form a cylinder of the length required, proper 
allowance being made for the compression which 
the pasteboard is afterwards to undergo. Another 
round plate is then put on, and nuts being put 
upon the screws, the whole are screwed tight, 
and a cylinder formed. The cylinder is now to 
be placed in a stove, exposed to a strong heat, 
and must be kept there for at least several days ; 
and, as the pasteboard shrinks by exposure to 
the heat, the screws must be frequently tightened 
until the whole mass has been compressed as 

much as possible. When the cylinder is thus 
brought to a sufficient degree of density, it is re- 
moved from the stove ; and, when allowed to 
cool, the expansion of the pasteboard forms a 
substance almost inconceivably dense and hard. 
Nothing now remains but to turn the cylinder, 
and this is an operation of no slight labor and 
patience. The motion in turning must be slow, 
not exceeding forty revolutions in a minute, and 
the substance is now so hard and tough, that 
tools of a very small size must be used to cut or 
scrape it until true.. Three men are generally 
employed for the turning, even when the motion 
of the cylinder is effected by mechanical power, 
two being necessary to sharpen tools for the third 
who turns, so quickly are they blunted. 

Tin's useful engine was first introduced into 
this country by the Hugonots, driven by perse- 
cution from France and Holland. Lawns and 
muslins being of light texture, require a machine 
of lighter power and pressure. This is repre- 
sented in our plate CALENDERING, fig. 2, and 
consists of three cylinders of equal diameters 
(generally about six inches), easily moved by 
a common winch or handle at F. The central 
cylinder is iron, and the others wood or paste- 
board. They are moved with equal velocities 
by the small wheels at E. The machine is always 
used cold. 

The GLAZING CALENDER, an improvement 
upon the common five-bowl calender for the 
purposes of glazing cloth, was first invented by 
the superintendent of Mr. Miller's works of 
Glasgow : a profile view and description of the 
machine are furnished in the Edinburgh En- 
cyclopaedia, whence we extract it. The machine 
is exhibited in fig. 3 of our plate. It consists of 
five bowls or cylinders, like the common calen- 
der, but instead of those bowls revolving with a 
velocity in the inverse ratio of their respective 
diameters, so as always to present an equal sur- 
face, and to act merely by their pressure against 
each other, the bowls or cylinders /'and A move 
with greater velocity than the bowls e,g, and i, 
and thus create or generate friction at three 
several parts of the operation. This difference 
is produced merely by the addition of a few 
wheels ; and the difference between the common 
and glazing calender will be seen at a single 
glance, by comparing the wheel work of figs. 1. 
and 3. In fig. 1 the motion of all the cylin- 
ders is in the inverse ratio of their diameters, so 
that each presents an equal surface. In fig. 3 
the motion, instead of being directly communi- 
cated from 9 to 7, as in fig. 1, is given by the 
intervention of two additional wheels. The in- 
crease of motion depending entirely on the 
relative number of the wheels B and C, on the 
axis of the cylinders 9 and 7 to each other (for 
the intermediate wheels E and F merely com- 
municate the motion without affecting the velo- 
city), 9 is made to revolve considerably quicker 
than in the common calender, and thus the ne- 
cessary friction is created. To reduce the glazing 
to the common calender, it is only necessary to 
remove the wheels E and F entirely, and to sub- 
stitute a larger wheel for the wheel B, which may 
be calculated to work directly into the wheel C. 
The profile view given in this figure affords 




opportunity also of showing the way in which 
the cloth is conducted from the table II over the 
roller I, through the calender, and received again 
at G. This is common to both calenders. A 
patent for Scotland was taken for the glazing 
calender ; and, upon a trial of some years, it has 
met with the entire approbation of those who 
have been in habits of having their goods glazed 
by it. As one machine, by being worked day 
and night, is capable of glazing nearly 1000 
pieces of cloth of twenty-eight yards each, in a 
week, it is peculiarly adapted for the occasional 
hurry to which shippers are sometimes unavoi- 
dably subjected. 

CALENDERS, a sect of dervises, or Mahomme- 
dan friars, the disciples of Santon Calender!. They 
are rather a sect of Epicureans than a society of 
religious. They honor a tavern as much as a 
mosque, and think they pay as acceptable worship 
to God by the free use of his creatures as others 
do by the greatest austerities and acts of devo- 
tion. They are called in Persia, and Arabia, 
Abdals or Abdallat, i.e. persons consecrated to the 
honor and service of God. Their garment is a 
single coat, of a variety of pieces, quilted like 
a rug. They preach in the market-places, 
and live upon what their auditors bestow upon 

CAL'ENDS, n. ") Lat. calendarium. An 
CAL'ENDAR, v. & n. > almanac, or yearly re- 
CALEN'DOGRAPHER. ^gister, in which the 
months and stated times are marked as festivals 
and holidays. The first days of the months 
were denominated kalends. The word means 
calling, or proclaiming, and was applied to these 
particular days, because on them it was declared, 
or announced, whether the nones of the months 
should be five or seven. To calendar, is to re- 
cord, or register. 

Twenty-five years have I but gone in travail 
Of you my sons ; nor till this present hour, 
My heavy burdens are delivered :' 
The duke my husband, and my children both, 
And you the calendar* of their nativity, 
Go to a gospel's feast, and go with me. 

Shahspeare. Comedy of Errors. 
What hath this day deserved ? what hath it done, 
That it in golden letter should be set 
Among the high tides, in the calendar? 

Shakspeare. King John. 

We compute from calendars differing from one 
another ; the compute of the one anticipating that of 
the other. Brown. 

Cursed be the day when first I did appear; 
Let it be blotted from the calendar, 
Lest it pollute the month ! Dryden's Pallet. 

Experienced men, inured to city ways, 
Heed not the calendar to count their days. Gay. 

CALENDS, in Roman antiquity. See KAL- 

CALENDS, GREEK, a proverbial expression 
among the Romans, adopted into most modern 
languages, signifying never, because the Greeks 
had no calends. 

CALENDULA, in botany, the marigold ; a 
genus of the polygamia necessaria order, and 
syngenesia class of plants ; natural order forty- 
ninth, composite The receptacle is naked; 

there is no pappus : CAL. polyphyllous and 
equal ; the seeds of the disk membranaceous. 
Of this there are twenty-five species ; natives of 
the Cape and South of Europe. They are so 
well known as to need no description except 
C.fructicosa, which some years ago was introduced 
from the Cape of Good Hope. It has a slender 
shrubby perennial stalk, rising to seven or eight 
feet, but requiring support : this sends out a 
great number of weak branches, from the bottom 
to the top, which hang downward unless sup- 
ported : they are garnished with oval leaves, 
having short flat foot-stalks, of a shining green 
color on their upper side, but pale underneath. 
The flowers come out at the end of the branches, 
on short naked foot-stalks. The flowers of the 
common marigold have been exhibited medici- 
nally : as aperients in uterine obstructions and 
icteric disorders, and as diaphoretics in exanthe- 
matous fevers. The leaves of the plant are sti- 
mulating, aperient, and antiscorbutic. 

CALEN.DULA, in ornithology, a species of the 
motacilla, found in Pennsylvania. The color is 
greenish ash, the crown having a deep yellow 
hue, and the abdomen and wings yellowish be- 
neath. This is the roitelet rubis of Buffon, the 
ruby crowned wren of Latham, and calendula 
Pennsylvanica of Brisson. 

CALENS, in entomology, a species of chrysis 
of a large size : color glossy blue ; abdomen 
golden ; tail blue and armed with four teeth. 
Found in Siberia. Also a species of cimex found 
in India. The head, thorax, and wing-cases, are 
black, scutel fulvous. 

CAL'ENTURE, Lat. caleo ; Span, calentar, 
calentura ; the word signifies to heat ; a fever. 
Dr. Johnson says, it is a disease peculiar to 
sailors in a hot climate, wherein they imagine 
the sea to be green fields, and will throw them- 
selves into it. This sense may be gathered from 
some of the following illustrations : 

Thus said the scark-tt whore to her gallant, 

Who strait designed his brother to supplant ; 

Fiends of ambition here his soul possessed , 

And thirst of empire calentured his breast. Marvcll. 

And for that lethargy there was no cure, 
But to be cast into a calenture. Denham. 

So, by a calenture misled, 

The mariner with rapture sees, 
On the smooth ocean's azure bed, 

Enamelled fields and verdant trees : 
With eager haste he longs to rove 

In that fantastic scene, and thinks 
It must be some enchanted grove ; 

And in he leaps, and down he sinks. 


CALENTURE, in medicine, is a disease more 
frequently mentioned by former than by any 
later writers of credit. Dr. Stubbs (Philosph. 
Transact. No. 36.) relates two cases which oc- 
curred during a voyage to Jamaica. They we-e 
accompanied with delirium, independent of 
fever, and produced by disorders in the stomach 
and bowels. The symptoms were therefore 
quickly removed by an emetic. The popular 
definition describes it as a distemper peculiar to 
seamen in hot climates, in which they imagine the 

CAL 33 


sea to be green fields and will throw themselves 
into it. Such is the common idea ; but it is 
most probable that the natural wish of a febrile 
delirium to cool the body, by leaping into water, 
has in this case been mistaken for the imagina- 
tion of green fields &c. in the sea. A calenture 
has been cured by vomiting, bleeding, a spare diet 
and the neutral salts ; a single vomit commonly 
removing the delirium, and the cooling medi- 
cines completing the cure. 

GALES, in ancient geography, a municipal 
city of some note in Campania near Casilinum. 

CALF', n. "| Teut. kable, kulbe ; Sax. 

CALVE', v. j cealf ; Swed. half; Arm. 

CALF'-LIKE, I kelve, apparently from Goth. 

CAL'VISH, f ko, a cow, and alf, progeny ; 

CALF'-HEAD, ala, afta, to bring forth. Mil- 

CALF'-SKIN. J ton uses the word in this 
general sense ; but its common acceptation is the 
young of a cow. The same word, differently 
derived, signifies the thick part of the leg. Goth, 
and Swed. kafle, is a round stump. 

I would they were barbarians, as they are, 
Though in Rome littered ; no Romans, as they are 

Though calved in the porch o' the' capitol. 


When she's calved, then set the dam aside, 
And for the tender progeny provide. Dryden. 

The colt hath about four years of growth ; and so 
the fawn, and so the calf. Bacon's Natural History. 
Acosta tells us of a fowl in Peru, called condore, 
which will kill and eat up a whole calf at a time. 


Ah, Blouzelind ! I love thee more by half 
Than does their fawns, or cows the new-fallen calf. 


The witless lamb may sport upon the plain, 
The frisking kid delight the gaping swain ; 
The wanton calf may skip with many a bound, 
And my cur, Tray, play deftest feats around ; 
But neither lamb, nor kid, nor calf, nor Tray, 
Dance like Buxoma on the first of May. Id. 

When waggish boys the stunted besom ply, 
To rid the slabby pavement ; pass not by 
Ere thou hast held their hands ; some heedless flirt 
Will overspread thy calves with spattering dirt. Id. 

CALF, in husbandry. A calf should be allowed 
to suck and follow its mother during the first six or 
eight days ; after this it begins to eat pretty well. 
But if the object be to have it quickly fattened for 
the market, a few raw eggs every day, with boiled 
milk, and a little bread, will make it excellent 
veal in four or five weeks. This applies only to 
such as are designed for the butcher. When in- 
tended to be brought up, they ought to have at 
least two months suck; as the longer they suck, 
the stronger and larger they grow. Those that 
are brought forth in April, May, or June, are the 
most proper for this; when calved later, they do 
not acquire sufficient strength to support them 
during the winter. There are two ways of breed- 
ing calves intended to be reared. The one is to 
let the calf run about with its dam all the year 
round; which is the method in the cheap breed- 
ing countries, and is generally allowed to make 
the best cattle. The other is to take them from 
the dam after they have sucked about a fortnight ; 
they are then to be taught to drink flat milk. 
VOL. V. 

which is to be made but just warm, it being very 
dangerous to give it them too hot. The best 
time of weaning calves is from January to May ; 
they should have milk for twelve weeks after; 
and a fortnight before that is left oif, water should 
be mixed with the milk in larger quantities. 
When they have been fed on milk for a month, 
little wisps of hay should be placed about them, 
in cleft sticks, to induce them to eat. In the 
beginning of April they should be turned out to 
grass ; only, for a few days, they should be taken 
in at night, and have milk and water, till they 
are so able to feed themselves that they do not 
regard it. The grass must not be too rank, but 
short and sweet, that they may like it, and yet 
get it with some labour. Calves should always 
be weaned at grass;' for if it be done with hay 
and water, they often grow big-bellied and rot. 
When those are selected which are to be kept as 
bulls, the rest should be gelded ; the sooner the 
better. Between ten and twenty days is the pro- 
per age. About London almost all the calves 
are fatted for the butcher, as there is a good mar- 
ket for them, and the lands are not so profitable 
to breed upon as in cheaper countries. The 
way to make calves fat and fine is to keep them 
very clean; give them fresh litter every day; and 
to hang a large chalk-stone, where they can easi- 
ly get at it to lick it, but out of the way of being 
fouled by the dung and urine. The coops are 
to be placed so as not to have too much sun, and 
so high above the ground that the urine may 
run off. Some bleed them once when they are 
a month old, and a second time before they kill 
them ; which greatly whitens the flesh; the bleed- 
ing is, by some, repeated oftener, but this is suf- 
ficient. Calves are very apt to be loose in their 
bowels; which wastes and very much injures 
them. The remedy is to give them, from a horn, 
chalk scraped among milk. If it does not suc- 
ceed, give them bole armoniac in large doses, 
and use the cold bath every morning. If a cow 
will not let a strange calf suck her, the common 
method is to rub both her nose and the calPs with 
a little brandy, which generally reconciles them. 

CALF, in zoology. See Bos. 

CALF, GOLDEN, an idol, set up and worshiped 
by the Israelites at the foot of mount Sinai. Our 
version makes Aaron fashion this calf with a 
graving tool after he had cast it in a mould : the 
Geneva translation makes him engrave it first, 
and cast it afterwards. Others, render the whole 
verse thus ; ' And Aaron received them (the 
golden earings), and tied them up in a bag, and 
got them cast into a molten calf;' which version 
is authorised by the different senses of the word 
tzur, which signifies to tie up or bind, as well as 
to shape or form ; and of the word cherret, which 
is used both for a graving tool and a bag. See 
AARON. This calf Moses is said to have burnt 
with fire, ground to powder, and strewed upon 
the water which the people were to drink. How 
this could be accomplished has been a question. 
Many have thought, that as gold is indestructible, 
it could only be burnt by the miraculous power 
of God; but M. Stahl conjectures, that Moses 
dissolved it by means of liver of sulphur. See 
CHEMISTRY, Index. M. Voltaire, in his Essay 
on Toleration (in other respects an excellent 


CAL 34 

work), argues much upon the impossibility of 
grinding to powder so ductile a metal as gold ; 
but any goldsmith could have informed him, that 
nothing is easier ; for the purest gold may at any 
time be made as brittle as glass, by mixing with 
it a small quantity of brass ; nay, such an antipa- 
thy exists between the two metals, that gold, in 
working, will often become quite unmalleable, 
by only accidentally touching a piece of brass, 
while it is warm. And if we suppose the Egyp- 
tian goldsmiths to have been as fond of profit, as 
the modern jewellers of Europe, it is probable 
they might have put brass pins (a practice now 
not uncommon) in the joints of the gold ear- 
nngs, which they had sold or lent to the Hebrew 
ladies; in which case, the whole mass being 
melted together, when the calf was made, Moses 
would require no miraculous power to enable 
him to grind it to powder; nor would he even 
need to throw in any additional quantity of brass, 
to render it brittle, when he burnt, or melted, it, 
(as perhaps the word should be rendered) 
with fire. 

CALF-SKIXS, in the leather manufacture, are 
prepared and dressed by the tanners, skinners, 
and curriers, who sell them for the use of shoe 
makers, sadlers, book-binders, and others, who 
employ them in their several manufactures. The 
English calf-skin is much valued abroad, and the 
sale of it very considerable in France and other 
countries; where attempts have been made to 
imitate it, but in vain; the smallness and weak- 
ness of the calves about Paris, which at fifteen 
days old are not so big as the English ones when 
newly calved, being an insurmountable obstacle. 
CALF AT, in ornithology, a species of embe- 
riza ; rather smaller than the common sparrow : 
color hoary; vinaceous beneath; head, throat, 
and margin of the tail, black; bill, legs, and 
orbits, red. This is le Calfat of Buffon, and the 
red eyed bunting of Latham; and is found at 

CAL'IBER,") ft. calibre; from Lat. cava- 

CAL'IVER, > libra; measure of a tube; but 

CAL'IBRE. j x^ a was an ' instrument for 

measuring. It signifies the bore of fire arms ; 

metaphorically applied to the quality, state, or 

degree ; the size or dimensions of intellect, worth, 

or estimation. 

They could not but be convinced, that declamations 
of this kind would rouse him ; that he must think, 
coming from men of their calibre, they were highly 

Dwrke. Appeal from the New to the Old Whigt. 

CALIBER, or CALIPER, properly denotes the 
diameter of any body ; thus we say, two columns 
of the same caliber; the caliber of a bullet, &c. 

or CALLIPERS, a sort of compasses made 'with 
arched legs, to take the diameter of round or 
swelling bodies. Caliber compasses are chiefly 
used by gunners, for taking the diameters of the 
parts of a piece of ordnance, or of bombs, bullets, 
&c. Their legs are therefore circular ; and move 
on an arch of brass, whereon is marked the inches 
and half inches, to show how far the points of 
the compasses are opened asunder. The gaugers,, sometimes use calibers, to embrace the two 


heads of any cask, in order to find its length. 
The calibers used by carpenters and joiners, are 
a piece of board, notched triangular wise in the 
middle, for taking measures. 

CALLIPERS, GUNNER'S, are instruments in 
which a right line is so divided as that the first part 
being equal to the diameter of an iron or leaden 
ball of one pound weight, the other parts are to 
the first as the diameters of balls of two, three, or 
four, &c. pounds are to the diameter of a ball of 
one pound. The caliber is used by engineers, 
from the weight of the ball given, to determine 
its diameter, or vice versa. The gunner's calli- 
pers consist of two thin plates of brass joined by 
a rivet, so as to move quite round each other : 
the length from the centre of the joint is between 
six inches and a foot, and the breadth from one to 
two inches; that of the most convenient size is 
about nine inches long. Many scales, tables, and 
proportions &c. .may be introduced on this instru- 
ment; but none are essential to it, except those 
for taking the caliber of shot and cannon, and for 
measuring the magnitude of salient and entering 
angles. The most complete and best sort of cal- 
lipers, however, usually contain the following 
articles, viz. first, the measure of convex diame- 
ters in inches, &c ; second, of concave diameters ; 
third, the weight of iron shot of given diameters; 
fourth, the weight of iron shot for given gun bores ; 
fifth, the degrees of a semicircle ; sixth, the pro- 
portion of troy and avoirdupois weight ; seventh, 
the proportion of English and French feet and 
pounds weight; eighth, factors used in circular 
and spherical figures; ninth, tables of the speci- 
fic gravities and weight of bodies; tenth, tables 
of the quantity of powder necessary for the proof 
and service of brass and iron guns; eleventh, 
rules for computing the number of shot or shells 
in a complete pile; twelfth, rules for the fall or 
descent of heavy bodies; thirteenth, rules for the 
raising of water; fourteenth, rules for firing artil- 
lery and mortars ; fifteenth, a line of inches ; six- 
teenth, logarithmetic scales of numbers, sines, 
versed sines, and tangents; seventeenth, a secto- 
ral line of equal parts, or the line of lines ; eigh- 
teenth, a sectoral line of planes and superficies ; 
and, nineteenth, a sectoral line of solids. See 

CAL'ICE, n. s. Lat. culix. A cup ; a chalice. 

There is a natural analogy between the ablution of 
the body and the purification of the soul ; between 
eating the holy bread and drinking the sacred calice, 
and a participation of the body and blood of Christ. 


CALICHON, an ancient instrument of the 
lute kind, mounted with five strings, tuned to the 
following ascending intervals : viz. G, first line 
bass, C F A and D following. 

CAL'ICO, J Fr. calicut. A kind 

CAL'ICO-PRINTER. J of cotton cloth, brought 
from Calicut, in Malabar. This cloth is deco- 
rated with various colors, forms, and figures, 
by a process of painting. 

If thou but please to walk into the Pawn 
To buy thee cambrick, calico, or lawn, 
If thou the whiteness of the same wouldst prove 
From thy far whiter hand pluck off thy glove ; 
And those which by as the beholders staud, 
Will take thy hand for lawn, lawn for thy hand. 

Dray ton. Edward IV. to Mrs. SJunc. 



I wear the hooped petticoat, and am all in calicoes 
what the finest are in silks. It is a dreadful thing to 
be poor and proud. Spectator, No. 292. 

As, suppose an ingenious gentleman should write 
a poem of advice to a callico-printcr : do you think 
there is a girl in England, that would wear any thing 
but the taking of Lisle, or the battle of Oudenarde ? 
They would certainly be all the fashion, till the 
heroes abroad had cut out some more patterns. I 
should fancy small skirmishes might do for under pet- 
ticoats, provided they had a siege for the upper. 

Tatler, No. 3. 

CALICO, a species of cloth of cotton thread, 
manufactured, formerly, at Calicut in the East 
Indies; but we have now in this country esta- 
blished manufactories which equal those in the 
east. It is said that in this business, and in the 
printing of calicoes, there are 250,000 persons 

CALICUT, or CALICODU, a town and district 
extending along the coast of Malabar, between 
the parallels of 10 and 12 N. lat., one of 
the principal residences of the Nairs, the Calicut 
rajah, or Zamorin of the Europeans, being 
one of their chiefs. lie is called by his own 
caste the Tamuri rajah. According to Dr. Bu- 
chanan, the origin of the name of this town and 
district is traced to Cheruman Permal, a usurper 
who lived 1000 years since, and who, having 
divided Malabar amongst his nobles, had no prin- 
cipality to bestow on the ancestor of the Tamuri 
(Zamorin). He therefore gave that chief his 
sword, with all the territory, in which a cock 
crowing at a small temple here could be heard ; 
hence these, his original dominions of the Tamu- 
ri, were called Calicodu, or cock crowing. The 
place continued to be the chief residence of the 
Tamuri Rajah until the Mahommedan invasion, 
and became a flourishing city, owing to the suc- 
cess that its lords had in war, and the encourage- 
ment which they gave to commerce. Tippoo 
destroyed the town and removed its inhabitants ; 
but, in little more than a year after, the English 
conquered the province, and the old inhabitants 
returned with joy and rebuilt the town. See 
Buchanan's Journey through Malabar. 

The males of the family of the rajah, are called 
Tamburans, and the females Tamburetties. Their 
offspring are generally the children of Namburis, 
or brahmins of high caste, and sometimes Nairs 
of the highest rank. Although these females are 
betrothed in infancy, and marry at the age of ten, 
they never cohabit with their husbands, which it 
is said would be esteemed a profanation ; but live 
in the houses of their mothers and brothers, 
at the expense of the husband, and adopting other 
men for their companions. No man thus knows 
his own father. This family pretends to far higher 
rank than the brahmins. In 1766, according 
to Mr. Hamilton, 'when Hyder invaded Mala- 
bar, the Cochin rajah quietly submitted to pay 
tribute ; while the pride of the Zamorin refused 
any kind of submission; and, after an unavailing 
resistance, being made prisoner, set fire to the 
house in which he was confined, and was burned 
with it. Several of his personal attendants, who 
were accidentally excluded when he shut the 
door, afterwards threw themselves into the flames 
and perished with their ma?!:er. ' The chiefs of 

Punatoor, Mannacollatil, Talapuli, Tirumana- 
chery, Agemcutil, and others, were at one time 
tributary to the Zamorin, and furnished quotas of 
troops to him in war. He is now entirely a sti- 
pendiary of the British government. 

The town of Calicut, the capital of the district, 
stands in lat. 11 18' N., long. 75 50' E., and 
contains perhaps, 5,000 houses. It is inhabited 
chiefly by Mopleys ; and is situated on a river 
navigable by boats 100 miles, by which a great 
quantity of teak timberis floated down for exports. 
It also exports areka, cocoa-nuts, pepper, ginger, 
turmeric, cardemums, coir, and charcoal of the 
cocoa-nut shell, remarkable for the intense heat it 
gives ; and manufactures piece goods. This port 
is the principal one of India visited by the Arabs 
of Muscat. Here Vasco de Gama freighted, in 1498, 
the first European vessel that ever sailed tor the 
west, with Indian commodities. The sea, however, 
has long since covered the ancient city, and at 
very low tides the tops of temples and minarets 
are said to be seen. The present town stands, 
low and unsheltered, on the sea shore. The 
streets are narrow, crowded with people, and dir- 
ty. Hyder AH took the town in 1773, and ex- 
pelled 'the merchants and factors, ordering the 
cocoa-nut trees and sandal wood to be destroyed, 
and the pepper vines to be rooted out. Tippoo 
Saib afterwards destroyed it more completely as 
we have seen. Yet it has since flourished under 
British domination and protection. It is distant 
seventy-six miles west of Coimbetore, and ninety- 
five south-west of Seringapatam. Long. 75 30' 
E., lat 1115'N. 


Ice will dissolve in any way of heat ; for it will 
dissolve with fire, it will colliquate iu water, or warm 
oil ; nor doth it only submit into an actual heat, but 
not endure the potential calidity of many waters. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

CALIDJE PLANTS, from calor, heat; plants 
that are natives of warm climates; such as those 
of the East Indies, South America, &c. These 
plants, says Linneeus, will bear a degree of heat 
which is 40, on a scale in which the freezing 
point is 0, and 100 the heat of boiling water. 
In the tenth degree of cold they cease to grow, 
lose their leaves, become barren, and perish. 

CALIDRIS, in ornithology, a species of sco- 
lopax; the red shank of Latham, totanuss of Bris- 
son, and rotbren of Frisch. The bill is straight 
and red; legs scarlet, secondary quill-feathers 
white. . Inhabits England and America. 

CALIDUCT, in antiquity, a kind of pipe, 
disposed along the walls of houses or apartments, 
for conveying heat to several remote parts of the 
house from one common furnace. 

CALIDUS, in entomology, a species of ci- 
mex, of a fuscous color above, and testaceous 
beneath; antennae black. Found in Africa. 

CA'LIF, n. s. f Arab, khalifa; an heir or 

CA'LIPH. $ successor. A title assumed 
by the successors of Mahomet among the Sara- 
cens, who were vested with absolute power iu 
affairs both religious and civil. Thomson says, 
it signifies a vicar, a lieutenant, one who holds 
the place of Mahomet. 


U 2 



CALIFORNIA, a considerable peninsula on 
the Pacific Ocean, united on the north to the 
continent of North America, from which the 
other part is separated by a narrow sea, called 
the Gulf of California, and bounded on the 
south and west by the Pacific Ocean, near 300 
leagues in length, and in different places ten, 
twenty, thirty, and forty leagues wide. It in- 
cludes a superficial area of above 9000 leagues. 
This peninsula is said to have been discovered 
by Sir Francis Drake, and by him called New 
Albion; and the Gulf of California has been 
sometimes called the Vermilion Sea, Purple Sea, 
and Red Sea. In a peninsula of so vast an ex- 
tent, which reaches nearly from the 23rd to the 
45th degree of latitude, the soil and climate 
must naturally be found to vary. Some parts 
ire continually covered with flowers, while 
others are inhospitable deserts. According to 
father Bergert de Schelestat, it is nothing but a 
chain of barren rocks, covered with briars, with- 
out water, without wood, thinly inhabited, and 
incapable of culture ; only the sea-coasts having 
been discovered till 1788. The heat would be 
insupportable, if not moderated in the afternoon 
by the east wind, which blows but seldom, or by 
the south, which is there more frequent. It rare- 
ly rains, and then only in small quantities. The 
soil is naked rock, or covered with pebbles, fertile 
in some few places which are watered. It seems 
to have been produced by a volcano or an earth- 
quake ; few fruit trees are found, some forest trees 
and underwood, towards the south, are all that 
offer; Indian figs grow wild. Such was the 
account given ; but later observations and disco- 
veries have explored places, particularly in the 
northern division of this peninsula, where the 
soil is excellent, and capable of culture ; and it 
is reported, that vines grow naturally on the 
mountains ; that the Jesuits, when they resided 
there, made wine enough to serve for the con- 
sumption of Mexico, of an excellent quality, and 
in its taste approaching to that of Madeira. 
Here also grain of every kind is said to flourish 
well : together with all the roots and fruits of the 
tropics and such as have been imported for Spain. 
Fish, game, hares, and rabbits, are very common, 
and the most enchanting birds. Small gray 
well flavored partridges feed in companies of 
three or four hundred in the thickets. In the 
forests are found gigantic stags, in flocks of forty 
or fifty at a time. They are brown, with large 
branches nearly four feet and a-half long, and 
considered among the most beautiful amimals of 
America. Sebastian Viscaino asserts that he saw 
some whose branches were nearly nine feet in 
length. They are very fleet, and can scarcely be 
taken, except by artifice. Perouse saw them taken 
in this way : A stag's head was fixed with its long 
branches upon an Indian's head, who, armed with 
a bow and arrows, crept on all fours among the 
brushwood and long grass, imitating the motion 
of a stag when feeding. He thus drew around 
him the unsuspecting herd, and then shot among 
them with fine effect. 

Latterly horses, cattle, sheep, and other do- 
mestic animals, have greatly increased here. The 
coasts furnish great quantities of fish ; and in the 
southern part of the peninsula, the pearl oyster 

has been an article of flourishing commerce to 
the colonists. It seems also, from M. Humboldt, 
that the Indian population had considerably in- 
creased in California just before his visit. He 
says it had more than doubled within the twelve 
preceding years. Here are eighteeen Spanish 
missions, founded between the years 1769 and 
1798, and containing together apopulation of from 
15 to 17,000 souls. The residence of the governor 
of the Californias is at Monterey. He has a 
salary of 4000 piasters ; but his authority is not 
allowed to interfere with the affairs of the mis- 
sions ; except to grant assistance when they 
require it. His real subjects, therefore, are only 
about 400 military, distributed in the different 
presidios, and which keep in subjection about 
50,000 wandering Indians. Every parish is 
governed by two missionaries, whose authority 
over the converted Indians is absolute ; and the 
domestic economy of each mission differs little 
from that of a West India plantation. ' The 
men and women,' according to Perouse, ' are 
assembled by the sound of a bell ; one of the 
priests conducts them to their work, to church, 
and to all their other exercises.' Pearl oysters are 
found on the coast of Old California, and have 
been, during two centuries, a great inducement 
to adventurers to visit that barren region. The 
oysters are most abundant in the southern partj 
particularly round the islands of Santa Cruz, San 
Josef, and the bay of Ceralvo. They lie in great 
numbers on the banks which are called hostias, 
in three or four fathoms water ; and may be seen 
as plainly as if on the surface of the water. The 
pearls are large and beautiful, but of an irregular 
figure ; but this fishery has of late years mucr 
. declined. 

The native tribes that inhabit the country ac- 
knowledge few regular chiefs. Each father is a 
prince in his own family, but his power ceases wlun 
the children are able to provide for themselves. 
Each tribe has, nevertheless, sometimes persons 
appointed, who call assemblies to divide the pro- 
ductions of the earth, regulate the fisheries, and 
to march at their head, if engaged in war. They 
owe their rank to the choice of their companions, 
but they are agents only, not princes. The shade 
of a tree serves them as a retreat during the day, 
and in the night they retire to their huts, built 
on piles at the side of rivers or ponds. Want 
of provision obliges them often to change their 
abode, and in severe winters they retire into caves. 
A girdle and piece of linen, which passes round 
the body, some ornaments for the head, and a 
chain of pearls, serve them for dress and finery; 
some insert colored feathers in holes, which they 
make in their ears and nostrils ; some bind their 
forehead with bands, like net-work, with which 
too they cover their arms, adorned with chains 
of pearls like bracelets. Those who live towards 
the north, where they have no pearls, dress their 
heads with shells. The women commonly wear 
a species of long robe, made of the leaves of 
palms \ some wear nothing but a girdle. These 
palm-leaves are woven with art, and dyed of 
different colors ; and of them they make baskets, 
which hold their roots and provisions. 

or VERMILION SEA, formed by the peninsula of 

CAL 37 

Ca.ifornia on the west, and the continent on the 
east, is 300 leagues long, and fifty to twenty 
broad. The chief knowledge we have of it is, 
that the east coast is high and broken, lined with 
shoals, to the latitude of 27^. The only 
places on the coast (the intendance of Sonoro) 
are the port of Guitivas, at the mouth of the 
considerable river Mayo ; and that of Guayma 
at the mouth of the Yaqui. This last is sur- 
rounded by elevated hills, and before the entrance 
is Pelican Island, which is left on the right hand 
in entering. Ships anchor in five fathoms. The 
small Spanish village is ten miles up the river. 
The Colorado, a considerable river, falls into the 
head of this gulf. The bay of Monterey, the 
best on the coast of New California, is very in- 
different ; it is limited by Point Pinos (fir tree) 
on the south, and point Anno Nueva on the north, 
distant seven leagues. The whole is bordered 
by a sandy beach, but entirely exposed, except 
round Point Pinos, where is a cove, in which a few 
ships may lie, and this is properly the port of 
Monterey. The river of that name is an insig- 
nificant stream, four leagues north-east of the 
bay. San Francisco, the most northern of the 
ports of the Spanish missions, is an excellent 
harbour, entirely between two low points which 
expand into a noble basin. On the south shore 
is the Presidio, and a fort garrisoned by thirty- 
five men, and a lieutenant of artillery. Sir Fran- 
cis Drake's Bay is four leagues north of San Fran- 
cisco, open to the south and south-east, but 
affording good anchorage on the south shore. 
It receives a river, whose mouth is crossed by a 
bar, with a surf that renders its entrance dange- 
rous. Port de la Podega is seven leagues north 
of Sir Francis Drake's Bay. Cape Mendocino is 
a promontory, with two elevated points, ten miles 
asunder, the southernmost resembling Dunnose, 
on the Isle of Wight. Twenty leagues farther 
north is Port Trinidad, an open bay, but which 
receives a river that may be entered 'by boats, 
and wood and water are abundant. Cape Blanco, 
named Cape Orford by Vancouver, is a low 
point, covered to the water's edge with wood. 

CALIG7E, in Roman antiquity, soldiers shoes, 
made like sandals, without upper leather to cover 
the superior part of the foot, though otherwise 
reaching to the middle of the leg, and fastened 
with thongs. The sole of the caliga was of wood, 
like the sabot of the French peasants, and its 
bottom stuck full of nails. From these caligse 
the emperor Caligula took his name, as having 
been born in the army, and afterwards bred up in 
the habit of a soldier. According to Du Cange, 
a sort of caligas was also worn by monks and 
bishops, when they celebrated mass pontifically. 

CALIGATI, an appellation applied by some 
ancient writers to the common soldiers in the 
Roman armies, from the caligae which they wore. 

CALIGATION, . ^ Lat. caliga,' dark- 

CALIG'INOUS, adj. > ness, obscurity, cloudi- 

CALIG'INOUSNF.SS, n. j ness; dim. 

Instead of a diminution, or imperfect vision, in the 
mole, we affirm an abolition, or total privation ; in- 
stead of caligation or dimness, we conclude a cecity or 
blindness. Brown. 

CALIGO, or CALIGATIO, in medicine, cloudi- 
ness, dimness, or suffusion of sight, caused by 

the interposition of some opaque substance be- 
tween the light and the optic netve. The species 
of caligo are distinguished according to the situa- 
tion of the interposed body : thus caligo lentis, 
caligo corneas, caligo pupillae, caligo humorum, 
and caligo palpebrarum. 

CAL'IGRAPHY, orl From Ka \o s , beau- 
CAL'LIGRAPHY, n. ? tiful, and ypa^w, to 
CAL'LIGRAPHIC. 5 grave or write. Beau- 
tiful writing. See CALLIGRAPHY. 

This language is incapable of caligraphy. 


The minutes of acts, &c. were always taken in a 
kind of cypher, or short-hand ; such as the notes of 
Tyro in Gruter : by which means, the notaries were 
enabled to keep pace with a speaker, or person who 
dictated. These notes, being understood by few, 
were copied over fair, and at length, by persons who 
had a good hand, for sale, &c. and these were called 
calligraphy. Dr. A. Rees. 

CALIGULA, the Roman emperor and tyrant, 
began his reign A. D. 37, with every promising 
appearance of becoming the real father of his 
people; but at the end of eight months he was 
seized with a fever, which, it is thought, left a 
frenzy on his mind : for his disposition totally 
changed, and he committed the most atrocious 
acts of impiety, cruelty, and folly; such as pro- 
claiming his horse consul, feeding it at his table, 
introducing it to the temple in the vestments of 
the priests of Jupiter, &c. and causing sacrifices 
to be offered to himself, his wife, and the horse. 
After having murdered many of his subjects with 
his own hands, and caused others to be put to 
death without any just cause, he was assassinated 
by a tribune of the people as he came out of the 
amphitheatre, A. D. 41, in the twenty-ninth year 
of his age, and the fourth of his reign. See 

CALIN, a compound metal, whereof the 
Chinese make tea canisters, and the like. The 
ingredients seem to be lead and tin. 

CALIPH. Arab, khalifa, an heir or successor. 
A title assumed by the successors of Mahomet 
among the Saracens, who were vested with ab- 
solute power in affairs both religious and civil. 

CALIPPIC PERIOD, in chronology, a series 
of seventy-six years, perpetually recurring, at 
every repetition of which it was supposed by its 
inventor Calippus, an Athenian, the mean, new, 
and full moons, would return to the same day 
and hour of the solar year. Meton, 100 years 
before, had invented the period or cycle, of nine- 
teen years ; assuming the quantity of the solar 
year 365d. 6h. 18' 56" 50 3 31 4 34 s ; and the lunar 
month, 29d. 12A. 45' 47" 26 3 48 4 30 5 : but Calip- 
pus, considering that the Metonic quantity of the 
solar year was not exact, multiplied Melon's pe- 
riod by four, and thence arose a period of seventy- 
six years, called the Calippic. The Calippic 
period, therefore, contains 27,559 days : and 
since the lunar cycle contains 235 luna- 
tions, and the Calippic period is quadruple of 
this, it contains 940 lunations. This period 
began in the third year of the 112th Olympiad, 
or the 4,384th of the Julian period It is demon 




strated, nowever, that the Calippic period itself is 
not accurate ; tlmt is does not bring the new and 
full moons precisely to their places : 8/t. 5' 52* 
60" being the excess of 940 lunations above 
seventy-six solar years ; but brings them too 
late, by a whole day in 225 years. 

CALISTE, in conchology, a species of Venus, 
set with transverse acute striae, membraneous in 
front, the anterior slope short, and the posterior 
aperture obscure. Found on the shores of the 
Red Sea. 


CALIXTINS, a name given to those, among 
the Lutherans, who follow the sentiments of Ca- 
lixtus. See CALIXTUS. Also a sect in Bohemia, 
derived from the Hussites, about the middle of 
the fifteenth century, who asserted the use of the 
cup, as essential to the eucharist. They are not 
ranked by Romanists in the list of heretics, as in 
the main they still adhered to the doctrine of 
Rome. The reformation they aimed at extended 
only to four articles : 1. To restore the cup to the 
laity. 2. To subject criminal clergymen to pu- 
nishment by the civil magistrate. 3. To strip the 
clergy of their lands, lordships, and all temporal 
jurisdictions. 4. To grant liberty to all capable 
priests to preach the word of God. 

CALIXTUS (George), a celebrated divine, 
and professor at Helmstadt, in the Duchy of 
Brunswick, who died in 1656. He opposed the 
opinion of St. Augustin, on predestination, and 
endeavoured to form a union among the various 
members of the Romish, Lutheran, and reformed 

CALK', v. ~\ Fr.caZrtge.salcum or tow; 




ten ; Fr. calfater ; Hind, kalaputta ; Ara. kalaf'a, 
kilufat ; icaXjj^artje, are used in the sense of our 
word. To stop the seams of a ship ; to cram or 
stuff in materials to keep out the water from 
leaks and chasms, made by violence or accident. 
Calking is used in a more general sense : Cham- 
bers says, it is a term in painting, used where 
the backside is covered with black lead, or red 
chalk, and the lines traced through on a waxed 
plate, wall, or other matter, by passing lightly 
over each stroke of the design with a point, 
which leaves an impression of the color on the 
plate or wall. 

Thy riches, and thy fairs, thy merchandise, thy 
martners, and thy pilots, thy calhers, and the occu- 
piers of thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, 
that are in thee, and in all thy company which is in 
the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the 
seas in the days of thy ruin. 

Ezehicl xxvii. 27. 

There is a great errour committed in the manner of 
calking his majesty's ships ; which, being done with 
rotten oakum, is the cause they are leaky. 

Raleigh's Essays. 

So hero some pick out bullets from the side ; 
Some drive old oakum through each seam and rift j 

Their left hand does the calking iron guide, 
The rattling mallet with the right they lift. Dryden. 

CALKING, a term in painting. See the pre- 
ceding article. 


CALK', v. ~\ Fr.caZflge.salcum or tow; 
CALK'ER, n. f or Sax. c&le, the keel of a 
CA LK'ING, ? ship ; but Swed. kullfattra ; 

CALK'ING-IRON. * Dan. kalfatre ; Bel. kalfa- 

CALKING, in maritime affairs. See CAULKING. 

CALKINS, the prominent parts at the ex- 
tremities of a horse-shoe, bent downwards, and 
forged to a sort of point. They are apt to make 
horses trip; they also occasion bleymes, and ruin 
the back sinews. If fashioned in form of a hare's 
ear, and the horn of a horse's heel be pared a 
little low, they do little damage; whereas, the 
great square calkins spoil the foot. Calkins are 
either single or double, that is, at one end of the 
shoe, or at both : these last are deemed less hurt- 
ful, as the horses can tread more even. 

CALL', v. & n. ^ KaXtw ; Lat. calo ; Welsh 

CALL'ER, n. > and Aim.galw ; Goth, kalla ; 

CALL'ING, n. 3 Swed. kala; Teut. and Belg. 
kallen ; Heb. kol ; Ara. gal, the voice. To name ; 
to speak aloud ; to invite ; to mark, signify, or 
denote. Its religious sense ot ilmne vocation, 
(for which see below) has but too often been 
used lightly, by both religious and irreligious 
men. As used alone with prepositions an- 
nexed, and in all the different shades of its 
acceptations, it is thus exhibited by Dr. John- 
son. We shall, however, a little vary his 

To name ; to denominate. 

And God called the light day, and the darkness he 
called night. Genesis i. 5. 

Whilst on her father's knee the damsel played, 
Patty he fondly called the smiling maid. Gay. 

And what they call the prudent part 
Is to wear interest next the heart. Id. 

To summon, or invite, to or from any place, 
thing, or person. It is often used with local 
particles, as up, down, in, out, off. 

Of all the day she saw him not with eye ; 
She trowed he was in som maladio, 
For, for no crie, hire maiden coud him calle, 
He n'olde answer for nothing that might fallc. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

Wherein his weaker wandering steps to guyde, 
An auncient matrone she to her does call, 
Whose sober lookes her wisdome well descryde 
Her name was Mercy ; well known over all 
To be both gratious and eke liberall. Spenser. 

Be not amazed ; call all your senses to you ; de- 
fend my reputation, or bid farewell to your good life 
for ever. Shahspeare. 

Why came not the slave back to me when I called 
him. Id. King Lear, 

Are you called forth from out a world of men, 
To slay the innocent ? Id. Richard III. 

The soul makes use of her memory, to call to mind 
what she is to treat of. Duppa's Rules to Devotion. 

Or call up him that left half told 
The story of Cambuscan bold. Milton. 

Such fine employments our whole days divide ; 
The salutations of the morning tide. 

Call up the sun ; those ended, to the hall 
We wait the patron, hear the lawyers bawl. Dryden. 
Then by consent abstain from further toils, 

Call off the dogs, and gather up the spoils. Addison. 

I am called off from public dissertations, by a do- 
mestic affair of great importance. Taller. 

The passions call away the thoughts, with incessant 
importunity, toward the object that incited them. 


CAL 39 

Up springs the lark 

Shrill voiced and loud, the messenger of morn ; 
Ere yet the shadows fly, he mounted sings 
Amid the dawning clouds, and from their haunU 
Calls up the tuneful nations. 

Thornton's Seasons. Spring. 

A stag sprang from the pasture at his call, 
A ud kneeling licked the withered hand that tied 
A wreath of woodbine round his antlers tall, 
And hung his lofty neck with many a flowret small. 


To convoke ; to summon together. 

How call we our high court of parliament. 


The king being informed of much that had passed 
that night, sent to the lord mayor to call a common 
council immediately. Clarendon. 

To summon judicially. 

The king had sent for the earl to return home, 
where he should be called to account for all his mis- 
carriages. Id. 

Once a day, especially in the' early years of life 
and study, call yourselves to an account, what new 
ideas, what new proposition or truth, you have gained. 


To summon by command. 

In that day did the Lord God of hosts call to weep- 
ing and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding 
with sackcloth. Isaiah xxii. 12. 

Shall we call in the ambassador, my liefce ? 


See thy Mother is near 
Hark ! she calls thee to hear, 
What age and experience advise. Guy. 

To invoke. 

I call God for a record upon my soul, that, to spare 
you, I came not as yet unto Corinth. 

2 Corinthians, i. 23. 

To appeal to. 

When that lord perplexed their counsels and de- 
signs with inconvenient objections in law, the autho- 
rity of the lord Manchester, who had trod the same 
paths, was still called upon. Clarendon. 

To proclaim ; to publish. 

Nor ballad singer, placed above the crowd, 
Sings -with a note so shrilling, sweet, and loud, 
Nor parish clerk, who calls the psalm, so clear. 


To answer ; to reply or echo back. 
Or from the mountain-glade's aerial brow, 
While to her song a thousand echoes call, 
Marks the wild woodland wave below, 
Where shepherds pipe unseen, and waters fall. 


To excite; to put in action; to bring into 

He swells with angry pride, 
And calls forth all his spots on every side. 


See Dionysius Homer's thoughts refine, 
And call new beauties forth from every line. Pope. 

To stigmatise with some opprobrious denomi-, 

Deafness unqualifies men for all company, except 
friends j whom I can call names, if they do not speak 
loud enough. Swift to Pope. 


To call back ; to revoke ; to retract. 

He also is wise, and will bring evil, and will not 
call buck his words ; but will arise against the house 
of the evil doers ; and against the help of them that 
work iniquity. Isaiah xxxi. 2. 

To call for ; to demand ; to require ; to claim. 

Madam, his majesty doth call for you, 
And for your grace, and you, my noble lord. 


You see how men of merit are sought after ; the 
undeserver may sleep, when the man of action is 
calledfor. Id. 

Among them he a spirit of phrensy sent, 
Who hurt their minds, 
And urged you on, with mad desire, 
To call in haste for their destroyer. 

Milton's Sampson Agonislc's. 
For master, or for servant here to call, 
Was all alike, where only two were all. 

Dryden's Fabks. 

I have been accustomed to entwine 
My thoughts with Nature rather in the fields, 
Than Art in galleries ; though a work divine 
Calls for my spirit's homage, yet it yields 
Less than it feels j because the weapon which it 

Is of another temper. Byron's Childe Harold. 

To call in ; to resume money at interest. 

Horace describes an old usurer, as so charmed with 
the pleasures of a country life, that, in order to make 
a purchase, he called in all his money ; but what was 
the event of it? why, in a very few days after, he 
put it out again. Addison's Spectator. 

To call in; to resume any thing that is in other 

If clipped money be called in all at once, and stop- 
ped from passing by weight, I fear it will stop trade. 


Neither is any thing more cruel and oppressive in 
the French government, than their practice of calling 
in their money, after they have sunk it very low, and 
then coining it anew, at a higher value. Swift, 

To call in ; to summon together ; to invite. 

The heat is past, follow no farther now ; 
Call in the powers, good cousin Westmoreland. 


He fears my subjects loyalty, 
And now must call in strangers. 

Denham's Sophy. 

To call over ; to read aloud a list or muster- 

To call out; to challenge; to summon to 

When their sovereign's quarrel calls' em oat 
His foes to mortal combat they defy. 

Dryden'i Virgil. 

The verb used in the neutral sense signifies to 
stop without intention of staying. . This meaning 
probably arose from the custom of denoting one's 
presence at the door by a -call ; but it is now 
used with great latitude. This sense is well 
enough preserved by the particles on or at ; but 
is forgotten, and the expression made barbarous 
by in. 

To make a short visit. 
And, as you go, call on my brother Quintus, 
And pray him, with the tribunes, to come to me. 

Ben Jonao*. 



He ordered her to call at his house once a week, 
which she did for some time after, when he heard no 
more of her. Temple. 

That I might begin as near the fountain-head as 
possible, I first of all called in at St. James's. 

Addison's Spectator. 

To call on ; to solicit for a favor, or a debt. ' 

I would be lotii to pay him before his day ; what 
need I be so forward with him, that calls not on me ? 
Shakspeare. Henry IV. 

To call on ; to repeat solemnly. 

Thrice call upon my name ; thrice beat your breast ; 
And hail me thrice to everlasting rest. Dryden, 

The Athenians, when they lost any men at sea, 
went to the shores, and, catting thrice on their name, 
raised a cenotaph, or empty monument, to their me- 
mories. Broome on the Odyssey. 

To call upon ; to implore ; to pray to. 

Call upon me in the day of trouble ; I will deliver 
thee, and thou shalt glorify me. Psalm i. 15. 

The neuter substantive from the verb has also 
a diversity of acceptations, as will be obvious 
from the subjoined instances. 

A vocal address of summons or invitation. 

But death comes not at call, justice divine 
Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries. 


But would you sing, and rival Orpheus' strain, 
The wondering forest soon should dance again : 
The moving mountains hear the powerfull call, 
And headlong streams hang listening in their fall. 


A requisition authoritative and public. 

It may be feared, whether our nobility would con- 
tentedly suffer themselves to be always at the call, 
and to stand to the sentence, of a number of mean 
persons. Hooker's Preface. 

Divine vocation; summons to true religion. 

Yet he at length, time to himself best known, 
Remembering Abraham, by some wonderous cart, 
May bring them back repentant and sincere. Milton. 

A summons from heaven ; an impulse. 

How justly then will impious mortals fall, 
Whose pride would soar to heaven without a cull I 

Those who to empire by dark paths aspi - 
Still plead a call to what they most desire. 


St. Paul himself believed he did well, and that he 
had a call to it, when he persecuted the Christians, 
whom he confidently thought in the wrong : but yet 
it was he, and not they, who were mistaken. Locke. 

Authority; command. 

Oh, Sir ! I wish he were within my call, or yours. 

A demand ; a claim. 

Dependence is a perpetual call upon humanity, and 
a greater incitement to tenderness and pity, than any 
other motive whatsoever. Addison's Spectator. 

An instrument to call birds. 

For those birds or beasts were made from such 
pipes or call*, as may express the several tones of 
those creatures, which are represented. 

Wilhim' Mathematical Magic. 

Calling; vocation; employment. 

Now through the land his cure of souls he stretched, 
And like a primitive apostle preached ; 
Still cheerful, ever constant to his call, 
By manv followed, loved ,by most admired by all. 



A nomination. 

Upon the sixteenth was held the sergeants' feast at 
Ely-place, there being nine Serjeants of that call. 


Calling is applied to vocation; profession; 

If God has interwoven such a pleasure with our 
ordinary calling, how much superior must that be, 
which arises from the survey of a pious life ? Surely, 
as much as Christianity is nobler than a trade. 


We find ourselves obliged to go on in honest in- 
dustry in our callings. Rogers. 
I cannot forbear warning you against endeavouring 
at wit in your sermons ; because many of your calling 
have made themselves ridiculous by attempting it. 


I left no calling for this idle trade, 
No duty broke, no father disobeyed. Pope. 
To proper station or employment. 
The Gauls found the Roman senators ready to die 
with honour in their callings. 

To class of persons united by the same, employ- 
ment or profession. 

It may be a caution to all Christian churches and 
magistrates, not to impose celibacy on whole callings, 
and great multitudes of men or women, who cannot 
be supposable to have the gift of continence. 


Divine vocation ; invitation or impulse to the 
true religion. 

Give all diligence, to make your calling and elec- 
tion sure. 2 Peter, i. 10. 

St. Peter was ignorant of the caHin</ of the Gentiles. 
Hahewill on Providence. 

CALL, among fowlers, the noise or cry of a 
bird, especially to its young, or to its mate in 
coupling time. One method of catching par- 
tridges is by the natural call of a hen trained for 
the purpose, which drawing the cocks to her, 
they are entangled in a net. Different birds re- 
quire different calls ; but most of them are com- 
posed of a pipe or reed, with a little leathern 
bag, somewhat in form of a bellows; which, by 
the motion given thereto, yields a noise like 
that of the species of bird to be taken. The call 
for partridges is formed like a boat bored through, 
and fitted with a pipe or swan's quill, &c. to be 
blown with the mouth, to make the noise of the 
cock partridge, which is very different from the 
call of the hen. Calls for quails, &c. are made 
of a leathern purse in shape like a pear, stuffed 
with horse hair, and fitted at the end with the 
bone of a cat's, hare's, or coney's leg, formed 
like a flageolet. They are played, by squeezing 
the purse in the palm of the hand, at the same 
time striking on the flageolet part with the 
thumb, to counterfeit the call of the hen quail. 

CALL, among sailors, a sort of whistle or pipe, 
of silver or brass, used by the boatswain and his 
mates to summon the sailors to their duty, and 
direct them in the different employments of the 

CALL OF THE HOUSE, in the British Parliament, 
is the calling over the names of the members, to 
discover whether there be any in the house not 
returned by the clerk of the crown ; or what 
members are absent without leave, or just cause. 
In the former case, every person answers to his 




name, and departs out of the house, in the order 
wherein he is called. In the latter, each person 
stands up uncovered at the mention of his name. 

CALLA, African or Ethiopian arum : a genus 
of the monogynia order, in the heptandria class 
of plants; natural order second, piperitae : CAL. 
spatha plain ; the spadix covered with florets ; 
there is no corolla ; no petals ; and the berries 
polyspermous. There are three known species. 
The principal is C. ./Ethiopica, a plant which 
grows naturally at the Cape of Good Hope. It 
propagates very fast by offsets, which should be 
taken off in the end of August, at which time the 
old leaves decay ; for at this time the roots are in 
their most inactive state. They are so hardy as 
to live without any cover in mild winters, if 
planted in a warm border and dry soil ; but, with 
a little shelter, they may be preserved in full 
growth, even in hard frost. 

CALLAO, a sea-port of Peru, and the port 
of Lima, is at the mouth of the river of this 
latter name, and built on a low flat point of land, 
strongly fortified. Its road, which is the best of 
Peru, affords good anchorage all over it, is shel- 
tered by many desert islands, and protected by 
several batteries. The frequency of earthquakes 
here, have caused the houses to be built of slight 
materials, and they make altogether, says Mr. 
Stephenson, ' a sorry appearance.' They are 
generally about twenty feet high, with mud 
walls, flat roofs, and divided into two stories ; 
the under one forms a row of small shops open 
in front, and the upper one an uncouth corridor. 
About a quarter of a mile from the landing place 
is the draw-bridge, over a dry foss, and an en- 
trance under an arched gateway to the castle, the 
Real Felipe. The former city of Callao stood 
at a short distance to the south of this town 
Ulloa describes the memorable scene of the 
earthquake which swallowed up above 3000 
souls here in 1746. ' The sea,' says he, ' receding 
to a considerable distance from the shore, re- 
turned in mountainous waves, foaming with the 
violence of the agitation, and suddenly turned 
Callao and the neighbouring country into a sea. 
This was not, however, totally performed by the 
first swell of the waves, for the sea retiring fur- 
ther, returned with still more impetuosity, the 
stupendous water covering both the walls and 
other buildings of the place, so that whatever 
had escaped the first, was now totally over- 
whelmed by these terrible mountains of waves, 
and nothing remained except a piece of the wall 
of the port of Santa Cruz, as a memorial of this 
terrible devastation. There were then twenty- 
three ships and vessels, great and small, in the 
harbour, of which nineteen were absolutely 
sunk, and the other four, amongst which was a 
frigate called St. Fermus, carried by the force of 
the waves to a great distance up the country. 
This terrible inundation extended to other parts 
on the coast, as Cavallos and Guanape. At 
Callao, where the number of inhabitants amounted 
to about 4000, two hundred only escaped ; and 
twenty-two of these by means of the above- 
mentioned fragment of a wall. On a calm day 
the ruins may yet be seen under water at that 
part of the bay called the mar braba, rough sea, 
and on the beach a sentry is constantly placed, 

according to a recent traveller, for the purpose 
of taking charge of any treasure that may be 
washed ashore ; a circumstance that often hap- 
pens. An old mulatto, one of the three or four 
who were saved, told Mr. Stephenson that he 
was sitting on some timber which had been 
landed from a ship in the bay, at the time that 
the great wave of the sea rolled in and buried 
the city, and that he was carried clinging to the 
log, near to the chapel, a distance of three miles. 
Callao is six miles distant from Lima. 

of Asia, in the island of Bouton, seated about a 
mile from the sea, on the top of a small hill sur- 
rounded with cocoa-nut trees. 

CALLE, in ancient geography, a town of Hi- 
gher Spain, seated on an eminence, which hung 
over the river Durius. It is now called Oporto. 

CAL'LET, v. & n. Fr. calotte ; a coif or 
naif kerchief for a woman ; also a little light cap, 
or night-cap worn under a hat. Perhaps the 
distinguishing badge at one period of lewd and 
infamous women, for of such persons the word 
is descriptive. Skinner applies it to an impu- 
dent woman ; Dr. Johnson to a trull. 

The firste parte of this name we have yfounde : 
Let us ethimologise the secounde : 
As the firste findir mente, I am right sure, 
Cfor Calot; for Of, we havin 0; 
And L for leude ; and I) for Demenure : 
The craft of the enventour ye male se, lo ! 
How one name signifieth personis two, 
A colde olde knave, cokcold himself wenying ; 
And eke a calot of Leude Demyning. 

Chaucer'i Remedie of Love. 

He called her whore : a beggar in his drink 
Could not have laid such terms upon his cutlet. 


lAGO. What name fair lady ? 

Dts. Such as, she says, my lord did say I was. 

EMIL. He called her whore ; a beggar in his drink, 
Could not have laid such terms upon his collet. 

I AGO. Why did he so? 

DES. I do not know, I am sure, I am none such. 
Shakspeare. Othello. 

CALL EVA, in ancient British geography, a 
town of the Atrebates ; now called VVallingford. 

CALL1AS, the cousin german of Aristides the 
Just, but of a character the very opposite of that 
disinterested hero. At the battle of Marathon, 
Callias being a torch-bearer, and in virtue of his 
office, having a fillet on his head, one of the Per- 
sians took him for a king, and, falling down at 
his feet, discovered to him a vast quantity of gold 
hid in a well. Callias not only seized it for his own 
use, but had the cruelty to kill the poor man, 
that he might not mention it to others ; by which 
infamous action he entailed on his posterity the 
name of Laccopluti, or enriched by the well. 
The only good action recorded of him is his ge- 
nerosity in relieving his brother-in-law Cimon 
from prison, by paying the heavy fine to which 
he was so unjustly and ungratefully subjected by 
the Athenians. See ATTICA. 

CALLIBLEPHARA, from icaXXoc, beauty, 
and /3\0apov, eye-lid; in ancient medical writers, 
a name given to certain compositions intended to 
make the eye-lids beautiful. 






CALLICRATES, an ancient sculptor, who is 
said to have engraved some of Homer's verses on 
a grain of millet, made an ivory chariot that 
might be concealed under the wing of a fly, and 
an ant of ivory, in which all the members were 
distinct. He flourished about A.A.C. 472. 

CALLICHTHYS, in ichthyology, a species of 
silurus, having the second dorsal fin one-rayed ; 
a double row of scales on the sides ; cirri four. 

CALLIGONUM, in botany, a genus of the 
digynia order, belonging to the polyandria class 
of plants; and in the natural method ranking 
under the twelfth order, holoracese. The calyx 
is pentaphyllous, without petals or styles ; the 
fruit hispid and monospermous. There are 
three species, natives of Ararat, Barbary, and 

CALLIGRAPHY, the art of small beautiful 
writing. Callicrates is said to have written an 
elegant distich on a sesamum seed. Peter Bale, 
in 1575, wrote the Lord's prayer, creed, ten com- 
mandments, and two short prayers in Latin, with 
his own name, motto, day of the month, year of 
the Lord, and reign of the queen, in the compass 
of a single penny, inchased in a ring and border 
of gold, and covered with a crystal, all so accu- 
rately written as to be very legible with a mag- 
nifying glass. 

CALLIMACHUS, a celebrated architect, 
painter, and sculptor, born at Corinth, who 
having seen by accident a vessel about which the 
plant called acanthus had raised its leaves, con- 
ceived the idea of forming the Corinthian capital. 
See ACANTHUS. He flourished about A. A.C. 540. 

CALLIMACHUS, a celebrated Greek poet, a 
native of Cyrene, in Lybia, flourished under 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, and Ptolemy Euergetes, 
kings of Egypt, about A. C. 280. He passed, 
according to Quintilian, for the prince of the 
Greek elegiac poets. His style is elegant, deli- 
cate, and nervous. He wrote a great number of 
small poems, of which we have only some hymns 
and epigrams remaining. Catullus has closely 
imitated him, and translated into Latin verse his 
small poem on the locks of Berenice. Calli- 
machus was also a grammarian and a learned 
critic. There is an edition of his remains, by 
Messrs. Le Fevre, 4to. ; and another in 2 vols. 
8vo., with notes by Spanheim, Graevius, Bent- 
ley, &c. Dr. Tytler of Brechin has translated 
his poems into English verse. 

CALLIMUS, or CALAINUS, in physiology, a 
stony substance mentioned by Pliny, found in 
the cavity of the aetites, or eagle stone. It fills 
the hollow of the aetites, much as the yoke does 
the white of an egg. See -SvriTES. 

CALLINICUS of Heliopolis, inventor of a 
composition to burn in the water, called the 
Greek fire. 

CALLIONYMUS, the dragonet, in ichthy- 
ology, a genus of fishes belonging to the order 
of jugulares. The upper lip is doubled up ; the 
eyes are very near each other ; the membrane of 
the gills has six radii ; breathing aperture in the 
neck ; the operculum is shut ; the body is naked ; 
and the ventral fins are at a great distance from 
each other. There are seven species ; the prin- 
cipal are, C, dracunculus, with the first bone of 

the back fin shorter than its body, which is of a 
spotted yellow color. It frequents the shores of 
Genoa and Rome. C. Indicus, has a smooth 
head, with longitudinal wrinkles ; the lower jaw 
is a little longer than the upper one ; the tongue 
obtuse and emarginated ; the apertures of the 
gills are large : it is of a livid color, and the anus 
is in the middle of the body. It is a native of 
Asia. C. lyra, with the first bone of the back 
fin as long as the body of the animal, and a 
cirrhus at the anus. It is found as far north as 
Norway and Spitzbergen, and as far south as the 
Mediterranean Sea. It is not unfrequent on the 
Scarborough coast, where it is taken by the hook 
in thirty or forty fathoms water. It is often found 
in the stomach of the cod. 

CALLIOPE, from icaXXoc, beauty, and w^, 
voice, in the Pagan mythology, the muse who 
presides over eloquence and heroic poetry. She 
was fabled to have a very sweet voice, and was 
reckoned the first of the nine sisters. Horace 
styles her Regina : 

Descende caelo, et die age tibia, 

Regina, longum, Calliope, melos, 

Seu voce mine mavis acuta, 

Seu fidihus citharave Phoebi. 
Her distinguishing office was to record the wor- 
thy actions ot the living; arid, accordingly, she 
is represented with tablets in her hand. 

CALLIOPE, in entomology, a species of papilio, 
the wings of which are yellow ; the anterior pair 
three streaks ; the posterior ones, three bands. 

CAL'LIPERS, 7i. i. Of this word I know 
not the etymology ; nor does any thing more pro- 
bably occur, than that, perhaps, the word is 
corrupted from clippers, instruments with which 
any thing is clipped, enclosed or embraced. 
Compasses with bowed shanks. 

Callipers measure the distance of any round, cy- 
lindrick, conical body; so that when workmen use 
them, they open the two points to their described 
width, and turn so much stuff off the intended place, 
till the two points of the callipers fit just over their 
work. Moron's Mechanical Exercises, 


CALLIPOLIS, in ancient geography, the 
name of several cities of antiquity, particularly 
one upon the Hellespont, next the Propontis, 
and opposite to Lampsacus in Asia; now called 


CALLlRRHOE, in ancient geography, called 
also Enneacrunos, from its nine springs, a foun- 
tain not far from Athens, greatly adorned by 
Pisistratus, where there were several wells, but 
this was only the running spring. It was also 
the name of a very fine spring of hot water be- 
yond Jordan, near the Dead Sea, into which it runs. 

CALLISIA, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order, in the triandria class of plants ; in 
the natural method of the sixth order, ensatae : 
CAL. triphyllous ; the petals are three ; antherae 
double ; the capsule is bilocular. There is but 
one species, a native of America and the West 

CALLISTHENES, the philosopher, disciple, 
and relation of Aristotle, by whose desire 
he accompanied Alexander the Great in his 
expeditions : but proving too severe a censurer 




of that hero's conduct, he was put by him to the 
torture, on suspicion of a treasonable conspira- 
cy, and died under it, A. A. C. 328. 

CALLISTIA, in Grecian antiquity, a Les- 
bian festival ? wherein the women presented them- 
selves in Juno's temple, and the prize was 
assigned to the fairest. There was another of 
these contentions at the festival of Ceres Eleu- 
sinia, among the Parrhasians ; and another 
among the Eleans, where the most beautiful 
man was presented with a complete suit of 
armour, which he consecrated to Minerva ; to 
whose temple he walked in procession, accom- 
panied by his friends, who adorned him with 
ribands, and crowned him with a garland of 

CALLTSTO, in fabulous history, the daughter 
of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, and one of Diana's 
nymphs. Jupiter, falling in love with her, 
assumed the form of Diana, and in due time she 
was delivered of Areas. Juno, enraged, turned 
her into a she bear. Meantime Areas grew up, 
and became a famous hunter, when he was fif- 
teen years of age; but as he was just going to 
shoot his mother, not knowing her in her savage 
form, Jupiter interposed to prevent the parricide, 
and translated them both to the stars, where they 
. became the constellations, called the greater and 
lesser bear. Ovid. Metam. Lib. ii. Fab. 5. 

CALLISTRATUS, an excellent Athenian 
orator, who was banished for having obtained 
too great an authority in the government. De- 
mosthenes was so struck with the force of his 
eloquence, and the glory that it procured him, 
that he abandoned philosophy, and resolved 
thenceforward to apply himself to oratory. 

CALLISTUS (John Andronicus), was a 
native of Thessalonica, and professor of peripa- 
tetic philosophy in Constantinople, where he was 
much esteemed for his learning. When that 
city was taken he fled to Rome, where he read 
lectures on Aristotle, and afterwards moved to 
Florence, where he had a vast concourse of dis- 
ciples : among whom were Angel us Politianus, 
Janus Pannonius, George Valla, and others. 
Towards the end of his life he removed to 
France, where he died, in an advanced age, with 
the character of a learned and worthy man. He 
left some Greek MSS., particularly one, in the 
public library at Paris, entitled A Monody on 
the Miseries of Constantinople. 

a genus of the digynia order, in the monandria 
class of plants ; natural order twelfth, holora- 
ceae. It has no calyx, but two petals, and the 
capsule is bilocular and tetraspermous. The 
species are all annuals. 

CALLOT (James), a celebrated engraver, 
born at Nancy, in 1593. In his youth he tra- 
velled to Rome to learn designing and engrav- 
ing, and thence to Florence, where the grand 
duke took him into his service. . After the death 
of that prince, Callot returned home, when 
Henry, duke of Lorraine, settled a considerable 
pension upon him. His leputation soon spread- 
ing all over Europe, the infanta of the Nether- 
lands drew him to Brussels, where he engraved 
the siege of Breda. Louis XIII. made him de- 
sign the sieges of Rochelle and Rhe. Having 

taken Nancy in 1631, he proposed that Callot 
should represent the new conquest ; but Callot 
begged to be excused; and some courtiers re- 
solving to oblige him to do it, he answered,, that 
he would sooner cut off his thumb, than 
do any thing against the honor of his prfnce 
and country. This excuse the king accepted ; 
and said, that the duke of Lorraine was happy in 
having such faithful and affectionate subjects. 
Callot followed his business so closely, that, 
though he died at forty-three years of age, he is 
said to have left of his own execution 1500 
pieces. The following are a few of the principal : 
1. The Murder of the Innocents. 2. The Marriage 
of Cana in Galilee. 3. The Passion of Christ, on 
twelve very small upright plates ; first impres- 
sions very scarce. 4. St. John in the island of 
Patmos. 5. The Temptation of St. Anthony. 
6. The Punishments; the execution of several 
criminals. 7. The Miseries of War; in eigh- 
teen small plates. 8. The great Fair of Florence. 
9. The little Fair, or Players at Bowls. This is 
one of the scarcest of Callot's prints ; and it is 
very difficult to meet with a fine impression of it 

CALLIXTUS III. a Spaniard, named Al- 
phonso de Borgia, elected Pope in 1455, and 
died in 1458, after attempting 
in vain to stir up the princes 
of Europe against the Turks. 
Medals were struck in ho- 
nor of this pope, bearing, as 
in the annexed figure, his 
effigy, and the inscription, 

CALLOSA, in entomology, a small Italian 
species of apis, the color of which is a dark shin- 
ing blue, with a white lip, and white callous dots 
on each side of the thorax, in front of the wings. 

CAL'LOUS, adj.~\ Lat. callus; Fr. callo- 
CAL'LOUSNESS, SsiYe. Properly that hard- 
CALLOS'ITY. j ness of the foot induced by 
walking. Indurated; hardened; inexorable; 
applied to wounds or the edges of ulcers when 
in an insensible state ; to the mind that is slug- 
gish and misapprehensive ; to a hard unfeeling 
heart, dead to the sympathies and tendernesses of 
human nature. 

Licentiousness has so long passed for sharpness of 
wit, and greatness of mind, that the conscience is 
grawn callous. L' Estrange. 

The wretch is drenched too deep ; 
His soul is stupid, and his heart asleep ; 
Fattened in vice, so callous and so gross, 
He sins, and sees not, senseless of his loss. 

Dry den. 

The oftenerwe use the organs of touching, the more 
of these scales are formed, and the skin becomes 
the thicker, and so a callousness grows upon it. 


In progress of time, the ulcers became sinuous and 
callous, with induration of the glands. Wiseman. 

The surgeon ought to vary the diet of his patient, 
as he finds the fibres loosen too much, are too flaccid, 
and produce funguses ; or as they harden, and pro- 
duce callosities; in the first case, wine aud spirituous 
liquors are useful, in the last hurtful. 

Arbulhrwt on Diet 

f CAL 

If they let go their hope of everlasting life with 
willingness, and entertain final perdition with exulta- 
tion, ought they not to be esteemed destitute of com- 
mon sense, and abandoned to a callousness and numb- 
ness of soul. Bentley. 

CAL'LOW. Sax. calu; Swed. kahl, skallig, 
from Lat. ca/vt, unfledged ; naked. By Lye it 
is applied to the smoothness and nakedness of 
unfledged birds ; by Drayton to the smoothness 
or softness of the down; and by Fletcher (Met.) 
to a newly fledged wing. The ' soft and callow 
down ' of the elegant Drayton, is clearly in 
allusion to the natural state of the wing in young 
birds; in which at the same time the down is 
beautifully ' soft.' 

And through his soft and callow down doth flow 
As loth so soon hia presence to forego. 

The Owl. 

Thy love no time began, no time decays, 

But still increaseth with decreasing days : 
Where then may we begin, where may we end thy 
praise ? 

My calluw wing, that newly left the nest, 

How can it make so high a towering flight ? 

O depth without a depth ! in humble breast, 

With praises I admire so wondrous height. 

Fletcher's Purple Island, can. 1. 

Bursting with kindly rapture, forth disclosed 
Their callow young. Milton. 

Then as an eagle, who with pious care 
Was beating widely on the wing for prey, 
To her now silent airy does repair. 
And finds her callow infants forced away. 

Dry (fen. 

How in small flights they know to try their young, 
And teach the callow child her parent's song. Prior. 

So speeds the wily fox, all armed with fear, 
Who lately filched the turkey's callow care. Gay. 

And oft the wily dwarf in ambush lay, 
And often made the callow young his prey, 
With slaughtered victims heaped his board, and smiled 
To avenge the parents' trespass on the child. Beat tie. 

CALLUS, or CALLOSITY, in a general sense, 
is any cutaneous, corneous, or osseous hardness, 
natural or preternatural ; but most frequently it 
signifies the callus generated about the edges of a 
fracture, provided by nature to preserve the 
fractured bones, in the situation in which they 
are replaced by the surgeon. A callus, in this sense, 
is originally a sort of jelly, or liquid viscous matter, 
that issues from the small arteries and bony fibres 
of the divided parts, and fills up the cavities be- 
tween them. It first appears of a cartilaginous 
substance ; but at length becomes quite bony, 
and joins the fractured part so firmly together, 
that the limb will often make greater resistance to 
any external violence with this part, than with 
those which were never broken. It is not always 
in the power of surgeons to restrain or command 
its growth ; for sometimes a broken bone, for 
want of due action in its vessels, will remain 
several months disunited ; and, at other times, the 
callus becomes so exuberant as to cause an un- 
sightly enlargement of the bone, around the broken 
extremities. That preternatural hard and thick- 
ened state of the skin which constitutes the disease 
named a corn, is also termed callus, and to the 
, lamina of horny cuticle which forms on the hands 
of hard-working people, the same name is applied. 
Surgeons apply the term callus to the edges of 
old ulcers, when they become thickened and iu- 

44 CAL 

sensible. This kind of induration is unfavorable 
to a cure, and should be removed by the knife or 
caustic, if it cannot be softened by emollient 
poultices, &c. 

CALM', v. adj. & n.-\ Fr. calme ; Ital. Sp. 
CALM'LY, ' Port, calrna, ^oXaw ; It. 

CALM'NESS, i cato, signify to lower ; 

CALMY', adj. J allay ; abate ; but pos- 

sibly Lat. quietum, quietillum, quillum, tranquil- 
lum, may have produced calm : quiet ; still ; easy ; 
peaceable ; fair ; gentle ; unmoved. To calm 
and to becalm differ in some degree ; to calm is 
to stop motion, and to becalm is to withhold 
from motion. 

So shall the sea be calm unto us. Jonah. 

And now they nigh approached to the sted, 
Where as those mermaides dwelt : it was a still 
And calmy bay, on one side sheltered 
With the broad shadow of an hoary hill. 

Faerie Queene. 

It seemeth most agreeable to reason, that the 
waters rather stood in a quiet calm, than that they 
moved with any raging or overbearing violence. 

Sir, 'tis fit 

You have strong party, or defend yourself 
By calmness, or by absence, all's in anger. 

Shahspeare , 

I see thou art implacable, more deaf 
To prayers than winds or seas ; yet winds to seas 
Are reconciled at length, and sea to shore ; 
Thy anger unappeasable still rages 
Eternal tempest, never to be calmed. Milton. 

Angling was, after tedious study, a rest to his 
mind, a cheererof his spirits, a di verier of sadness, a 
calmer of unquiet thoughts, a moderator of passions, 
a procurer of contentedness. Walton. 

But against that thou sittest afloat, 
Like Venus in her pearly boat j 
The halcyons calming all that's nigh, 
Betwixt the air and water fly. Marvell. 

O help ! O help ! I see it faint 
And dye as calmly as a saint. Id 

Much him the honour of his ancient race 
Inspired, nor would he his own deeds deface, 
And secret joy in his calm soul does rise, 
That Monk looks on to see how Douglas dies. Id. 
Great and strange calms usually portend the most 
violent storms ; and therefore, since storms and calms 
do always follow one another, certainly, of the two, it 
is much more eligible to have the storm first, and the 
calm afterwards : since a calm before a storm is com- 
monly a peace of a man's own making ; but a calm 
after a storm, a peace of God's. South. 

His curled brows 
Frown on the gentle stream, which calmly flows. 

I will bear it 

With all the tender sufferance of a friend. 
As calmly as the wounded patient bears 
The artist's hand that ministers his cure. 

Otway's Orphan. 

I beg the grace, 

You would lay by those terrours of your face ; 
Till calmness to your eyes you first restore, 
I am afraid, and I can beg no more. Dryden. 

Jesus, whose bare word checked the sea, as much 

exerts himself in silencing the tempests, and calming 

the intestine storms, within our breasts. 

Decay of Piety. 
The queen her speech with calm attention hears, 

Her eyes restrain the silver-streaming tears. 2'ojie. 

CAL 45 

He willed to stay, 

The sacred rites and hecatombs to pay, 
And calm Minerva's wrath. Id. 

Religion's cheerful flame her bosom warms, 
Calm* all her hours, and brightens all her charms. 



Gradual sinks the breeae 
Into a perfect calm ; that not a breath 
Is heard to quiver through the closing woods, 
Or rustling turn the many-twinkling leaves 
Of aspin tall. Thomson's Seasons. 

Affliction is the wholesome soil of virtue, 
Where patience, honour, sweet humanity, 
Calm fortitude take root, and strongly flourish. 

Mallet and Thomson's Alfred. 
Hail awful scenes, that cairn the troubled breast, 
And woo the weary to profound repose j 
Can passion's wildest uproar lay to rest, 
And whisper comfort to the man of woei ? Seattle, 

Clear as its current, glide the sauntering hours 
With a culm languor, which, though to the eye 
Idlesse it seem, hath its morality. Byron. 

CALM, the state of rest which appears in the 
air and sea when there is no wind stirring. A 
calm is more dreaded by a sea-faring man than a 
storm, if he has a strong ship and sea room ; for 
under the line excessive heat sometimes produces 
such dead calms, that ships are obliged to stay 
two or three months without being able to stir. 
Two opposite winds will sometimes produce a 
calm. This frequently occurs in the Gulf of 
Mexico, at no great distance from the shore, 
where some gust or land wind will so poise the 
general easterly wind, as to produce a perfect 
calm. Calms are never so great on the Ocean as 
on the Mediterranean, as the flux and reflux of 
the former keep the water in a continual agita- 
tion, even where there is no wind ; whereas there 
being no tides in the latter, the calm is sometimes 
so dead, that the water is as clear as a looking- 
glass ; but such calms are almost constant pre- 
sages of an approaching storm. On the coasts 
about Smyrna, a long calm is reputed a prognos- 
tic of an earthquake. It is not uncommon for 
vessels to be becalmed, in the road of the constant 
Levantine winds, in places where they ride near 
the land. Thus between the two capes of Car- 
tooche toward the main, and Cape Antonia in 
Cuba, the sea is narrow, and there is often a 
calm produced by some gust of a land wind that 
poises the Levantine wind, and renders the whole 
perfectly still for two or three days. In this case 
the current that runs here is of use to the vessels, 
it it sets right ; when it sets easterly, a ship will 
have a passage in three or four days to the Ha- 
vannah ; but if otherwise, it is often a fortnight 
or three weeks' sail, the ship being embayed in 
the Gulf of Mexico. When the weather is per- 
fectly calm, the sailors try which way the current 
sets, by sending out a boat, which will ride mo- 
tionless though there is no bottom to be found, as 
well as if secured by the strongest anchor. Their 
method is this : they row the boat to a little dis- 
tance from the ship, and then throw over their 
plummet, which is about forty pounds weight ; 
they let this sink to about 200 fathoms ; and then, 
though it never reaches the bottom, the boat will 
turn head against the current, and ride as firmly 
as possible. 

CALM LATITUDES, in sea language, are situated 

in the Atlantic Ocean, between the tropic of Can- 
cer and the latitude of 29 north, or they denote 
the space that lies between the trade and variable 
winds, because it is frequently subject to calms 
of long duration. 

CALMAR, a sea-port of Sweden, in the pro- 
vince of Smaland, 150 miles south-west of Stock- 
holm, and forty from Carlscroon. It is divided 
into two towns, the old and the new. The new 
town is built a little way from the other, and is 
large and handsome. 

CALMET (Augustine), one of the most learned 
and laborious writers of the eighteenth century, 
was born at Mesnil le Horgue, in France, in 
1672, and took the habit of the Benedictines in 
1688. Having passed through the usual course 
of philosophy and theology, he was employed in 
teaching the younger part of the community, till, 
in 1704, he settled as sub-prior in the abbey of 
Munster, in Alsace, where he presided over an 
academy of eight or ten monks devoted to the 
study of the Scriptures. There he composed 
his commentaries on the Scriptures, published 
in French from 1707 to 1716. In 1718 he was 
appointed to the abbacy of St. Leopold in Nancy ; 
and in 1728 he was elected abbot of Senones. 
The title of a bishop in partibus was offered him, 
but he declined accepting it. He wrote, 1. 
Commentaire Litteral surtous lesLivres de 1'An- 
cien et du Nouveau Testament, 23 vols. 4to. 
1707-1716, reprinted in 26 vols. 4to., and also in 
9 vols. fol. ; abridged in 14 vols. 4to. by Rondet, 
and a new edition of the abridgment in 17 vols. 
4to. Avignon, 1767-73. 2. The Dissertations 
and Prefaces, published separately, 2 vols. 4to. 
Paris, 1720. 3. Histoire de 1'Ancien et du 
Nouveau Testament, intended as an introduction 
to Fleury's Ecclesiastical History, 2 and 4 vols. 
4to., and 5 and 7 vols. 12mo, 4. Dictionnaire 
Historique, Critique, et Chronologique, de la 
Bible, 4 vols. fol. Paris, 1730, translated into 
English by Samuel D'Oyly, 3 vols. fol. London, 
1732, and a new edition in 4to. 1793, &c. 5. 
Histoire Ecclesiastique et Civile de la Lorraine, 
3 vols. fol. reprinted in 5 vols. fol. 1745. 6. 
Bibliotheque des Ecrivains de Lorraine, fol. 
1751. 7. Histoire Universelle Sacree et Profane. 
15 vols. 4to. &c. 


CALNE, a town of Wiltshire, seated on the 
river of the same name. It had a palace of the 
West Saxon kings. Its chief manufacture is 
cloth. It sends one member to parliament ; 
and lies twelve miles west of Marlborough, and 
eighty-eight west of London. 

CALNE A, in ancient geography, a city in the 
land of Shinar, built by Nimrod, and the last 
city mentioned (Gen. x. 10.) as belonging to his 
kingdom. It is believed to be the same with 
Calno mentioned in Isaiah x. 9, and with Can- 
neh in Ezekiel xxvii. 23. It is observed that it 
must have been situated in Mesopotamia, since 
these prophets join it with Haran, Eden, Assyria, 
and Chilmad, which carried on a trade with 
Tyre. It is said by Chaldee interpreters, as well 
as by Eusebius and Jerome, to be the same with 
Ctesiphon, upon the Tigris, about three miles dis- 
tant from Seleucia, and that for some time it was 
the capital city of the Parthiaus. 




CALODENDRUM, in botany, a genus of 
the class pentandria, order digynia. The essen- 
tial characters are CAL. five-parted : COR. petals 
five ; nectaries five : PER. capsule five-celled and 
five-angled ; but the corolla, nectary, and sta- 
mens so often differ in the number of their parts, 
that the capsule may be said to be the only es- 
sential. There is but one species : a native of 
the Cape. 

ALOGERI, KoXoyspoi, in church history, 
mo s of the Greek church, divided into three 
degrees ; viz. the archari, or novices ; the micro- 
chemi, or the ordinary professed ; and the mega- 
lochemi, or more perfect ; they are likewise di- 
vided into cacnobites, anchorites, and recluses. 
The caenobites are employed in reciting their 
offices from midnight to sun-set ; they are ob- 
liged to make three genuflexions at the door of 
the choir, and returning, to bow to the right and 
to the left, to their brethren. The anchorites re- 
tire from the world, and live in hermitages in the 
neighbourhood of the monasteries ; they cultivate 
a little spot of ground, and never go out but on 
Sundays and holidays, to perform their devotions 
at the next monastery. The recluses shut them- 
selves up in grottoes and caverns on the tops of 
mountains, which they never leave, abandoning 
themselves entirely to Providence : they live on 
the alms sent them by the neighbouring monas- 
teries. Some reckon the Caloyers a branch of 
the Calogeri. 

CALOMEL, chloride of mercury, frequently 
called mild muriate, or dulcified sublimate of 

CALOPHYLLUM, in botany, a genus of the 
monogynia order, and polyandria class of plants : 
COR. tetrapetalous : CAL. tetraphyllous and color- 
ed ; the fruit a globose plum. There are two 
species, both lofty trees, indigenous to India ; 
from one of which, C. inophyllum, upon inci- 
sion of its bark, exudes the resin called tacamahac. 

CALOPUS, in zoology, a genus of the class 
insecta, order coleoptera. Antennas filiform ; 
feelers four, the fore-ones clavate, the hind-ones 
filiform : thorax gibbous ; wing-cases linear. 
Three species; two European, one American. 

CALORIMETER, an instrument first con- 
trived by Lavoisier and Laplace, to measure the 
heat given out by a body in cooling. It consists 
of three vessels, placed one within the other, so 
as to leave two cavities between them ; a frame 
of iron net-work being suspended in the middle 
of the innermost vessel, to hold the heated body. 
The two exterior concentric interstices are filled 
with bruised ice, by the fusion of which the heat 
given out by the central hot body is measured. 
The water runs off through the bottom, which 
terminates in the shape of a funnel, with a stop- 

CALOTE, a species of skull-cap worn under 
the hat by officers and soldiers of the French 
cavalry, and which is proof against a sabre or a 
sword. Calotes are usually made of iron, or 
dressed leather. Those delivered out to the 
troops are made of iron. 

CALOTE, a term used in the French service for 
the lieutenant's court, at which the first lieute- 
nant of the regiment, for the time being, always 
presided. It look cognizance, as a court of ho- 

nor, of all disputes in which the laws of honor 
or of good breeding had been violated. Our re- 
gimental committees resemble the calote, espe- 
cially with regard to the expulsion of an officer, 
or the sending of him to Coventry. 

CALOTES, in zoology, a species of lacerta, 
with a round long tail ; the fore part of the back, 
and hinder part of the head being dentated 
Found in the island of Ceylon. 

CALOTTE', n. s. French. See CALLET. 

CALO'YERS, n. s. KoXo C . Monks of the 
Greek church. 

Temperate as caloyers in their secret cells. 

Madden on Boulter. 

CALOYERS are of the order of St. Basil. A 
numerous body of them live on Mount Athos, 
and never marry, though others of that church 
do. They abstain from flesh, and fare very 
hardly, their ordinary meals being olives pickled 
when they are ripe. They are about 6000 in all, 
and inhabit several parts of the mountain. They 
are so respected that the Turks themselves will 
often send them alms. These monks are not idle, 
but labor with the axe, spade, and sickle, dress- 
ing themselves like hermits. Formerly they had 
fine Greek MSS., but they are now become so 
illiterate, that they can scarcely read or write. 
They live to a great age. See CALOGERI. 

CALPE, a mountain of Andalusia in Spain ; 
at the foot of which, towards the sea, stands 
Gibraltar. It is half a league in height towards 
the land, and so steep that there is no approach- 
ing it on that side. It was anciently reckoned one 
of the pillars of Hercules ; Abyla being the other. 

CALPHURNIA, a female orator of ancient 
Rome, who pleaded her own causes before the 
senate ; but is said to have proved so trouble- 
some, that they made a law, that thenceforward 
no woman should be allowed to plead. 

CALPHURNIUS (Titus), a Latin poet of 
Sicily, who lived under the emperor Carus and 
his son. Seven of his eclogues are extant. 

CALTHA, in botany, marsh marigold, a genus 
of the monogynia order, in the polyandria class 
of plants, No calyx; five petals; no nectaria; 
capsules many, and polyspermous. There are 
but two species known; viz. 1. C. palustris, 
with stem erect; found in our own marshes : 2. 
C. natans, with procumbent floating stem ; a na- 
tive of Siberia. The flowers gathered before they 
expand, and preserved in salted vinegar, are a 
good substitute for capers. The juice of the ' 
petals, boiled with alum, stains paper yellow. 
Goats and sheep eat this plant; horses, cows, 
and swine, refuse it. 

CALTROP, in botany. See TRIBULUS. 

CALTROPS, n. s. Sax. colrnaeppe ; an in- 
strument made with three spikes, so that which 
way soever it falls to the ground, one of them 
points upright, to wound horses feet. A plant 
common in France, Spain, and Italy, where it 
grows among corn, and is very troublesome ; for 
the fruit being armed with strong prickles, run 
into the feet of the cattle. This is certainly the 
plant mentioned in Virgil's Georgics, under the 
name of tribulus. 

The ground about was thick sown with caltrops, 
which very much incommoded the shoeless Moors. 

Dr. Adduon'i Account of Tangier *, 



CALTROPS, in military affairs, an instru- 
ment with four iron points, disposed in an angu- 
lar form, so that three of them are always on the 
ground, and the fourth pointing upwards. They 
are scattered over the ground where the enemy's 
cavalry is to pass, in order to embarrass them. 

CALVA, or CALVARIA, from calvus, bald; 
the scalp or upper part of the cranium, compre- 
hending all above the eyes, temples, ears, and 
occipital eminence. 

CALVART (Denis), a celebrated painter, 
born at Antwerp in 1552. He studied painting 
under Fontana and Sabbatini. He opened a 
school at Bologna, which became celebrated ; 
and from which proceeded Guido, Albani, and 
other great masters. Calvart was well skilled in 
architecture, perspective, and anatomy, which he 
considered as necessary to a painter, and taught 
to his pupils. His principal works are at Bo- 
logna, Rome, and Reggio. He died at Bologna, 
in 1619. 

CALVARY, from calvaria, i. e. the place of a 
skull, called also Golgotha, which signifies the 
same, a hill cf Judea, west of Jerusalem, on the 
outside of the city, where our Saviocrwas cruci- 
fied, and where malefactors were commonly 
executed. Some derive the name from the re- 
semblance of the hill to a man's head; others 
from its baldness, as it was said to be destitute 
of verdure ; but it is more probable, that the 
hill derived its name from the many skulls of those 
executed, being carelessly tossed about upon it. 
Tradition says Adam was buried upon it. The 
British Princess Helena, the mother of Constan- 
tine the Great, about A. D. 330, erected a magnifi- 
cent church over our Saviour's sepulchre, near 
it, which is still visited by superstitious pilgrims. 

CALVARY, in heraldry, a cross, so called be- 
cause it resembles the cross on which our Saviour 
suffered. It is always set upon steps. 

CALVARY, in the customs of the Roman Ca- 
tholic church, is a term sometimes used for a 
kind of chapel devotion, raised on a hillock 
near a city ; in memory of the place where 
Jesus Christ was crucified near Jerusalem. Such 
was the Calvary of St. Valerian, near Paris : it was 
accompained with several little chapels, in each 
of which was represented in sculpture one of the 
mysteries of the passion. The Roman Catholics 
vindicate these pictorial exhibitions of the mys- 
teries of religion, as justifiable upon the same 
principle as any other mode of bringing the 
facts memorialised upon the eye of the mind ; 
and as particularly useful to those classes of 
society whose inclinations or avocations will per- 
mit them to -ead or think but little. 

CALVERT, a county of the United States, 
in the Western Shore of Maryland ; bounded on 
the east by the Chesapeake ; on the north by 
Anne-Arundel county; and on the south and 
west by the river Patuxent. It is thirty-three 
miles and a half long from the mouth of the 
Patuxent to Lion's Creek, and nineteen and a 
half broad. The surface is hilly and the soil 
sandy ; but it produces good crops of Indian 
corn, though the tobacco is of an inferior quality. 

CAI.VERT, George, afterwards Lord Baltimore, 
was born at Kipliu, in Yorkshire, about 1582, 

and educated at Oxford, where he took the 
degree of B. A. He was made secretary to Sir 
Robert Cecil ; he was afterwards knighted, and 
ia 1618 appointed one of the principal secre- 
taries of state. But after he had enjoyed that 
office about five years, he resigned it, telling 
king James, that he was become a Roman 
Catholic, that he must either be wanting to his 
trust, or violate his conscience in discharging his 
office. This ingenuous confession so affected the 
king, that he continued him privy counsellor 
all his reign, and created him baron Baltimore. 
He afterwards obtained a grant of a country on 
the north part of Virginia from Charles I. who 
called it Maryland, in honor of his queen ; but 
he died in April, 1632, aged 50, before the 
patent was made out. It was, however, filled 
up to his son Cecil, lord Baltimore ; and bears 
date June 20th, 1632. It was held from the crown 
as part of the manor of Windsor, on one singular 
condition, viz. to present two Indian arrows 
yearly, on Easter Tuesday, at the castle, where 
they are kept and shown to visitors. His lord- 
ship wrote, 1. A Latin poem on the death of Sir 
Henry Upton. 2. Speeches in Parliament. 
3. Various Letters of State. 4. The Answer of 
Tom Tell-Truth. 5. The Practice of Princes. 
And, 6. The Lamentation of the Kirk. 

CALVI (Lazzaro), was born at Genoa, and 
was one of the scholars of Perino del Vaga, as 
was his brother Panteolo, with whom he worked. 
In the Palavicini palace, they painted the cele- 
brated continence of Scipio. Envy worked so 
strongly in the breast of Lazzaro, that he had 
recourse to the foulest arts to avenge himself of 
those who were his rivals. Among those who 
fell victims to his unprincipled spirit, was Gia- 
como Bargone, whom he poisoned ; and against 
other artists he contrived the basest machinations, 
in order to effect their ruin. At length he was 
employed to paint, in connexion with Andrea 
Semini and Luca Cambiasi, a picture of the birth 
of John the Baptist ; but though Calvi exercised 
Ki'S best powers, he fell short of Cambiasi, and 
Lazzaro, in a fit of mortification, went to sea. He 
followed that occupation twenty years, and 
then returned to his original profession, which 
he practised till his eighty-fifth year. He died 
in 1606 aged 105. 

CALVILLE', n. s. French ; a sort of apple. 

CALVIN, or CAUVIX, (John), a celebrated 
reformer of the sixteenth century, whose religi- 
ous tenets have given rise to a large and respect- 
able party among Protestants, called CALVINISTS, 
(which see), was born at Noyon, a city of Pi- 
cardy, July 10th, 1509. His father was a cooper, 
in respectable but not affluent circumstances, 
and sufficiently esteemed in the neighbourhood 
to be able to introduce his son into the Montmor 
family; with the children of which he was edu- 
cated at his father's expense. He was sent with 
the children of his patron to the College de la 
Marche, at Paris, then under the regency of Ma- 
turin Cordier, and soon became distinguished for 
his application to study. From the College of 
La Marche he was removed to that of Mortaign, 
when he entered upon the pursuit of dialectics 
and philosophy, under the tuition of a learned 
Spaniard. In 1529 his father had sufficient in- 



terest with the bishop of Noyon to procure the 
young student a benefice in the cathedral church 
of that city, and the rectory of Pont L'Eveque, 
the parish in which he was born. Here, though 
not ordained, he is said to have preached fre- 
quently ; but becoming intimate with a protes- 
tant relative, Pierre Robert Olivetan, author of 
a French translation of the Scriptures, he felt 
dissatisfied with his station, and gradually re- 
solved to quit the Romish communion. His fa- 
ther, at about the same period, began to apprehend 
that he could better ensure his advancement in 
life in the law than in the church. He now, 
therefore, removed to Orleans, and applied him- 
self, with his characteristic ardor, to the lectures of 
Pierre de L'Etoile, a celebrated civilian, after- 
wards president of the parliament of Paris. 
Here he received a doctor's degree ; studied the 
Scriptures as well as the law very closely, and is 
said by his late night hours to have laid the 
foundation of a weakness in his stomach, which 
finally shortened his days. His legal attainments 
were so universally acknowledged at Orleans, 
that, in the absence of the professors, he frequently 
lectured for them before the university. Scaliger 
says, that at the age of twenty-two he was the 
most learned man in Europe. 

To complete his education for the law, he re- 
moved for a short time from Orleans to Bourges, 
where, while attending the lectures of Andrii 
Alciat, he contracted an intimate acquaintance 
with Melchiar Wolmar, the Greek professor of 
the university. In acknowledgment for Wol- 
mar's instruction in that language, Calvin after- 
wards dedicated to him his Commentary on the 
Second Epistle to the Corinthians ; and in this 
neighbourhood he is said to have been occasion- 
ally engaged in village preaching. 

His father died while he was in his twenty- 
fourth year, and the circumstance compelled him 
to close his college life, and, after a short resi- 
dence at Noyon, to proceed to Paris. In the 
title page of his first work, a Commentary on 
Seneca's De Clementia, which he published here 
in 1533, we first find that slight change in his 
name, which has been unfairly adverted to. 
' In reality,' says Mr. Drelincourt, ' it is very in- 
considerable, or rather nothing at all : for being 
to turn Cauvin (his family name) into Latin, if 
one would give it an air and termination suita- 
ble to the genius of the language, how can one 
turn it otherwise than by Calvinus ?' And ' his 
first work being written in Latin, and he thereby 
known by the name of Calvinus, if after that, 
when he wrote in French, he had used any other 
name but that of Calvin,the work might have been 
taken for another man's.' The friends of the re- 
formed religion now heard of his attachment to 
their system, and induced him to relinquish all 
secular pursuits. His zeal and sincerity was 
soon put to the test. Having supplied his friend 
Nicholas Cop, rector of 1'Acaaemie de Paris, 
with hints for a speech, in which were some se- 
vere reflections on popery, the rector, at the in- 
stigation of the Sorbonne, was summoned before 
the parliament, and only eluded punishment by 
withdrawing to Basil. Calvin was also advised 
to take flight ; and had. scarcely quitted Paris 
when a warrant was issued for his apprehension, 

and his apartments were searched by the bailiff 
Marin, one of the most relentless persecutors of 
the age. His papers disclosed a number of the 
names of the Protestants who were about, it is said, 
to be proscribed, when the queen of Navarre 
interposed in their favor, allayed the storm for a 
time, and even ventured to recal Calvin. Pru- 
dence, however, dictated his retreat from the eye 
of the hostile authorities ; and he chose Saint- 
onge for his place of retirement, where he em- 
ployed himself in the composition of homilies 
adapted to the capacities of the common people. 
He also visited, at this time, the aged Jacques 
Le Fevre d'Estaples, formerly the tutor of the 
children of Francis I. who had retired under the 
protection of the queen of Navarre to Nerac. 
The worthy old confessor welcomed him heartily^ 
and predicted his future celebrity as an instru- 
ment of establishing the true religion. In 1534 
Calvin visited Paris, partly with a view to meet 
the celebrated Michael Servetus, whose opinions 
respecting the Trinity were now becoming 
known. It was a journey of some danger, as 
this year was disgraced by many cruelties inflict- 
ed on the reformed at Paris ; but Servetus did not 
appear. The king, it is said, being particularly 
exasperated at an attack on the mass, which was 
nailed to the door of the Louvre, went bare- 
headed with his sons in procession, as an expia- 
tion of the crime, ordered eighty of the reformers 
to be burnt alive in the most conspicuous parts 
of the capital, and declared that if his own sons 
were to become infected with their detestable 
heresy, they should suffer the same fate. 

Calvin now determined to quit France, which 
he did ; having first published a treatise, called 
Psychopannychiam, against the sentiments of 
those who maintain that the soul sleeps between 
death and the resurrection. He followed his 
friend Cop to Basil, where he studied the He- 
brew language, and brought together the materials 
of his great work, the Institutions of the Christian 
Religion. It was designed as an apology for his 
persecuted brethren; openly avowing their real 
differences with the Church of Rome, but de- 
fending them from the imputation of teaching the 
levelling doctrines of the Anabaptists. The first 
edition, which it is probable was written both in 
French and Latin, was published in 1535, in 8vo. 
being only a rough sketch or outline of what is 
known at present as this work. The second 
edition appeared in 1536 at Strasburgh, in folio, 
and was both larger and more correct than the 
first. The third edition, still more complete, 
was printed at the same place in 1543. A 
fourth edition came out, with considerable im- 
provements ; and a fifth corrected edition in 4to 
was printed in 1550 at Geneva, having two in- 
dexes. In 1558 the Latin and French editions 
both received the author's final revision. 

The doctrinal peculiarities of this work, we 
are not engaged, as encyclopaedists, to vindicate ; 
few modern Protestants espouse them all: but 
the palm of erudite learning, profound Scrip- 
ture knowledge, and superior logical arrange- 
ments was universally awarded to its author. Its 
Latinity has been generally admired, and especially 
the introductory address to Francis I. Bayle 
quotes the remarkable testimony of two cele- 



brated Catholics in its favor : Scultingius said, 
4 In England Calvin's Institutions is almost pre- 
ferred to the Bible itself. The pretended Eng- 
lish bishops enjoin all the clergy to get the book 
almost by heart, never to have it out of their 
hands, to lay it by them in a conspicuous part 
of their pulpits ; in a word, to prize it and keep 
it as carefully as the old Romans are said to 
have preserved the Sibylline oracles.' Staple- 
ton says, 'The Institutions of Calvin are so 
greatly esteemed in England, that the book has 
been most accurately translated into English, 
and is even fixed in the parish churches for the 
people to read. Moreover, in each of the two 
universities, after the students have finished 
their circuit in philosophy, as many of them as 
are designed for the ministry, are lectured first of 
all in that book.' 

Dr. Ileylin, the friend of Laud, and the 
avowed adversary of Calvinism, gives a similar 
testimony. Referring to the reign of Elizabeth, 
' Predestination, and the points depending there- 
upon,' says he, ' were received as the established 
doctrines of the Church of England. The books 
of Calvin were the rule by which all men were to 
square their writings : his only word, like the ipse 
dixit of Pythagoras, was admitted for the sole 
canon to which they were to frame and conform 
their judgments. It was safer for any man in 
those times to have been looked upon as an 
heathen or publican, than an Anti-Calvinist.' 

When finishing his Institutes, Calvin heard 
that many parts of Italy had exhibited consider- 
able symptoms of attachment to the new religion. 
He hastened, therefore, to the court of the 
duchess of Ferrara, the accomplished daughter 
of Louis XII., and here, while he confirmed his 
distinguished patroness in her Protestant princi- 
ples, he secured her lasting esteem, and laid the 
foundation of a future correspondence with her. 
At this period also he visited and preached in 
Piedmont: a pillar, eight feet high, commemo- 
rating his arrival and departure, was lately exist- 
ing at Aost. Its inscription was ' llanc Calvini 
fuga erexit anno MDXLI. Religionis constan- 
tia reparavit anno MDCCXLI.' 

Calvin returned from Italy to France, taking 
with him a younger brother of the name of 
Anthony, but finding persecution still desolating 
his native countiy, he once more determined to 
take up his abode at Basil or Strasburgh : and, 
being accidentally diverted from the main road 
by the existing war, arrived at Geneva in August 
1536. Here the courageous and decided Farel 
entreated him to stay for the help of the cause 
of God : and solemnly warning him, in the name 
of his Maker and Redeemer, that he would pros- 
per in nothing if he declined so holy a work, 
and sought his own repose, he was induced to 
settle himself at once. The consistory and 
magistracy, with the consent of the whole city, 
offered him a ministerial charge in the course of 
the month ; he was also made professor of 
iivinity in the academy. 

He was at first assailed by various difficulties ; 
the Anabaptists had obtained some footing in the 
city, and were to be expelled ; he was accused 
by one Caroly of Arianism, and it was thought 
expedient that he should defend himself before 
VOL. V. 

the synod of Berne. This he did to the full 
satisfaction of that body ; procured in less than 
a year after his first coining to Geneva the formal 
renunciation of popery, by the public authori- 
ties, and proceeded boldly with his colleagues in 
the reform of the public morals. He thus 
aroused the enmity of many influential persons ; 
and an unhappy schism arising between the 
church of Berne and that of Geneva, as to the 
mode of celebrating the eucharist, these parties 
did not fail to inflame it. By the synod of Lau- 
sanne it was at last decreed that all the churches 
ought to use unleavened bread at the Lord's sup- 
per; Calvin and Farel hesitated to yield obe- 
dience to this decree : the result was an order 
from the council of Geneva for these faithful 
ministers forthwith to leave the town. 'Ah !' 
said Calvin, ' had I served men, I should have 
been poorly recompensed ; but I have served a 
master, who, far from forgetting his tme servants, 
pays them where he has no obligation.' 

Our reformer retired to Strasburgh, where, by 
the influence of Bucer, he was immediately ap- 
pointed pastor of a church, and professor of 
theology. Here he composed his Treatise on 
the Lord's Supper, and an eloquent reply to 
Cardinal Sadolet, who endeavoured to recal the 
Genevese to the Catholic church. He also 
reclaimed many of the people from the Anabap- 
tist errors. In 1541 he attended the diet, con- 
voked to meet at Worms, and afterwards at 
Ratisbon : and here he was introduced to Me- 
lancthon, who ever after spoke of him as ' the 
theologian' of the day. 

The same year the Genevese evinced their 
regret at his absence by publicly voting for his 
recal : and the inhabitants of Strasburgh, though 
they finally relinquished him to the entreaties of 
the council of that city, bestowed on him the 
freedom of their own, and offered to continue his 
emoluments after his return to Geneva. This 
took place in the latter part of the year 1541 ; 
and his system of ecclesiastical discipline, called 
the Consistory, was established at Geneva by 
order of the general council, dated the 20th of 
November in that year. Shortly after his return, 
he published a Catechism in Latin and French. 
' During a fortnight in each month,' we are told, 
' he preached every day ; gave three lectures in 
theology every week ; assisted at all the delibe- 
rations of the consistory, and at the meetings of 
the pastors ; met the congregation every Friday ; 
instructed the French churches by the frequent 
advices which they solicited from him ; defend- 
ed the Reformation against the attacks of its 
enemies, and particularly those of the French 
priests ; was forced to repel his numerous an- 
tagonists, by various books which he composed 
for that purpose ; and found time to publish 
several other works, which, by their solidity and 
depth, are calculated for the instruction of 
every age.' 

In 1543 he composed for the church of Ge- 
neva a Liturgy, accompanied with Directions 
for Celebrating the Ordinances of Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper. His personal and official 
character were now held in such high esteem 
in that city, that its entire affairs, civil and eccle- 
siastical, were moulded by him : and the snares 




of secular influence and earthly greatness sur- 
rounded him on every side. The learned Cas- 
taiio having endeavoured to disseminate some 
opinions differing from those of our reformer, 
on the descent of Christ into hell, was banished 
from Geneva. A James Grant is said to have 
been condemned to death in 1547 for impiety, 
treason, and speaking disrespectfully of Calvin ; 
and in 1553 drew on the memorable persecution 
of Servetus by the public authorities. 

Previously to this last event, we find him en- 
eugaged in controversy with the decisions of the 
council of Trent, in a work called The Antidote: 
with the divines of Rouen, who had renewed 
the heresy of Carpocrates on that church, in 
composing his commentaries in the epistle of St. 
Paul; and in a correspondence with Luther, 
Bucer, and all the principal reformers. In 1 548 
he was joined in the public affairs by the cele- 
brated Beza. He also had a long controversy 
with Jerome Bolzec, a Carmelite friar, who began 
to teach the sentiments afterwards espoused by 
Arminius. The celebrated John Knox visited 
him at about this period. 'Calvin' says Dr. 
M* Crie, * was then in the zenith of his reputa- 
tion and usefulness, had completed the eccle- 
siastical establishment of that city ; and, having 
surmounted the opposition raised by those who 
envied his authority, or disliked his system of 
doctrine aiid discipline, was securely seated in 
the affections of the citizens. His writings were 
already translated into the different languages of 
Europe ; and Geneva was thronged with strangers 
from Germany, France, Poland, Hungary, and 
even from Spain and Italy, who came to consult 
him about the advancement of the Reformation, 
or to find shelter from the persecutions to which 
they were exposed in their native countries. 
Calvin was respected by none more than by the 
Protestants of England ; and, at the desire of 
archbishop Cranmer, he had imparted to the 
protector Somerset, and to Edward VI. his ad- 
vice as to the best method of advancing the 
Reformation in that kingdom. Knox was af- 
fectionately received by him as a refugee from 
England ; and an intimate friendship was soon 
formed between them, which subsisted until the 
death of Calvin in 1564. They were nearly of 
the same age ; and there was a striking simi- 
larity in their sentiments and in the more pro- 
minent features of their character. The Ge- 
nevan Reformer was highly pleased with the 
piety and talents of Knox, who, in his turn, en- 
tertained a greater esteem and deference for 
Calvin than for any other of the Reformers. 

Servetus was a Spanish physician, who had ac- 
quired a respectable professional character at 
Vienne ; his works Restitutio Christianismi, De 
Trinitatis Erroribus ; et in Ptolemeum Com- 
Tnentarius had also with his heretical pravity 
established his undoubted claims to considerable 
learning. It was no palliation of the perse- 
cuting zeal of Calvin that the Papists had 
already condemned some of their performances 
to be burnt by heresy. Calvin instigated the 
council of Geneva to sieze, imprison, and finally 
nut the author to a cruel death. 

This disgraceful tale has been amplified by the 
assqrtion that Calvin wrote to the magistrates of 

Vienne to procure the arrest of Servetus, that he 
had thirsted for years for his blood, &c. There 
is, perhaps, no clear evidence of this r the fact seems 
to be that Servetus was passing through Geneva to 
Naples, with a view to find a retreat from per- 
secution, when he fell thus unhappily into its 
fangs. Nor do we know that the matter is much 
extenuated (excused it never can be) by the fact 
that Bucer, and even Melancthon, approved of 
the conduct of our reformer in instigating the 
sacrifice of Servetus. The plain truth is, that 
Calvin was seduced by his dangerous worldly 
influence, to imagine that he could thus serve 
the cause of his peaceful and benevolent master: 
and that he in this instance must stand recorded 
to posterity in the unholy character of a per- 
secutor unto blood. ' He acted in this case,' 
say his apologists, ' as he uniformly did, from no 
party view, or paltry resentments, but from a 
strong sense of duty, and an ardent love to truth. 
What he did in it, he did with his characteristic 
steadiness and zeal : and it is evident, that his 
chief anxiety was, not to punish Servetus, but to 
make him retract his error, a design which was 
frustrated by the obstinacy, the violence, and the 
impious language, of Servetus himself.' More- 
over, persecution we are told was the sin of the 
age. No part of this apology has, we confess, 
much weight with us. The spirit of persecution to 
which the reformers at any time lent themselves 
was in them the more inexcusable, as they had 
been themselves, and saw their brethren daily, 
sufferers from this very spirit. It was the sin 
against which God in the judgments and trials 
of that age peculiarly warned them ; no admi- 
ration of what they effected should make us 
palliate the enormity of their thus manifesting 
the disposition of him who was ' a destroyer' 
from the beginning ; and it must have been the 
pride of the zealot, and the interests of the party 
being injured, rather than any pure or real love 
of truth, that ever orompted these bloody deeds: 
of which in this instance we speak the more 
freely, because we honor Calvin much. 

After this event Calvin's life is chequered 
with but few matters of public importance. 
His efforts at promoting a universal Christian 
discipline at Geneva were often impeded ; and 
his extensive projects for the establishment of his 
own views of ecclesiastical government, in other 
countries, not very successful. He was deeply 
afflicted by the frequent persecution of his bre- 
thren in France, and by the disunion among the 
Protestants of various parts of Europe : the 
latter he earnestly sought to heal ; and certainly, 
by his talents and remonstrances, abated the 
violence of the former. 

In February, 1564, this great man became con- 
scious of his approaching death ; and on the 2d 
of that month preached his last sermon, and 
delivered his last lecture in the day. Being 
visited on tke 10th of March by Beza and several 
private friends, he spoke of his expected de- 
parture with great composure and solemnity ; 
and having been carried to the council on the 
27th, he took his leave of them with much 
affection, declaring that he never more ex- 
pected to appear in that place. On the 2d of 
April, though much reduced, he attended the 



public services of his church, and received the 
sacrament from the hands of Beza. On the 28th, 
all the clergy of the town and neighbourhood 
being assembled in the room, he gave them a 
parting address, exhorting them to steadfastness 
and perseverance, and instancing his own rernaik- 
able success as an encouragement to their labors. 
His remaining days were devoted to private 
duties and meditation. He died with great 
calmness on the 24th of May. 

The works and system of Calvin will ever 
claim for him a distinguished place in the history 
of modern Christianity. No writer of the Re- 
formation made so many converts to his peculiar 
views ; no one name has designated the religious 
system of such multitudes. His treatises when 
all collected in 1560 formed nine volumes folio. 
For an abstract of his views see below. 

CALVINISM, in modern ecclesiastical history, 
designates certain prominent articles of belief, 
rather than the entire religious creed of those 
who avow the system, and it is not strictly the 
name of a sect, for it is connected with no pe- 
culiar form of church government or discipline, 
but prevails among Episcopalians, Presbyterians, 
Independents, and Methodists. The Calvinistic 
Baptists are also numerous. 

Many writers, with Dr. Evans (Sketch of the 
Different Denominations of the Christian World), 
speak of the tenets of Calvinism as, predestina- 
tion, original sin, particular redemption, irre- 
sistible grace, and the final perseverance of the 
people of God : sometimes called by theologians 
the five points. But the doctrine of original 
sin is by no means peculiar to the Calvinists. It 
is, with some modifications, a sentiment held by 
most protestant sects. This author adds, as the 
Calvinists differ among themselves in the expli- 
cation of these tenets, it would be difficult to 
give a specific account of them. Generally 
speaking, however, they comprehend the fol- 
lowing propositions. 1. That God has chosen 
a certain number in Christ to everlasting glory, 
before the foundation of the world, according to 
his immutable purpose, and of his free grace 
and love, without the least foresight of faith, 
good works, or any conditions performed by the 
creature ; and that the rest of mankind he was 
pleased to pass by, and ordain them to dishonor 
and wrath for their sins, to the praise of his vin- 
dictive justice. 2. That Jesus Christ, by his 
death and sufferings, made an atonement only 
for the sins of the elect. 3. That mankind are 
totally depraved in consequence of the fall ; and, 
by virtue of Adam's being their public head, the 
guilt of his sin was imputed, and a corrupt 
nature conveyed to all his posterity, from which 
proceed all actual transgressions ; and that by 
sin we are made subject to death, and all miseries, 
temporal, spiritual, and eternal. 4. That all 
whom God has predestined to life, he is pleased, 
in his appointed time, effectually to call by his 
word and spirit out of that state of sin and 
death, in which they are by nature, to grace and 
salvation by Jesus Christ. And 5. That those 
whom God has effectually called and sanctified 
by his spirit shall never finally fall from a state 
of grace. Some have supposed that the trinity 
was one of the five points ; but this is a mistake, 

since both the Calvinists arid Arminians, who 
formed the synod of Dort (where this phrase, 
five points, originated) were on the article of 
the trinity generally agreed. The most pro- 
minent feature of this system is, the election 
of some, and reprobation of others, from all 

Calvin's own system extended to the discipline 
and government of the Christian church, the na- 
ture of the Eucharist, and the qualification of 
those who were entitled to the participation of it. 
He considered every church as a separate and in- 
dependent body, invested with the power of legis- 
lating for itself; and proposed that it should be 
governed by presbyteries and synods, composed 
of clergy and laity, without bishops or any cleri- 
cal subordination; maintaining, that the province 
of the civil magistrate extended only to its pro- 
tection and outward accommodation. In order 
to facilitate a union with the Lutheran church, 
he acknowledged a real, though spiritual, pre- 
sence of Christ in the Eucharist; that true 
Christians were united to the man Christ in this 
ordinance ; and that divine grace was conferred 
upon them, and sealed to them, m the celebration 
of it. The privilege of communion he confined 
to pious and regenerate believers. Calvinism 
long subsisted in its most complete exhibition in 
the city of Geneva ; whence it was propagated 
into Germany, France, the United Provinces, 
Scotland, and England. In France it was 
abolished by the revocation of the edict of Nantz, 
in 1685. It has has been the prevailing religion 
in the United Provinces ever since the year 1571 . 
In Scotland the celebrated John Knox not only 
established the doctrinal sentiments, but the ce- 
remonies, rites, and discipline of the Genevan 
church as nearly as possible. 

In England the discipline of that church, if 
we except the period of the Commonwealth, 
never prevailed ; but the degree to which, with 
propriety, the articles of the established creed 
may be considered as Calvinistic, has, almost from 
the period of the Reformation, been a matter of 
controversy. The majority of the clergy certainly 
have not in general been Calvinists : but num- 
bers of respectable and learned individuals 
among them are and have been so. These have 
contended that the thirty-nine articles moderately 
but decidedly assert the peculiarities of their creed. 
On the other hand, the bishop of Winchester has 
published a very popular work, entitled A Refu- 
tation of Calvinism, in which he insists that 
neither the homilies nor any of the formularies 
of the church contain any thing in favor of that 

CALUMBA, the root of the cocculus palmatus. 
This root is imported from Ceylon, in circular, 
brown knobs, wrinkled on the outer surface, yel- 
lowish within, and consisting of woody, and 
medullary laminae. Its smell is aromatic, its 
taste pungent, and very bitter. Spirit of wine 
extracts its virtues in the greatest perfection, its 
watery infusion being more perishable than that 
of other bitters. The extract made first by 
spirit and then by water, and reduced by evapor 
ation to a semi-tiuid consistence, is found to 
be equal if not superior in efficacy, to the pow- 
der. As an antiseptic, Calumbarootis certainly 

i: 2 




inferior to bark ; but as ' a corrector of putrid 
bile it is greatly superior ; whence also it is pro- 
bable, that it would be of service in the West 
India yellow fever. It does not appear to have 
the least heating quality ; it occasions no distur- 
bance, and agrees very well with a milk diet, as 
it is not disposed to acidity. The dose of the 
powdered root is half a drachm, which, in urgent 
cases, may be repeated every third or fourth 

CALUMET, a symbolical instrument of great 
importance among the American Indians. It is 
a pipe, whose bowl is generally made of a soft 
red marble ; the tube of a very long reed, orna- 
mented with wings and feathers of birds. No 
affair of consequence is transacted without the 
calumet. It appears ia meetings of commerce 
or exchanges, and in congresses for .determining 
peace or war. The acceptance of the calumet 
is a mark of concurrence with the terms proposed, 
as a refusal is a certain mark of rejection. Even 
in the rage of a conflict this pipe is sometimes 
offered : and, if accepted, the weapons of des- 
truction instantly drop from their hands, and a 
truce ensues. The calumet of peace is different 
from that of war. They make use of the former 
to seal their alliances and treaties, to travel with 
safety, and to receive strangers ; but of the latter 
to proclaim war. It consists of a red stone, like 
marble, formed into a cavity resembling the head 
of a tobacco pipe, and fixed to a hollow reed. 
They adorn it with feathers of various colors ; 
and name it the calumet of the sun, to which 
luminary they present it, in expectation of there- 
by obtaining a change of weather as often as they 
desire. From the winged ornaments of the calu- 
met, and its conciliating uses, writers compare it 
to the caduceus of Mercury, which was carried 
by the caduceatores of peace, with terms to the 
hostile states. 

CALUMET, DANCE OF THE, is a solemn rite 
among the Indians on various occasions. They 
dare not wash themselves in rivers in the begin- 
ning of summer, nor taste of the new fruits, 
without performing it; and the same ceremony 
always confirms a peace or precedes a war. It 
is performed in winter in their cabins, and in 
summer in the open fields. For this purpose 
they choose a spot among trees to shade them 
from the heat of the sun, and lay in the middle 
a large mat, as a carpet, setting upon it the god 
of the chief of the company. On the right hand 
of this image they place the calumet, as their 
great deity, erecting around it a kind of trophy 
with their arms. The hour of dancing being 
come, those who are to sing take the most honor- 
able seats under the shade of the trees. . The 
company is then ranged round, every one, before 
he sits down, saluting the monitor, which is done 
by blowing upon it the smoke of their tobacco. 
Each person next receive? the calumet in rotation, 
and holding it with both hands, dances to the 
cadence of the vocal music, which is accompanied 
with the beating;of a sort of drum. During this 
exercise, he gives a signal to one of their warriors, 
who takes a bow, arrow, and axe, from the tro- 
phies already mentioned, and fights him ; the 
former defending himself with the calumet only, 
and both of them dancin,g all the while. This 

mock engagement being over, he who holds the 
calumet makes a speech, in which he gives an 
account of the battles he has fought, and the 
prisoners he has taken, and then receives a cloak, 
or some other present from the chief of the ball. 
He then resigns the calumet to another, who, 
having acted a similar part, delivers it to a third, 
and he to a fourth, &c. till at last the instrument 
returns to the person who began the ceremony, 
and who presents it to the nation invited to the 
feast, as a mark of their friendship, and a confir- 
mation of their alliance. 

CALUMNI.ZE, JUDICIITM, was an action 
brought against the plaintiff in a court for a false 
and malicious accusation. When an accuser did 
not prove his charge, nor seemed to have suffici- 
ent or probable grounds for bringing any, the 
judges in pronouncing sentence used the formula 
calumniosus es : which gave the defendant a right 
to bring an action of calumny ; the penalty of 
which was frontis inustio, or burning on the fore- 

Lat. calumnior ; Fr. 









calomnier ; to accuse 
falsely ; to charge with- 
out just ground ; a false 
and malicious represen- 
tatioa to an offensive 
purpose. To slander; 
to impeach the credit, 

and blemish the fame of another by injurious 

imputations founded in falsehood. 

Beauty, wit, high birth, desert in service, 
Love, friendship, charity, are subject all 
To envious and calumniating time. Shakspeare. 

HAM. If thou dost marry, I'll give thee this plague 
for thy dowry : Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as 
snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Get thee to a 
nunnery ; farewell : Or, if thou wilt needs marry, 
marry a fool j for wise men know well enough, what 
monsters you make of them. To a nunnery go ; and 
quickly too. Id. 

No might nor greatness in mortality, 
Can censure 'scape, back-wounding calumny, 
The whitest virtue strikes. Id. 

He that would live clear of the envy and hatred of 
potent calumniators, must lay his finger on his mouth, 
and keep his hand out of the ink-pot. L'Eitranye. 

He mixes truth with falsehood, and has not forgot- 
ten the rule of calumniating strongly, that something 
may remain. Dryden't Fables. Pref. 

One trade or art, even those that should be the 
most liberal, make it their business to disdain and 
calumniate another. Sprat. 

It is a very hard calumny upon our soil or climate, 
to affirm, that so excellent a fruit will not grow here. 


In order to heal this infirmity, which is natural to 
the best and wisest of men, I have taken a particular 
pleasure in observing the conduct of the old philoso- 
phers, how they bore themselves up against the 
malice and detraction of their enemies. The way to 
silence calumny, says Bias, is to be always exercised 
in such things as are praise-worthy. Guardian. 

Do I calumniate ? thou ungrateful Vanoc.- 
Perfidious prince ! Is it a calumny 
To say that Gwendolen, betrothed to Yver, 
Was by her father first assured to Valens 1 

A. Philips. 




Behold the host ! delighting to deprave, 
Who track the steps of glory to the grave, 
Watch every fault that daring genius owes, 
Half to the ardours which its birth bestows, 
Distort the truth, accumulate the lie, 
And pile the pyramid of Calumny! Byru.t. 

CALUMNY was admirably personified by 
Apelles. This celebrated painter, having been 
accused of conspiracy against Ptolemy, king of 
Egypt ; determined to represent calumny in a 
picture. On the right of this celebrated piece 
was seated a man with large ears, resembling 
Midas, stretching out his hand to Calumny, who 
approached him ; and near him were placed two 
female figures, of Ignorance and Diffidence. On 
the other side stood Calumny, a beautiful female, 
appearing agitated and enraged ; she held in her 
left hand a flaming torch, and with her right she 
dragged by the hair a youth, who was lifting his 
hands towards the heavens, and calling the gods 
to witness in his favor. Before her moved a pale 
and deformed man, with piercing eyes, who 
seemed to have just recovered from a long illness : 
this was Envy. Two other females conversed 
with Calumny : these were Concealment and 
Deceit. Another female followed, clothed in 
black, with tattered garments, which was Repen- 
tance; she turned her head backward, dissolved 
in tears, and looked with shame upon Truth who 
approached her. 

CALUMNY, OATH OF, Juramentum, or rather 
Jusjurandum, Calumnies, among civilians and 
canonists, was an oath which both parties in a 
cause were obliged to take ; the plaintiff that he 
did not bring his charge, and the defendant that 
he did not deny it, with a design to abuse each 
other, but because they believed their cause was 
just and good ; that they would not deny the 
truth, nor create unnecessary delays, nor offer the 
judge or evidence any gifts or bribes. If the 
plaintiff refused this oath, the complaint was dis- 
missed ; if the defendant, it was taken pro con- 
fesso. The Juramentum calumnite is much dis- 
used, as a great occasion of perjury. Anciently 
the advocates and proctors also took this oath, 
but of late it is dispensed with, and thought suffi- 
cient that they take it once for all. at their first 
admission to practice. 

CALX properly signifies lime, but is used by 
chemists and physicians for a fine powder remain- 
ing after the calcination or corrosion of metals 
and other mineral substances. All metalic calces 
made by fire, are found to weigh more than the 
metal from which they were originally produced. 
CALX NATIVA, in natural history, a kind of 
marly earth, of a dead whitish color, which, if 
thrown into water, makes a considerable bubbling 
and hissing noise, and has, without previous 
burning, the quality of making a cement like 
lime or plaster of Paris. It is found in En- 

CALX VIVA, or quick-lime, that whereon no 
water has been cast, in contradistinction to lime 
which has been slacked. See LIME. 

CALYCANTHUS, in botany, a genus of the 
polygynia order, in the icosandria class of plants : 
CAL. is monophyllous, urceolate, with small 
colored leaves : COR. consisting of the leaves on 
the calyx ; the styles are numerous, each with a 

glandula stigma; the seeds are many, each with n 
train, within a succulent calyx. The species are 
all shrubs, the chief are, 1. C. floridus, flower- 
ing calycanthus, or Carolina allspice tree, a na- 
tive of Carolina, It is of a brown color, and 
when bruised emits a most agreeable odor. The 
leaves that garnish this delightful aromatic ar^of 
an oval figure, pointed, nearly four inches long, 
and at least two and a-half broad, placed opposite 
by pairs on the branches. At the end of these 
stand the flowers, of a kind of chocolate purple 
color, and possessed of the opposite qualities of 
the bark on the branches. They stand single 
on their short foot-stalks, come out in May and 
June, and are succeeded by ripe seeds in En- 
gland. The propagation of this shrub is not 
very difficult. 

CALYCANTHUS PRJECOX, a native of Japan. 
This species is not inured to the climate of Bri- 

CALYCERA, from KaXw?, calyx, and Kepac, 
a horn ; a genus of plants, of the class syngene- 
sia, order segregata : CAL. common, polyphyl- 
lous proper, five-toothed. Florets tubular, male 
and hermaphrodite, seeds naked. There is but 
one species, C. herbacea; native of Chili. 

CALYCIFLORUS, in zoology, a species of 
brachionus, of a simple form, the shell being 
crenated behind, and the upper lip four-toothed. 
Found iu standing waters, but invisible to the 
naked eye. 

CALYCINA, in entomology, a Swedish 
species of aranea; the aranea Kleynii of Scopoli. 
It is of a pale yellowish color, and derives its 
name from its habit of secreting itself in the 
calyces of flowers from which the corolla has 
fallen, to fasten on the flies that are tempted thi- 
ther in search of the nectareous juices. 

a system of botanical classification, founded 
upon the calyx, and published by Linnaeus at 
Ley den, in 1738, in his Classes Plantarum. 

CAL'YCLE, 7i. s. Lat. calyculus ; a small 
bud of a plant. 

CALYDON, a city of jEtolia, where (Eneus, 
the father of Meleager reigned. The Evenus 
flows through it, and it receives its name from 
Calydon the son of .ZEtolus. During the reign 
of (JEneus, Diana sent a wild boar to ravage the 
country, on account of the neglect which had been 
shown to her divinity by the king. All the princes 
of that age assembled to hunt this boar, which 
event was greatly celebrated by the poets, under 
the name of the chase of the Calydonian boar. 
Meleager killed the animal with his own hand, 
and gave the head to Atalanta, of whom he was 
enamoured. The skin was preserved, and was 
still seen in the time of Pausanias, in the temple 
of Minerva. The tusks were also preserved by 
the Arcadians in Tegea, and Augustus carried 
them away to Rome, because the people of Tegea 
had followed the party of Antony. These tusks 
were shown for a long time at Rome, one of them 
was about half an ell long, and the other was 
broken. See MELEAGER and ATALANTA. 

CALYPLECTUS, in botany, a genus of plants, 
of the class icosandria, order monogynia : CAL. 
bell-shaped, perianth leathery, with from ten to 
twelve folds, and the same number of teeth : COR. 




ten to twelve petals, attached to the folds of the 
calyx : STAM. about thirty : PIST. germ supe- 
rior, striated : PERIC. capsule, one celled, longi- 
tudinally striated in its upper part, opening irre- 
gularly. Seeds numerous, and membranous. 

CALYPSO, in entomology, an African species 
of papilio, distinguished by having the wings 
roundish and yellow ; a dot, the tip of the ante- 
rior pair, and the margin of the posterior ones 

CALYPSO, one of the Oceanides, or a daughter 
of Atlas, according to some writers, was goddess 
of silence, and reigned in the island of Ogygia. 
But the situation, and even the existence, of this 
island is doubted. When Ulysses was ship- 
wrecked on her coasts, she received him with 
great hospitality, and offered him immortality if 
he would remain with her as a husband. The 
hero refused, and after seven years' delay, he was 
permitted to depart from the island by order of 
Mercury, the messenger of Jupiter. During his 
stay, Ulysses had two sons by Calypso, Nausi- 
thous and Nausinous. Calypso was inconsolable 
at the departure of Ulysses. 

CALYPTRA, in botany, the calyptre, a tender 
skin that loosely covers the top of the theca, like 
a cup. The calyptra is villose or hairy, when 
composed of hairs ; entire, when it covers the 
whole top of the theca, dimidiate when it half 
covers the theca, and dentated when the rim is set 
with teeth. 

CALYX, in botany. See BOTASY. 

CAM, or GRANTA, a river of England, formed 
by the junction of the Rhee which rises in Hert- 
fordshire, and the Granta which rises in Essex. 
This takes place near Cambridge, to which the 
united stream gives name, and afterwards flows 
into the Ouse. 

CAM^EA, in natural history, a genus of the 
semi-pellucid gems, approaching to the onyx 
structure, being composed of zones, and formed 
on a crystalline basis; but having the zones 
very broad and thick, and laid alternately one on 
another, usually less transparent and more debased 
with earth than the onyxes. There are four 
species ; viz. 1. the dull-looking onyx, with 
broad black and white zones ; the camsea of the 
moderns, and the Arabian onyx. It is found in 
Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and the East Indies. 2. 
The dull broad-zoned, green and white camaea, or 
the jaspicameo of the Italians ; found in the East 
indies, and some parts of America. 3. The hard 
camaea, with broad white and chestnut colored 
veins. 4. The hard camsca, with bluish, white, 
and flesh-colored broad veins, being the sardonyx 
of Pliny's time, brought from the East Indies. 

CAMAIIA, in the materia medica, a name 
given by Avicenna and others to the large mush- 
rooms found in the deserts of Numidia, and many 
other parts of Africa. They are white on the 
outside : the modern Africans call them terfon, 
and are very fond of them ; they eat them with 
milk, water, and spices, and account them 
wholesome and nutritive. 

CAMA'IEU, n. s. From camehuia, which 
name is given by the orientals to the onyx, when, 
in preparing it, they find another color. A 
stone with various figures and representations of 
landscapes, formed by nature. In painting, a 

term used when there is only one color, airl 
where the lights and shadows are of gold, wiou^Ut 
on a golden or azure ground. This kind of work 
is chiefly used to represent basso relievos. 

CAMAIEU, or CAMAYEU, in mineralogy, a 
word used to express a peculiar sort of onyx : 
also by some to express a stone, whereon are 
found various figures and representations of 
landscapes, &c. formed by a kind of lusus na- 
turae ; so as to exhibit pictures without painting. 
The word comes from camehuia, a name the 
Orientals gave to the onyx, when tb^v find, in 
preparing it, another color. It is now used to 
express those precious stones, as onyxes, cor- 
nelians, and agates, whereon the lapidaries em- 
ploy their art to aid nature, and perfect those 
representations ; and also any kind of gem, 
whereon figures maybe engraven, either indented, 
or in relievo. In this sense the lapidaries of 
Paris were called in the statutes, cutters of ca- 
mayeux. It is more particularly used for those 
stones of differently colored laminae. These 
laminae are left or removed with much art, for 
the head, the beard, the hair, and other colors of 
a bust. Some antique cameos have four layers, 
as the fine one of the apotheosis of Augustus, 
and that of Germanicus in the Royal Library at 
Paris ; one of the same subject as the first men- 
tioned, and another of Rome and Augustus, in 
the cabinet at Vienna. 

MALDUNIANS, an order of religious, founded by 
Romuald, an Italian fanatic, in 1023, in the de- 
sert of Camaldoli. Their rule is that of St. 
Benedict ; and their houses, by the statutes, are 
never to be less than five leagues from cities. 
The Camaldolites have not borne that title from 
the beginning of their order ; till the close of the 
eleventh century they were called Romualdins, 
from the name of their founder. Till that time, 
Camaldolite was a particular name for those of 
the desert Camaldoli ; and D. Grandi observes, 
was not given to the whole order, in regard it 
was in this monastery that the order commenced, 
but because the regulation was best maintained 
here. Guido Grandi, mathematician to the grand 
duke of Tuscany, and a monk of this order, 
published Camaldulian Dissertations, on the 
origin and establishment of it. They were dis- 
guislied into two classes, viz. Coenobites and 

CAMALODUNUM, in ancient geography, a 
town of the Trinobantes, the first Roman colony 
of veterans in Britain. From the Itineraries it 
appears to have stood where Maiden now stands. 
It continued to be an open place under the Ro- 
mans ; a place of pleasure rather than strength ; 
adorned with splendid works, as a theatre, and 
a temple of Claudius : which the Britons con- 
sidered as badges of slavery, and which gave rise 
to several commotions. 

CAMARGUE, or CAMABQUE, LA, a tract of 
Provence, France, insulated by the two principal 
mouths of the Rhone. It is sometimes called 
the Delta of France. It is a cluster of islands, 
spread over nearly 200 square miles, and sepa- 
rated only by canals. The soil is fertile in 
corn and pasture, though very marshy in parti- 
cular places, and much impregnated with salt. 




3000 black cattle are said to be found here, a 
like stock of horses, and 40,000 sheep. The 
island is the property of the town of Aries ; and 
belongs to the department of the Mouths of the 
Rhone. It is divided into nine parishes, and 
numerous villages. 

CAMARINA, in ancient geography, a city of 
Sicily, built by the Syracusans on an eminence 
near the sea, in the south of Sicily, to the west 
of the promontory Pachynum, between the 
rivers Hipparis and .Oanus. Nothing remains 
but its ancient walls, a mile and a half in com- 
pass ; with a few houses. It is now called Ca- 

CAMARINA PALUS, a marsh or lake, near the 
city, from which it took its name. In a time of 
drought, the stench of the lake produced a pes- 
tilence ; upon which the inhabitants consulted the 
oracle, whether they should not drain it. The 
oracle dissuaded them : they notwithstanding 
drained it, and opened a way for their enemies to 
come and plunder their city : hence the proverb, 
Ne moveas Camarinam, that is, not to remove 
one evil to bring on a greater. It is now called 
Lago di Camarana. 

CAMARINES, a province on the south of 
Lucori, one of the Philippine islands. There 
are several hot springs here, and some of a pe- 
trifying quality. The capital is Caceres. 

CAMARONES, a large river of western 
Africa, which is, however, but little known to 
Europeans. It forms at its mouth a number 
of alluvial islands. Long. 9 0' E., lat. 3 
30' S. 

CAMARONES, a river of Patagonia, which, 
forming a bay of that name, falls into the At- 
lantic in lat. 44 45' S. 

CAMAROSIS, in surgery, denotes a fracture 
of a bone, wherein the two broken ends rise and 
form a kind of arch. It is chiefly applied to 
fractures in the skull. 

CAMASSEI, or CAMACE, (Andrew), painter 
of history and landscape, was born at Bevagna, 
and studied under Dominichino and Sacchi. 
He was employed in St. Peter's at Rome, and 
at St. John Lateran ; and his works are much 
admired for sweetness of coloring, and de- 
licacy of pencil. He died in the bloom of life, 
when his reputation was daily advancing, A. D. 

CAMBAHEE, a considerable river of South 
Carolina, formed by the junction of two large 
streams which rise in Orangeburg, and after 
passing into Charleston district, unite, and run- 
ning south-east, enter St. Helena Sound, a little 
to the south-west of Ashepoo. 

CAMBAL, a fertile and hilly district of 
Southern Abyssinia. Its inhabitants are inde- 
pendent, and consist of Christians, Mahom- 
medans, and Pagans. 

CAMBAY, a sea-port town of Ahmedabad, 
Mindostan, in the province of Gujerat, the Cu- 
manes of Ptolemy. It stands at the top of a 
gulf of the same name, and was formerly a 
flourishing commercial port, but the sea has re- 
nred from the coast considerably, and the navi- 
gation of the gulf is dangerous. Its principal 
Jrade now is in corn, cornelians, and cottons, for 
Bombay ; and a few elephants' teeth and cor- 

nelians for the China markets. There are three 
extensive bazaars. The town is surrounded by i 
brick wall, and most of the houses are of brick 
or stone. The wall is about five miles in circuit, 
enclosing five noble reservoirs of water. The 
inhabitants are considered very expert plasterers. 
So early as the fifth century this town is con- 
jectured to have been the capital of the Baleyras 
and of the western Hindoo emperors. It was 
taken by the Mahommedans in the thirteenth 
century, and in the sixteenth presented to the 
Portuguese the magnificent ruins of a first-rate 
city : but these were more to the south than the 
site of the present town. Here, however, are 
still seen Hindoo subterranean temples, con- 
structed since the Mahommedan invasion, and 
the houses of opulent persons contain numerous 
apartments under ground. In a subterranean 
Jain temple are two statues of deities of large 
size. The inscription on one, which is white, 
intimates that it is an image of Parswanatha, 
carved and consecrated in the reign of the em- 
peror Acber, A.D. 1602. That on the other, 
the black one, has merely the date 1651, with 
the names of two Banyans who brought it here. 
This place was first taken possession of by the 
British in 1780, but restored three years after- 
wards to the Mahrattas. It was again taken in 
the last Mahratta war, and confirmed to the com- 
pany in 1803. It is in the jurisdiction of Broach. 

CAMBAYES, in commerce, cotton cloths 
made at Bengal, Madras, and some other places 
on the coast of Coromandel. They are proper 
for the trade of Marseilles, whither the English 
at Madras sent great numbers of them. Many 
of them are also imported to Holland. 

CAM'BER, n. 1 Lat. cumwrus; Fr. cam- 

CAM'BERING. 5 bre ; Per. khami, an arch or 
curve. A word mentioned by Skinner as pecu- 
liar to ship-builders, who say that a place is 
cambering, when they mean arched. 

Camber, a piece of timber cut arching, so as a 
considerable weight being set upon it, it may in length 
of time be induced to a straight. 

Moxon's Mechanical Exercises, 

CAMBERT, a French musician of the seven- 
teenth century, much admired for the manner in 
which he touched the organ. He became super- 
intendent of music to Anne of Austria, the 
queen-mother. The abbe Perin associated him 
in the privilege he obtained of setting up an 
opera in 1669. Cambert set to music two pas- 
torals, one entitled Pomona, the other Ariadne, 
which were the first operas given in France. He 
also wrote a piece entitled The Pains and Plea- 
sures of Love. These pieces pleased the public ; 
yet, in 1672, Lully obtained the privilege of the 
opera, and Cambert came to England, where he be- 
came superintendent of music to king Charles II. 
and died in 1677. 

CAMBODIA, a country of Asia, in the East 
Indies, bounded on the north by the kingdom 
of Laos, on the east by Cochin-China and 
Tsiampa, and on the south and west by the gull 
and kingdom of Siam. It extends about 400 
miles from north to south, and 150 in breadth 
from east to west, being watered by a fine stream, 
generally known by the name of the country. 
The coast is flat and woody ; the eastern and 


Round Church, in Bridge Street, is a curious Charles VI. and Philip V. of Spain. During the 
western parts of the interior mountainous, in- ' -French revolution it was the theatre of war, and 
tersected by deep ravines; but the middle, i J*w*.- iw.fc J^*.Ki-i>i-v 
through which the river passes, is a fine plain. 
Here are found precious stones of several species, 
and gold in considerable quantities. The soil is 

lord Wellington had his head quarters here in 1 81 5. 
It was afterwards one of the eighteen fortresses 
placed under his surveillance for five years. Six- 
teen miles south-east of Douay, seventeen west 

fertile producing legumes, rice, and fruits in of Valenciennes, and 110 N.N. E. of Paris. 

abundance, as well as many medicinal plants, " D ^ - - * ^1 > ~ 

the sandal and eagle-wood-tree, and many other 
valuable vegetables. Lions, elephants, and 
tigers are found here; and the cattle are ex- 
tremely plentiful. Silk and ivory are abundant 

CAM'BRIC, n. s. From Cambray, a city in 
Flanders, where it was principally made. A kind 
of fine linen, used for handkerchiefs, ruffles, wo- 
men's sleeves and caps, &c. 

He hath ribbons ol all the colours ot the rainbow , 

Confederate in the cheat, they draw the throng, 
And camMck handkerchiefs reward the song. Gay. 

CAMBRICS are now made at other places in 
This manufacture 

V f . _i i i i , j JCLC inuu riuuuus ui an mu LUIUUIS ui me raiiiuow , 

and cheap. This country is said to be inhabited ink]e8) caddises> camMc lu, and lawns. Shakspenre 
by a mixed race of 1,000,000 Cochin -Chinese, 
Malays, Japanese, and Portuguese. The men 
are handsome, with long hair and a yellow com- 
plexion. The women are said to be licentious. France besides Cambray- 
Both sexes dress in a kind of robe. - has long prove <i o f extraordinary advantage to 

ligion is that of the Siamese. Cambodia, or France For manv years it app eared that Eng- 
Lowaic, the capital, is seated on the westihoreot the i an d did not in this article contribute less than 
river Me-kon, Cambu Cha't, or Cambodia, about 200)000 per annum to the interest of France, 
150 miles north of its mouth. Long. 104 15 w hi ca induced the British parliament to enact 
E., lat. 13 10' N. Its inhabitants carry on little m laws to p rev ent it. See 18 Geo. II. c. 36, 
traffic with other nations, and never cross the sea, and 21 Geo n c 26 g ee also 32 G eo . II. c. 32, 
it is said, for commercial objects. Their exports and 4 Geo m c 37> which regu i ates the cam- 
are various kinds of wood, betel-nut, mother-of bric manu f a ctory. Cambrics now allowed in 
pearl-shells, peltry, silk and coarse cloths. In tllis countr y are manufactured in Scotland and 
the year 1670 the English attempted to traffic i re i an a. Any persons convicted of wearing, 
here, but their intercourse was short and un- se lli n g (except for exportation), or making up 
satisfactory. Saigong is the chief port of f or n j re any French cambrics or lawns, were liable 
export. to a penalty of 5 by the first two statutes cited 

CAMBOGIA, in botany, a genus of the mo- a b ove ; but the new system of free trade has 
nogynia order, belonging to the polyandria class ma( Je a change with respect to the admission of 
of plants; and in the natural method ranking French manufactures. 

under the thirty-ninth order, tricoccae. The CAMBRIDGE (CANTABRIGIA, Latin), a 
COR. is tetrapetalous ; the CAL. tetraphyllous ; county town of England, situated on the river 
and the fruit is a pome with eight cells, and so- Cam, eleven miles east of Ely, and fifty-one north 
litary seeds. The principal species is C. gutta, a o f London. It was the Camboritum, or Granta, 
native of India ; it yields the gum resin known o f the Romans, and a well known station of that 
by the name of gamboge. people, as the numerous urns, coins, and other 

CAMBRASINES, in commerce, fine linen antiquities dug up here attest. The modern 
made in Egypt, of which there is a considerable town is of small consideration, except for its 
trade at Cairo, Alexandria, and Raschit. They connexion with the University, being only about 
are so called from their resemblance to cam- a mile in length, and half a mile broad ; the 
brics. best streets are Trumpington Street, and St. An- 

CAMBRAY, a well-built city of the Nether- drew's Street, united with Regent Street towards 
lands, on the banks of the Scheldt. It is an arch- Gogmagog hills; but the whole is well paved, 
bishop's see. The cathedral, episcopal palace, Its population has been pretty stationary at 
and several of the public buildings, are magnifi- somewhat more than 10,000 for many years, but 
cent, and the streets are spacious. The popu- has since reached 14,000, and is still increasing, 
lation is about 16,000, but the once flourishing The tradespeople derive their support principally 
manufactures of linen, cambrick (which derives from the learned residents and visitors of the 
its name from this place), lace, tapestry, and colleges. Butter is a production of the neigh- 
hosiery, are much reduced. A considerable busi- bourhood for which the market is celebrated, and 
ness, however, is conducted in them, and in the which it sends in considerable quantities to Lon- 
neighbourhood are some noble bleaching grounds, don. That which is sold in Cambridge is made 
A citadel and regular fortress defend the place, up in the form of rolls, a yard long, and weigh- 
It was the Camaracum of the ancients, and gave ing just a pound. Here is also a trade in wool, 
the title of archbishop to the celebrated Fenelon. oil, iron, corn, and cheese. Here is a noble 
Charles V. garrisoned and fortified this city : the foundation called Addenbrookes' Hospital, lately 
Spaniards took it by surprize in 1595, after which much enlarged, which, as a general infirmary, is 
it remained in their possession until 1677, when resorted to from all parts of the county ; nume- 
it was taken by Ixmis XIV. to whom it was con- rous charity schools and almshouses; and some 
firmed by the peace of Nimeguen. It is also of the churches of the town are remarkable, 
noted in history for the famous league of 1507, Great St. Mary's, the University church, is a fine 
against the republic of Venice ; for a treaty con- Gothic edifice, having a lofty tower crowned with 
eluded here in 1529 between Francis I. of France, four beautiful pinnacles ; that of St. Sepulchre 
and the emperor Charles V; and for negociations was built in imitation of the church of the Holy 
opened here, but terminated at Vienna, between Sepulclire at Jerusalem. Market on Saturday 



Cambridge Castle was built by William the 
Conqueror, but much dilapidated in the suc- 
ceeding reigns and during the wars of the barons; 
a gate house of the original edifice is still stand- 
ing, and is now the county gaol. Richard II. 
held a parliament here, and the audacious Wat 
Tyler burnt the University records in the market 
place. It was often molested at this period by 
outlaws from the neighbouring fens. The pa- 
rishes are fourteen, and the churches thirteen, in 
number; and the dissenters are numerous and 
respectable, having three commodious chapels, 
three of smaller size, and a Quaker's meeting- 
house, though none of that persuasion reside in 
the town. Cambridge is governed by a mayor, 
recorder, thirteen aldermen, twenty-four common 
council-men, and a town-clerk, and the town 
sends two members to parliament. The police 
is under the joint direction of the university and 
corporation, the vice-chancellor being always a 
magistrate ex officio. Fronting the shire-hall, 
in the market-place, stands Hobson's conduit, 

the gift of a celebrated horse jockey and carrier, ir 
the reign of James 1., whose conduct gave rise to 
the expression of Ilobson's choice, 'that or none;' 
for in letting out his horses he strictly followed 
that rotation which gave each an equal share of 
work ; and refused, it is said, to let any other 
than that which stood next. Near the gardens 
of Bene't College is a botanic garden of five 
acres, with a large house for the use of the go-' 
vernors, curator, &c., given to the University by 
the late Dr. Walker, and augmented by the be- 
nefaction of the late Dr. Betham. 

The University of Cambridge consists of 
thirteen colleges and four halls, the latter enjoy- 
ing; equal privileges with the former. Th<j re- 
mote antiquity that has been claimed for it need 
not here engage much attention. Sigebert, king 
of the East Angles in 630, was the first founder 
of whom any credible account remains; but 
few, or none, of the existing colleges were built 
or endowed until the thirteenth century. The 
following is the order of their foundation : 

Colleges or Halls. 
St. Peter's, or Peter House 
Clare Hall . . . 
Pembroke Hall . . . . 
Corpus Christ! .... 
Gonville and Caius College 

Founders. A. D. 

Hugo de Balsham 1257 

..... 1326,1342 

Mary de St. Paul 1343 

. . . 1356 

Edmund Gonville and Dr. Caius 1348, 1557 

Trinity Hall . . . . . . William Bateman, bishop of Norwich . 1351 

King's College Henry VI. VII. and VIII 1441 

Queen's College . . V . . Margaret of Anjou 1448 

Catherine Hall . .'...'. . Robert Woodlark 1474 

Jesus College John Alcock, bishop of Ely .... 1496 

Christ College Margaret, countess of Richmond . . 1506 

St. John's College 
Trinity College . . . 
Magdalen College . . 
Emanuel College . . . 
Sidney Sussex College . 
Downing College 

The same 1511 

Henry VIII 1540 

Thomas, lord Audley 1542 

Sir Walter Mildmay 1584 

Frances, countess of Sussex .... 1593 

Sir George Downing 1800 

At the first foundation of these splendid are to consider and determine what graces are 
schools there was no public provision for the proper to be brought before the body of the 
accommodation or maintenance of the scholars ; university, and each of them has a negative 
but afterwards inns began to be erected by pious voice. All graces must first pass the caput be- 
persons for their reception; and in the time of fore they can be produced to the senate. Each 
Edward I. colleges were regularly endowed, college has its school and library, as at Oxford, 
The university enjoys great privileges. It is of which those of Trinity and St. John are the 
governed by a chancellor, who is always a noble- most considerable. The senate of this univer- 
man, and has a commissary under him, but may sity includes all the doctors and masters of arts, 
be changed every third year; a high steward, and is divided into two houses: the first con- 
chosen by the senate ; a vice-chancellor, chosen sisting of regents, or those who have not been 
annually by the senate, out of two named by the masters of arts five years, called white-hoods, 
heads of colleges from their own number ; two from the lining of their hoods. The second are 
proctors, chosen every year; and two taxers, who, non-regents, or those who have taken the degree 
with the proctors, regulate the weights and mea- of master upwards of five years, but have not 
sures ; two moderators, and two scrutators. The advanced to the degree of doctor; these are called 
other officers are, a registrar or keeper of the black-hoods. The doctors under two years 
archives, three esquire beadles, one yeoman standing can vote only in the regent-house ; but 
beadle, the library-keepers, &c. There is also all others may vote in which house they please. 

a commissary, who is usually appointed an 
assistant, or accessor, and deputy high-steward 
to the vice-chancellor in his court; and a public 
orator, who is the mouth of the university on 
public occasions, writes their letters, 'presents 

In the senate-house the rejection of all officers, 
the appointment of the magistrates, and the ad- 
mission to degrees, takes place ; and no lan- 
guage but Latin is permitted to be spoken at its 
meetings. Besides the fellows and scholars, 

noblemen to their degrees with a speech, &c. there are two other orders, called pensioners, the 
The caput (which consists of the vice-chancellor, greater and the less ; the former are the young 
a doctor of divinity, a doctor of laws, a doctor of nobility, and gentlemen of fortune, called fellow- 
physic, a regent and non-regent master of arts, commoners, because they dine with the fellows . 
who are chosen yearly on the twelfth of October), the less are dieted with the scholars. There is 


also a considerable number of scholars of inferior 
fortune, called sizars : these, though not of the 
foundation, are capable of receiving many bene- 
factions, called exhibitions, and frequently attain 
the highest honors. To particularise the build- 
ings, and peculiar privileges, of each of the col- 
leges in detail, will hardly be expected from us. 
We can only furnish the reader with a cursory 
glance at them. 

St. Peter's College, or Peter House, was for- 
merly two hostels, or hospitals, and appropriated 
in 1257, by Hugo de Balsbam, prior of Ely, to 
the use of students. He endowed this founda- 
tion in 1214, for the support of a master, four- 
teen fellows, twenty-nine Bible clerks, and eight 
poor scholars ; the number to be afterwards re^ 
gulated by the fluctuation of the revenues. The 
fellowships have been since increased by nu- 
merous benefactions. The chapel was erected in 
1632. The building surrounds two courts (the 
largest cased with stone), which are separated by 
a cloister and gallery. A lady Mary Ramsey 
is said to have once offered to leave a consider- 
able property to St. Peter's, if it should be 
agreed to be called afterwards ' Peter and Mary's 
College.' Dr. Soame, the master, replied , 
' Peter hath been too long a bachelor to think of 
a companion in his old age.' ' A dear bought jest,' 
says Fuller, ' for lady Ramsey, disgusted at the 
refusal, turned the stream of her benevolence 
into a different channel.' 

Clare Hall was erected on the former site of 
University Hall, a college founded in 1326 by 
Dr. Richard Baden. This being, about sixteen 
years after its erection, destroyed by fire, it was 
rebuilt on a more extended scale by Elizabeth 
de Burgh, in 1344; and she, being last heiress of 
the earls of Clare, gave to it its present name, 
with endowment for a master, ten fellows, and 
ten scholars. Richard III., Thomas Cecil, earl 
of Exeter, John Freeman, esq., William Butler, 
esq., and Samuel Blythe, esq., severally augmented 
the revenues, which now maintain seventeen fel- 
lows, and between thirty and forty scholars. 
This college, which stands near the north-west 
angle of King's College chapel, is more uniform 
in its buildings than most of its neighbours, and 
as pleasantly situated as any in the university. 
It was rebuilt of stone in 1638, except the cha- 
pel, which was erected in 1703, by Sir James 
Burroughs, at a cost of 7000. The alcove over 
the altar contains a fine painting of the Saluta- 
tion, from the hand of Cipriani. 

Pembroke Hall was founded in 1343, by Mary, 
Countess of Pembroke, and endowed by a charter 
of Edward III. for a master and six fellows. 
Henry VI. greatly enriched it. The number of 
fellowships is sixteen, and the scholarships about 
seventy. The chapel was built by bishop Wren, 
from a design of his nephew, Sir Christopher 
Wren. Here is a small detached building, con- 
taining a curious astronomical machine, or 
sphere, which was partly made by Dr.* Roger 
Long, author of a celebrated treatise on astro- 
nomy, who, at his death, bequeathed the interest 
of 200 bank annuities, to keep ' the instrument 
and place' ingoou repair. The college consists 
of twt courts, separated by a hall, having at one 
end thje combination room. Dr. lyng's spliere 
s eighteen feet in diameter, and will contain 

thir'y persons sitting conveniently. It contains 
meridians, a zodiac, several of the constellations 
painted on the ceiling, is penetrated by the poles, 
&c., but was never completed. 

Corpus Christi, or Bene't College, was esta- 
blished by the union of two religious guilds, and 
patronised largely by Henry Plantagenet, duke 
of Lancaster, whom the brethren chose their first 
alderman. Sir John Cambridge and his son 
much increased its revenues, which were appro- 
priated in 1356 to the maintenance of a master, 
eight fellows, six scholars, and three Bible clerks. 
Since that period the endowments have supported 
twelve fellows, and nearly sixty scholarships. 
The name of Bene't, or Benedict College, arose 
from its proximity to the church of that saint. Its 
greatest single benefactor was Matthew Parker, 
archbishop of Canterbury, who founded two fel- 
lowships and five scholarships, and bestowed on 
it the valuable library of Stoke-clare College, 
Suffolk, besides many valuable MSS. The 
buildings of this college also surround a square 
court. Dr. Herring, some years since archbishop 
of Canterbury, left 1000 towards its recent 
improvements, which consist of an entire new 
court, with a handsome Gothic front towards 
Trumpington street. 

Gonville and Caius, called frequently King's 
College, was founded in the year 1348, by 
Edmund Gonville, and at first called Gonville 
Hall; but in 1557 Dr. John Caius, physician to 
Queen Mary, built a new court, and the three 
remarkable gates inscribed respectively, ' Hu- 
militatis,' the gate of humility; 'Virttitis,' the 
gate of virtue ; ' Is Caius posuit Sapientiae' 
(John Caius built this in honour of wisdom) ; 
' Honorisc,' the gate of honor. Since the time of 
Dr. Caius the fellowships have increased to 
twenty-nine, and the scholarships to nearly 100, 
The principal court has been cased with stone 
and partly rebuilt. In the chapel is a tomb to 
the memory of Dr. Caius, with the following 
terse epitaph : 



Trinity Hall was originally one of those 
hostels where the students resided at their own 
expense ; and was appropriated by Richard 
Crovyder, prior of Ely, in the reign of Henry 
III. Bateman, bishop of Norwich, converted 
it into a college in 1351, and provided for a 
master, three fellows, and two scholars : various 
benefactions have increased the fellowships to 
twelve, and the scholarships to fourteen. The 
hall is faced with stone, and the buildings are 
very neat and uniform. Among its modern be- 
nefactions is one of 20,000, left in 1747, by 
Dr. John Andrews, for the erection of two spa- 
cious wings. 

King's College, founded by Henry VI. in 
1441, is the pride of Cambridge. In 1443 
he endowed it for a provost, seventy fellows or 
scholars, three chaplains, six clerks, sixteen 
choristers, and a music master, sixteen officers 
of the foundation, twelve servitors for the senior 
follows, and six poor scholars. All the designs 
of this munificent monarch, however were never 
completed, and but a small part of the intended 
buildings were erected Henry VII. may be 


called its second founder. Towards the latter 
end of liis reign he expended upwards of '2000 
on its edifices, besides presenting the college 
with 5000 separately, for furnishing the chapel 
and provost's residence. In the chapel library is 
a plan of the college, as intended to be built by 
his predecessor. Some splendid additions have 
.ately been made to this noble college. 

King's College Chapel has been considered the 
most exact, as it is certainly one of the most 
oeautiful specimens of Gothic architecture in 
Europe. The whole edifice is 316 feet in length, 
and eighty-four in breadth. Eleven immense 
buttresses support each side, and terminate in 
elegant pinnacles. On each corner is an octan- 
gular tower, 146J feet high, and crowned with a 
noble dome. The open worked battlements give 
an airiness to its appearance, in fine contrast 
with the massive part of the structure. The in- 
terior is yet more striking ; and its vast stone 
roof, unsupported by a single pillar, becomes an 
object of astonishment and awe to all who see 
it for the first time. It is in the form of a Gothic 
arch, flattened at the centre, and is divided into 
twelve parts, separated by the eleven principal 
arches, which spring from the buttresses. Each 
division of the roof is formed of groined arches, 
beautifully carved, and in the centre is one 
massy stone, of above a ton weight, ornamented 
with roses and portcullisses. The inside walls 
are wholly covered with numerous sculptured 
ornaments of almost inimitable workmanship. 
These represent the arms of the houses of York 
and Lancaster, with a number of crowns, roses, 
portcullisses, &c. . Some of the supporters, cut 
in stone, display the hand of a master, and equal 
in expression almost any marble sculpture. On 
a panel, at the upper part of the screen which 
separates the anti-chape, from the choir, is a 
small piece in very bold relief, which is univer- 
sally admired, representing the Almighty hurling 
the rebel angels from heaven ; and on the altar- 
piece is a fine ' taking down from the cross,' 
which was presented by the Earl of Carlisle, and 
is supposed to be a production of Raphael. Its 
magnificent and exquisitely painted windows 
complete the enchantment of the inner scene. 
In the arrangement of the paintings, the subjects 
from the New Testament, on the north side, are 
all prior to the crucifixion of our Saviour; while 
those on the south side are posterior to that 
event ; and the east window is devoted entirely 
to the most material circumstances immediately 
connected with that awful deed. This window 
i;> fifty-three feet high, and twenty-eight wide, 
and is separated by two elegant buttresses and a 
transom into six compartments. Each compart- 
ment contains one subject, and is divided by 
muUions into three lights. 

Queens College was founded in 1448, by 
Margaret of Anjou, consort of Henry VI., and 
endowed with 200 per annum for the support 
of a principal, and four fellows. Elizabeth Wood- 
ville, queen of Edward IV. was prevailed on by 
Andrew Ducket, the master, to complete its 
buildings, and establish it for a master, nineteen 
fellows, and forty-five scholars. She has since 
been celebrated annually, as the co-founder. The 
buildings surround two quadrangular courts, one 
of which has a cloister of about 330 feet. This 

stands on the east bank of the Cam, over which 
is a curious wooden bridge of one arch, sup- 
ported by rustic abutments of stone. 

Catharine Hall was founded by Woodlark, 
chancellor of the University, in 1474, and en- 
dowed for a master and three or moie fellows. 
The number is now increased to five; and eight 
bye-fellowships with ten scholarships. The build- 
ings occupy three sides of a square court, and are 
separated from the street by an iron palisade 
and an avenue of elms. Its west front, opposite 
Queen's, has a noble portico. 

Jesus College, erected on the foundations of an 
ancient Benedictine nunnery, was founded by 
Alcock, Bishop of Ely, in 1496, for a master, 
six fellows, and six scholars. The endowments 
at present provide for sixteen fellows and fifty 
scholars. The college is at a short distance from 
the town, and the chapel is supposed to have 
been the ancient conventual church. A tomb 
of one of the nuns is still remaining, wun the 


It is said that a subterraneous passage exists 
from this college to Barnwell priory, about a 
mile distant. 

Christ's College, built on the site of an hostel, 
called God's House, and founded by Henry VI., 
was endowed, in 1506, by Margaret, countess of 
Richmond and Derby. The establishment now 
maintains a master, fifteen fellows, and seventy 
scholars. The buildings enclose a small quad- 
rangular court, behind which is a modern struc- 
ture by Inigo Jones. In the gardens is shown 
a mulberry tree, which Milton olanted when a 
student here. 

: St. John's College, built en the site of the hos- 
pital of St. John's, in 1511, and finished in 151 6, 
was endowed by Margaret countess of Richmond, 
for a master and thirty-one fellows ; but its bene- 
factors have raised a revenue to support sixty-one 
fellows and 114 scholars. The buildings are of 
brick, and surround three courts. A new court, 
surrounded by magnificent buildings, in the 
Gothic style, has recently been formed on the 
opposite side of the river, towards the fields; 
these are probably the most splendid of the new 
erections in the University. The entrance court 
from the town has a magnificent portal and four 
towers. On the other side of a brook, which 
bounds the walks of the college, are the remains 
of an ancient and spacious building, called Py- 
thagoras' School, belonging with some houses and 
several acres of land to Merton College, Oxford. 
Its walls are strengthened with buttresses, sup- 
porting arches of the Saxon style ; the building 
is otherwise devoid of ornament, except one 
window on each side, which has a pillar in the 
centre, with a decorated capital with a round 
moulding. This is supposed to have been the 
place where the first tutors of the university 
delivered their lectures. 

Magdalen College. This foundation of Staf- 
ford, duke of Buckingham, was confiscated at 
his death; and, being afterwards obtained from 
the king, was endowed by Thomas, lord Audley, 
for a master and four fellows. The latter have 
since been increased to seventeen, and several 



scnolarships have been added. This college is 
of brick, and surrounds two courts. The library 
contains the books and MSS. of Samuel Pepys, 
esq., secretary to the Admiralty, in the reigns of 
Charles II. and his successor. The chapel has 
a curious plaster of Paris altar-piece. 

Trinity, the largest college of th university, 
surrounds two noble quadrangular courts, whose 
gateways, chapel, and library are fine specimens 
of architecture. It was founded, in 1546, by 
Henry VIII., on the site of two other colleges 
and a hostel, and originally endowed for a master, 
sixty fellows, sixty-seven scholars, four conducts, 
three public professors, thirteen poor scholars, 
twenty beadsmen, and other officers; the number 
on the establishment has amounted to upwards 
of 400, of late. The inner court, called after 
the name of Dr. Thomas Neville, was chiefly 
built at his expense, in the year 1009. On its 
west side is the library, a capacious building, 200 
feet in length, forty in breadth, and thirty-eight 
high. Beneath is a spacious piazza, which 
opens to the river and gardens. On the south 
side of this court another has been lately built, 
containing numerous sets of rooms for students. 
The chapel contains a fine statue of Sir Isaac 
Newton, by Roubiliac. He is represented in a 
loose gown of a master of arts, with a prism in 
his hands. His countenance is turned upwards, 
with a look of profound meditation, and on the 
pedestal is the inscription, Qui genus humanum 
ingenio superavit. The drapery and features are 
considered extremely beautiful. No object in the 
university deserves a visitor's notice more than 
the library of this college. It is a superb apart- 
ment, occupying one side of the quadrangle 
called Neville's court. The books are all ranged 
on either side, and the compartments crowned 
with busts of ancient and modern authors. 

Emanuel College, founded in 1584 by Sir 
Walter Mildmay, on the site of a Dominican 
convent, was endowed for a master, three fellows, 
and four scholars. Additional donations have 
provided for the support of fifteen fellows, and 
nearly 100 scholars and exhibitionists. The hall 
is thought one of the most elegant in Cambridge ; 
and the altar-piece in the chapel is very fine. 

Sidney Sussex College was founded by Frances 
Sidney, countess of Sussex, who by will be- 
queathed upwards of 5000 towards a college 
for a master, ten fellows, and twenty scholars. 
The first stone of the college was laid on the 20th 
of May, in 1596, and the building completed in 
1599. The chapel and the library were rebuilt 
recently. The foundation now provides for 
seven fellows, ten bye-fellows, twenty scholars, 
and twenty-four bye-scholars, besides a mathe- 
matical lecturer, and the exhibitioners. 

Downing College, the last of these noble esta- 
blishments, was originally provided for by the 
will of Sir George Downing, who died in 1717 ; 
but, the bequest being disputed, the great seal 
was not affixed to its charter the year 1800. 
This provides for a master, a professor of English 
law, a professor of medicine, and sixteen fellows. 
The latter are to vacate the fellowships at the ex- 
piration of twelve years, unless they obtain a 
licence to hold them longer. 

The Senate-House, in the centre of the town, is a 
uoble building of tin- Corinthian order, designed 

by Sir James Burrows. It forms the north side 
of the quadrangle, of which the public schools 
and library are designed to be the western side. 
The gallery, supported by fluted columns, is said 
to be capable of containing 1100 persons; and 
the whole room, within, is considered the most 
superb in Europe. It contains statues of George 
I. and II., the duke of Somerset, by Itysbrach, &c. 
The schools surround a small court. On the west 
are the philosophy schools, where disputations 
are held. On the north the divinity school ; and 
on the left, or south entrance of the court, that of 
law and physic. At the south-east corner of the 
philosophy schools is a geometrical staircase, lead- 
ing to the university library, which occupies the 
quadrangular apartments above the schools. The 
original building was erected about the year 
1480. The east front, containing the new library, 
was rebuilt in 1775. Members of the senate, 
and all bachelors of law and physic, are entitled 
to have books from this library at any time (not 
exceeding ten volumes). The statue of Ceres, 
brought from the temple at Eleusis, by Dr. Clarke, 
graces the vestibule. The pedestal was designed 
by Flaxman, from the original in the temple of 
Minerva Polias at Athens. Here is also (brought 
from Athens by the same gentleman) the column 
placed on the tomb of Euclid of Megara, the 
disciple of Socrates, with an inscription in bas 
relief. The library contains upwards of 90,OOO 
volumes, besides various curious MSS. The 
libraries of the several colleges are also rich in 
MSS., missals, pictures, and curious natural 
productions and remains, which it is impossible 
here to particularise. 

The University of Cambridge is, on the whole, 
elegant rather than magnificent. It possesses 
princely revenues, and many fine specimens of 
the arts. Its recent improvements, in several of 
the colleges, have added greatly to its utility and 
splendour. Its walks and gardens, as scenes for 
retirement and study, are no where surpassed. 
But it forms no consistent whole ; it has grown 
under the separate designs of its architects and 
founders into a splendid collection of disjointed 
buildings, which would be the noble ornaments 
of separate towns, but a mind that can compre- 
hend the whole always regrets that there was no 
presiding design for it. The best apology for 
this is the plain fact of the case like every thing 
characteristic of our country, it has been the 
creature of necessity and utility rather than of 
theory and art. This university sends two mem- 
bers to parliament, independently of the two for 
the town of Cambridge. 

CAMBRIDGE, a post town of the United States, 
in South Carolina, capital of the district of 
Ninety-Six. It is situated in Abbeville county, 
eighty miles W.N.W. of Columbia, 165 north- 
west of Charlestown, and fifty north by west of 
Augusta in Georgia. A district court is held on 
the 26th of April and November, and a county 
court for Abbeville county March 25th and Sep- 
tember 12lh. It is 745 miles from Philadelphia. 
CAMBRIDGE, one of the largest and most 
flourishing towns of Middlesex County, Massa- 
chusetts, is agreeably situated on the north side 
of Chailes River, over which a bridge has been 
erected, connecting it with Boston. It contains, 
esides Harvard university, about 100 dwellings. 


congregational and episcopalian churches, and a 
court house. The university which is considered 
the most respectable in the united States, consists 
of several large, spacious brick edifices. Harvard 
hall is divided into six apartments, one of which 
is appropriated for the library, two for the 
philosophical apparatus, one for the museum, a 
fifth for a refectory, and the other for a chapel. 
The library contains upwards of 20,000 volumes. 
The philosophical apparatus has cost nearly 
1500, and is one of the completest on the 
American continent. This university was first 
instituted in 1636, and was no more than an 
academic free-school ; two years after, in con- 
sequence of a donation left it by the Rev. Mr. 
Harvard of Charlestown, who died there, it was 
named Harvard College. In 1650 its first char- 
ter was obtained from the government of Massa- 
chusetts; and in the mean time it received 
several donations from learned men in Europe. 
Dr. Lettsom of London was amongst the most 
distinguished and liberal of these contributors. 
The governor, lieutenant-governor, the council 
and senate, the president of the university, and 
the congregational ministers of the six adjoining 
towns, are, during office, overseers of the univer- 
sity. The corporation is a distinct body, in 
whom is vested the property of the university. The 
number of those who had been admitted to academi- 
cal degrees, from its first establishment, to July, 
1793, was 3360. The usual number of resident 
students, is from 200 to 250. A supreme court 
is held here, the last Tuesday in October, and a 
court of common pleas the last Tuesday in 
November. It is 350 miles from Philadelphia. 
Long. 70 45' W., lat. 42 25' N. 

CAMBRIDGE, the chief town of Dorchester 
county, eastern shore of Maryland. It is situ- 
ated on the south side of Choptank river, about 
fifteen miles from its mouth ; the river is here 
nearly two miles wide. It contains about fifty 
houses, a church, and 300 inhabitants. The 
situation of the town is healthy and agreeable. 
It is eighteen miles north-west by west of 
Vienna, thirty-seven south of Easton, and 152 
S. S. W. of Philadelphia. Long. 59' W., lat. 
38 34' N. 

Gospels and Acts of the Apostles in Greek and 
Latin. Beza found it in the monastery of Ire- 
naeus at Lyons in 1562, and gave it to the 
university of Cambridge in 1582. It is a quarto, 
and written on vellum ; sixty-six leaves of it are 
much torn and mutilated, and ten of these are 
supplied by a later transcriber. Beza conjectures 
that this MS. might have been written so early as 
the time of Iraeneus. Wetstein apprehends that 
it either returned or was first brought from 
Egypt into France ; that it is the same copy 
which Druthmar, an ancient expositor, who 
lived about A. D. 840, had seen, and which, he 
observes,; was ascribed to St. Hilary ; and that 
It. Stephens had given a particular account of it 
in his edition of the New Testament in 1550. 
It is sometimes called Stevens's Second Manu- 
script. Mill agrees with F. Simon, that it was 
written in the western part of the world by a 
Latin scribe, and that it is to a great degree 

interpolated and corrupted : he observes, that it 
agiees so much with the Latin Vulgate as to 
afford reason for concluding that it was corrected 
or formed upon a corrupt and faulty copy of that 
translation. From this and the Clermont copy 
of St. Paul's epistles, Beza published his larger 
Annotations in 1582. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE is an inland county 
of England, about fifty miles long and twenty- 
five miles broad, bounded on the north by Lin- 
colnshire, on the east by Norfolk and Suffolk, on 
the south by Essex and Herts, and on the west 
by Bedford and Huntingdonshire. It was in- 
cluded in the ancient territory of the Iceni, and 
after the Roman conquest was the third province 
of Flavia Caesariensis. During the Saxon hep- 
tarchy it belonged to the kingdom of the East 
Angles. Its hundreds are Armingford, Ches- 
terton, Cheveley, Chilford, Fiendish, Longstow, 
Northstow, Papworth, Redfield, Staine, Staplow, 
Triplow, Wetherley, Whittlesford, and the Isle 
of Ely ; the latter being under a palatinate ju- 
risdiction pertaining to the see of Ely. In this 
see is the whole county, with the exception of 
a small part belonging to that of Norwich, 
Cambridgeshire contains the city of Ely, nine 
market towns, viz. Cambridge, Caxton, Linton, 
March, Newmarket, Soham, Thorney, Wisbeach, 
and Royston, and 164 parishes. 

The county is in general flat and little diver- 
sified with engaging prospects ; the whole of its 
northern part is occupied more or less by the 
fens of the Isle of Ely, penetrated in all di- 
rections by drains, and in various stages of re- 
demption from their former swampy state. Here 
is the great Bedford Level, as it is called, con- 
taining 400,000 acres of land ; and the towns 
and villages that are scattered over the surface 
of the country present their spires and buildings 
like the towns of a flat island on the ocean, or 
of an oasis in the African desert ; and are to be 
seen for many miles around. The climate is 
very different in different parts ; in the neigh- 
bourhood of the fens it is considered unhealthy 
and aguish, in the southern parts of the county 
it is dry and more wholesome. But the most 
foggy parts have undergone a great melioration 
of climate of late years, and the same persevering 
efforts that have redeemed a most promising soil 
from waste, and given to it the abundant wheat- 
crops with which it is now crowned, have dissi- 
pated -the damps and vapors that generated 
disease. The only rivers of this county are the 
Cam or Granta, the Nene and the Ouse. The 
Cambridgeshire canal begins with the Ouse at 
Harrimere, and runs to Cambridge; theWisbeach 
canal joins the Wisbeach river at the old sluice of 
that town, and opens a communication between 
this county and Norfolk and Suffolk. The 
Gogmagog hills, the highest in the county, begin 
about four miles to the south-east of Cambridge, 
and form one of the terminations of the range 
of chalk hills that commence in the south-west 
of England. Along the district from hence to 
Newmarket the country is bleak, and inhabited 
but thinly. Chalk, chinch, as it is called, silt, 
gault, sand, peat, and gravel, are the substrata of 
this county. The chinch is a species of lime- 



stone. The gault is a blue clay, pertaining to has been much improved by the present earl 

the fenny districts ; where also the silt, a fine It is three miles from Caxton. 
sea-sand, and peat, are found in great abund- CAMBYSES, king of Persia, son of Cyrus 

ance . the Great. He conquered Egypt, and, after 

Cambridgeshire is chiefly an arable county, having been beaten in some skirmish with the 

Wheat and oats are grown largely in the northern, Ethiopians, he found, on returning to Memphis, 

and barley in the southern, parts. Coleseed the Egyptians rejoicing on having found their god 

also occupies a considerable portion, it has been Apis, which so provoked him, that he killed 

said a fourth, of the fen lands. It is generally their god, and plundered their temples. When 

eaten green with sheep. Hemp, flax, mustard- he attacked Pelusium, he placed at the head of 

seed, and osiers are also grown largely in this 
district. The turf is very valuable in some parts ; 

his army a number of cats and dogs ; and the 
Egyptians refusing to kill animals which they 

and the garden produce on the borders of the reverenced as divinities, became an easy prey, 
fens is abundant. The breeds of sheep are the Cambyses afterwards sent an army of 50,000 
Norfolk, west country, and Cambridgeshire ; and men to destroy Jupiter Ammon's temple, but it 
a cross breed of the Leicester and Lincoln. The was overwhelmed by the sands. He next re- 
farrners also pride them&elves much on their large solved to attack the Carthaginians and ./Ethiopians. 
vi i . 1 jj e tilled his brother Smerdis from mere sus- 

picion, and flayed alive a partial judge, whose 
skin he nailed on the judgment seat, and ap- 
pointed his son to succeed him, telling him to 
remember where he sat. He died of a small 

Cambridgeshire is : .Jittle distinguished by its 
manufactures. Oil-mills, for crushing seed and 
making oil-cake, were once sour -es of consider- 
able trade at Wisbeach, and still are found at 
Whittlesford and Sawston ; at the last place is 
also a respectable paper manufactory. Malt is 

wound he had given himself with his sword 
as he mounted on horseback, A.C. 521.; and 

made in considerable quantities in the north-west the Egyptians observed, that it was the same 
of the county, and a coarse pottery, together with place on which he had wounded their god Apis, 
excellent white bricks, at Ely, Chatteris, and and that therefore he was visited by the hand of 


the gods. A short time before his death, having 

One of the oldest and most complete specimens been reproved by one of his courtiers in the 

of Saxon architecture in this kingdom is found most delicate manner for his intemperance, he 

in the conventual church of Ely. It was erected shot the censurer's son to the heart with an arrow, 

in king Edgar's reign. The two transepts of and then asked the father if he had not a steady 

the cathedral are celebrated specimens of the hand, though intoxicated. 

massy Norman style ; the whole of that edifice, 
indeed, is very interesting to the antiquary. See 

CAMDEN, a county of the United States, 

ELY. Near Chesterton are vestiges of a square in Edenton district, North Carolina ; bounded 
Roman camp, called Harborough, or Arbury. north by the state of Virginia, south-west and 
Three parts of the vallum remain, and enclose west by Pasquotank river, which separates it 
nearly six acres of ground, in which various from Pasquotank county, and east by Currituck. 
coins have been discovered ; one of which had The chief town is Jonesborough- 
the head of Rome on one side, and Castor and CAMDEN, a district of South Carolina, 
Pollux on horseback on the other. About four bounded on the north-east by Cheraws, south- 
miles to the east of Cambridge, on the Gog- east by George-town, north by the state of North 
magog hills, are the remains of a circular fort or Carolina, north-west by Pinkney,' west by 
camp, which has three ramparts and two grafts. Ninety-Six, south-west by Orangeburgh, and 
It is about 246 paces in diameter, enclosing south by Charleston district. It is eighty-two 
thirteen acres and a half of land. Some anti- miles from north to south, and sixty from east to 
quaries have supposed that it was erected by west, and is divided into the following counties, 

* _ . 

the British as a check to the Romans at Har- 
borough. Southward is a Roman highway. 

viz. Fairfield, Richland, Lancaster, Kershaw, 
Clermont, Clarendon, and Salem. It is watered 

When a road was making from March to by the Catabaw, which passes nearly through the 
Wisbeach, in 1730, three urns were discovered middle of it. In the north part of the district 
full of burnt bones and ashes, and a pot con- are the Catabaw Indians ; the only tribe which 
taining 300 pieces of silver coin, of all the em- resides in the state. See CATABAW. The upper 
perors from Vespasian to Antoninus Pius. 

No county of England has exhibited more 
decided improvements in its general appearance 

part of this district is diversified with hills, the 
soil in general rich, and the country well wa- 
tered. It produces good crops of Indian corn, 

than some parts of the county of Cambridge, of wheat, rye, barley, tobacco, cotton, &c. 
late years : none, on the other hand, has expe- CAMDEN, a post town of South Carolina, and 
rienced more fluctuations in the value of pro- capital of the district. It is situated in Kershaw 
perty, and the rise and fall of agricultural county, on the east side of the Wateree, 120 
produce. The only mansion in the county worth miles north by west of Charleston. It has a 
particular notice is Wimpole, the seat of the court house, jail, and Episcopalian church. It 
earl of Ilardwicke. It is a spacious brick is situated on a large navigable river, and 
structure, with noble wings, that have been added carries on a brisk trade with the back counties 
since its erection ; the east wing is connected A district court is held here on the 26th of April 
with the offices, and the west with a large green- and November. A battle was fought at this 
hou?e. The entrance is by a double flight of town on the 16th August, 1780, between gen* 
steps. , The interior of the fabric is elegant, and ral Gates and lord Cornwallis, in which the Ame- 




ricarw were defeated. Another was fought, on 
the 25th April, 1791, between lord Rawdon and 
general Greene, who was encamped within a mile 
of the town. The Americans had 126 killed, 
and 100 taken prisoners. The English had 
about 100 killed. The 13th of May following 
the British evacuated and burnt the town. See 
AMERICA. Jt is thirty-five miles north-east of 
Columbia, and 626 south-west by south of Phil- 
adelphia. Lon. 5 23' W., lat. 34 17" N. 

CAMDKN (William), the great antiquary, was 
born in London in 1551. His father was a na- 
tive of Litch field, and his mother was of the 
ancient family of Curwens in Cumberland. He 
was educated at Christ's hospital, and St. Paul's 
school ; and from thence sent, in 1566, to Oxford, 
and entered servitor of Magdalen College ; but, 
being disappointed of a demy's place, he re- 
moved to Broadgate hall, and two years after, to 
Christ Church, where he was supported by his 
friend Dr. Thornton. About this time he was a 
candidate for the fellowship of All-souls College, 
but lost it by the intrigues of the Popish party. 
In 1570, lie supplicated the regents of the 
university to be admitted B. A. but in this also 
he miscarried. The following year he came to 
London, where he prosecuted his favorite study 
of antiquity, under Dr. Goodman, dean of 
Westminster, by whose interest he was made 
second master of Westminster school, in 1575. 
Between his leaving the university and this 
period, he took several journeys to different parts 
of England, to collect materials for his Britannia, 
in which he was now deeply engaged. In 1581 
he became intimately acquainted with the 
learned president Brisson, who was then in 
England; and in 1586 he published the first 
edition gf his Britannia, dedicated to lord Bur- 
leigh; and such was its reception, that eight 
editions of it were published in four years, and 
another in 1594. The title is Britannia, sive 
Florentissimorum Regnorum Anglite, Scotias, 
Ilibernioe, et Insularum Adjacentium, ex intima 
Antiquitute, Chorographica Descriptio. In 1593 
he succeeded to the head master of Westminster 
school. In 1597 he published his Greek gram- 
mar, and was appointed Clarencieux king at 
arms. In 1600 he made a tour as far as Car- 
lisle, accompanied by his friend, Mr. (afterwards 
Sir Robert) Cotton. In 1600 he began his cor- 
respondence with De Thou, which continued to 
the death of that historian. In 1607 he pub- 
lished his last edition of the Britannia, which is 
that from which the English translations have 
been made; and in 1608 he began to digest his 
materials for a history of the reign of queen 
Elizabeth. In 1609, after recovering from a 
dangerous illness, he retired to Chislehurst in 
Kent, where he continued to spend the summer 
during the remainder of his life. The first 
part of his annals of the queen did not appear 
till 1615, and he determined that the second 
volume should not appear till after his death. 
The reign of queen Elizabeth was so recent 
when his first volume was published, that many 
of the persons concerned, or their dependents, 
were still living. It is no wonder, therefore, 
lhat the historian should offend those whose ac- 
tions would not bear enquiry. Some of his 

enemies were clamorous and troublesome; which 
determined him not to publish the second volume 
during his life ; but he deposited one copy in 
the Cottonian library, and transmitted another 
to his friend Dupuy at Paris. It was first 
printed at Leyden in 1625. The MS. was 
entirely finished in 1617 ; and from that time he 
was principally employed in collecting more 
materials for the further improvement of his 
Britannia. In 1622, being now upwards of 
seventy, and finding his health declining, he de- 
termined to execute his design of founding an 
history lecture in the university of Oxford. His 
deed of gift was accordingly transmitted by his 
friend Mr. Heather, to Mr. Wheare, who was, 
by himself, appointed his first professor. He 
died at Chislehurst, in 1623, in the seventy 
third year of his age ; and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, where a monument of white 
marble was erected to his memory. 

CAM'EL, ra. ~\ Arab, quinel, boogume- 
CAM'EL-BACKED, {Ion, gimel; Heb. gamal, 
CAM'EL-DIUVER. f <ca/jXoc ; Lat. camelus, a 
CAMEL'OPARD. J large animal ; common in 
Asia and Africa. The one sort is large, and full 
of flesh, and fit to carry burdens of a thousand 
pounds weight, having one bunch upon its back. 
The other have two bundle's upon their backs, 
like a natural saddle, and are fit either for bur- 
dens, or men to ride on.}_ A third kind is leaner, 
and of a smaller size, called dromedaries, because 
of their swiftness, which are generally used for 
riding by men of quality.- The camelopard 
(Lat. camtftus zn&pardus) is an Abyssinian ani- 
mal, taller than an elephant, but not so thick. 
He is so named, because he has a neck and head 
like a camel ; he is spotted like a pard, but his 
spots are white upon a red ground. The Ita- 
lians call him giraffa. See CAMELUS. 

Woo to you scribis and fui-isces ypocritis, 
blyndc lederis, cleiisynge a gnattc, but swolowynge a 

WickUff't New Test. Matt. 23. 
Camclt have large solid feet, but not hard. Camel* 
will continue ten or twelve days without eating or 
drinking, and keep water a long time in their sto- 
mach, for their refreshment. Calmet. 

In silent horrour o'er the boundless waste, 
The driver, Hassan, with his camels past: 
One cruise of water on his back he bore. 
And his light scrip contained a scanty store ; 
A fan of painted feathers in his hand 
To guard his shaded face from scorching sand. 

Collins' Eclogue, ii. 
Patient of thirst and toil, 
Son of the desart ! even the camel feels, 
Shot through his withered heart, the fiery blast. 


The stomach of the camel is well known to contain 
large quantities of water, and to retain it un- 
changed for a considerable length of time. This 
properly qualifies it for living in the desert. 

Paley's Natural TJteology. 

CAMEL, in mechanics, a kind of machine 
used in Holland for lifting ships, in order to 
bring them over the Pampus, at the mouth of 
the river Y, where the shallowness of the water 
hinders large ships from passing. It Is also 
used in other places, particularly at the dock of 
Petersburgh, the vessels built there being, in 

C A M E L t S. 

their passage to Cronstradt, lifted over the bar 
by means of camels. The^e machines were 
originally invented by the celebrated De Witt, 
and were introduced into Russia by Peter the 
Great. A camel is composed of two separate 
parts, whose outsides are perpendicular, and 
whose insides are concave, shaped so as to em- 
brace the hull of a ship on both sides. Each 
part has a small cabin with sixteen pumps and 
ten plugs, and contains twenty men. They are 
embraced to the ship underneath by means of 
cables, and entirely enclose its sides and bottom ; 
being then towed to the bar, the plugs are opened, 
and the water admitted until the camel sinks 
with the ship and runs a-ground. Then, the 
water being pumped out, the camel rises, lifts up 
the vessel, and the whole is towed over the bar. 
This is on the same principle with the CAISSON, 
which see. 

CAMEL, in zoology. See CAMELUS. 



CAMELEON MINERAL. When pure potash and 
black oxide of manganese are fused together in 
a crucible, a compound is formed, whose solu- 
tion in water, at first green, passes spontaneously 
through the whole series of colored rays to the 
red. From this latter tint, the solution may be 
made to retrograde in color to the original green, 
by the addition of potash ; or it may be ren- 
dered altogether colorless, by adding either sul- 
phurous acid or chlorine to the solution. It is 
generally regarded as a manganeseate of potash, 
and the various phenomena attributed to the 
combination of oxygen. 

CAMELFORD, a borough town of Cornwall, 
seated on the Camel, consisting of about 100 
houses, badly built ; but the streets are broad and 
well paved. It has a great market for yarn on Fri- 
day. It was here that king Arthur was mortally 
wounded by his nephew Mordred, who was killed 
on the spot. It was made a borough, by char- 
ter from Richard, duke of Cornwall, when king 
of the Romans, who granted it a market and 
fair, and it was incorporated by Charles I. 

CAMELLIA, in botany, a genus of the poly- 
andria order, and monadelphia class of plants; 
natural order thirty-seventh, columniferae : CAL. 
imbricated and polyphyllous, with the interior 
leaves larger than the exterior. There are seve- 
ral species, natives of China and Japan. The 
principal is C. Japonica, which Thunburg, in 
his Flora Japonica, describes as growing every 
where in the groves and gardens of Japan, 
where it becomes a prodigiously large and tall 
tree, highly esteemed by the natives for the ele- 
gance of its large and very variable blossoms, and 
its evergreen leaves. It is there found with sin- 
gle and double flowers, white, red, and purple, 
produced from April to October. With us, the 
camellia is generally treated as a stove plant, 
and propagated by layers. 

CAMELOPARDALIS, in zoology, camelo- 
pard or giraffe, a genus of the class mam- 
malia, order pecora. The essential generic 
characters are, that the horns are simple, and 
terminated by a tuft of black hair ; lower fore- 
teeth eight, broad and thin ; body whitish, 
mixed with tawny, and speckled with rusty spots. 

The only species is C. giraffa. The giraffa in- 
habits Ethiopia, the Cape of Good Hope, and is 
sometimes seen at Sennaar. It feeds on leaves 
and shoots of trees, and it sometimes grazes, 
b t then its fore legs are stretched asunder, to 
allow its mouth to reach the ground ; and when 
about to lie down, it kneels like the camel. Its 
fore feet are longer than the hind ones, and it is 
in front one of the tallest and most elegant 
animals with which we are acquainted. It is 
generally met with in flocks of fifteen or twenty, 
which on being alarmed fly in every direction. 
CAM'ELOT, n. s. ^ From camel. A kind 
CAM'LET, > of stuff originally made 

CAM'ELIN. j by a mixture of silk and 

camels' hair; it is now made with wool and 

And anon Dame Abstinence strelned 
Toke on a robe of cameiine, 
And gan her gratche as a begine. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

This habit was not of camels' skin, nor any coarse 
texture of its hair, but rather some finer weave of 
camelot, grograin, or the like ; inasmuch as these staffs 
are supposed to be made of the hair of that animal. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Meantime the pastor shears their hoary beards, 
And eases of their hair the loaden herds : 
Their camelots warm in tents the soldier bold, 
And shield the shivering mariner from cold. Dryden. 

Now in thy trunk thy D'Oily habit fold, 
The silken drugget ill can fence the cold, 
The freezes spongy nap is soaked with rain. 
And showers soon soak the camlet's cockled grain. 



CAMELUS, the CAMEL, in zoology, SoJ, 
ca/tijXoc, a genus of quadrupeds belonging to 
the order of pecora. The characters t of the 
camel are these : it has no horns ; it lias six fore- 
teeth in the under jaw ; the laniarii are wide set, 
three in the upper, and two in the lower jaw ; 
and there is a fissure in the upper lip, resembling 
a cleft in the lip of a hare. There are seven 
species. 1. Camelus bactrianus, the bactrian 
camel, has two bunches on the back, but is in ali 
other respects like the dromedarius, of which it 
seems to be a mere variety, rather than a dif- 
ferent species; and is equally adapted for riding 
or carrying loads. It is still found wild in the 
deserts of the temperate parts of Asia, particu- 
larly in those between China and India. These 
are larger and more generous than the domesti- 
cated race. The Bactrian camel is very common 
in Asia, is extremely hardy, and in great use 
among the Tartars and Mongols, as a beast of 
burden, from the Caspian to China. It bears 
even so severe a climate as that of Siberia, being 
found about the "lake Baikal, where the Burats 
and Mongols keep great numbers. They are far 
less than those of Western Tartary. Here they 
live during winter on willows and other trees, 
and become very lean by this diet. They lose 
their hair in April, and go naked all May, amidst 
the frosts of that severe climate. There are 
several varieties of this species. The Turkman 
is the largest and strongest. The Arabian is 
hardy. The common sort travel about thirty 
miles a day. In Arabia they are trained for 
running-matches : and in many place* for car- 

C A M E L U S. 


rying couriers, who can go above 100 miles a 
day on them for nine days together, over burning 
deserts, uninhabitable by any living creature. 
The African camels are the most hardy, having 
..nore distant and more dreadful deserts to pass 
over than any of the others, from Numidia to 
Ethiopia. In Western Tartary there is a white 
variety, very scarce, and sacred to the idols and 
priests. The Chinese have a swift variety, which 
they call by the expressive name of Fong-Kyo- 
Fo, or camels with feet of the wind. Fat 
drawn from them, is esteemed in many dis- 
orders, such as ulcers, numbness, and con- 
sumptions. This species of camel is rare in 
Arabia, and only kept by great men. Camels 
have constituted the riches of Arabia from the 
time of Job. The patriarch reckoned 6000 
camels among his pastoral treasures, and the 
modern Arabs estimate their wealth by the 
number of these animals ; by them the whole 
commerce is carred on through burning tracts, 
impassable but by beasts which Providence 
formed expressly for them. Their soles are 
adapted to the sands, their toughness and spungy 
softness preventing them from cracking. Their 
great powers of abstaining from drinking enable 
them to pass over unwatered tracts for many 
days, without requiring the least liquid ; and 
their patience under hunger is such that they 
will travel many days fed only with a few dates, 
or some small balls of bean or barley-meal, or 
on the miserable thorny plants they meet with in 
the deserts. The Arabians regard the camel as 
a present from Heaven, a sacred animal, without 
whose assistance they could neither carry on 
trade, nor travel. Camel's milk is their common 
food. They also eat its flesh, that of the young 
camel being reckoned highly savory. Of the 
hair of those animals, which is fine and soft, and 
which is completely renewed every year, the 
Arabians make stuffs for clothes, and other fur- 
niture. With their camels, they not only want 
nothing, but have nothing to fear. In one day, 
they can perform a journey of fifty leagues into 
the desert, which cuts off every approach from 
their enemies. With a view to his predatory 
expeditions, the Arab instructs, rears, and ex- 
ercises his camels. A few days after their birth, 
he folds their limbs under their belly, forces them 
to remain on the ground, and, in this situation, 
loads them with a pretty heavy weight, which is 
never removed but for the purpose of replacing 
a greater. Instead of allowing them to feed at 
pleasure, and to drink when they are dry, he 
begins with regulating their meals, and makes 
them gradually travel long journeys, diminishing, 
at the same time, the quantity of their aliment. 
\Vhen they acquire some strength, they are 
trained to the course. He excites their emula- 
tion by the example of horses, and, in time, 
renders them more robust. After he is certain 
of the strength, fleetness, and sobriety of his 
camels, he loads them with his own and their 
food, sets off with them, reaches unperceived 
the confines of the desert, robs the first pas- 
sengers he meets, pillages the solitary houses, 
joads his camels with the booty, and, if pur- 
sued, accelerates his retreat. On these oc- 
casions he unfolds his own talents and those 
Vol.. V. 

of the camels. He mounts one of the fleetest, 
conducts the troop, and makes them travel 
night and day, almost without either stopping, 
eating, or drinking ; and, in this manner, he 
easily performs a journey of 900 miles in eight 
days. During this period of fatigue, they are 
perpetually loaded, and he allows them each day, 
one hour only of repose, and a ball of paste. 
They often run thus nine or ten days, without 
drink ; and when, by chance, there is a pool at 
some distance, they scent the water half a league 
off. Thirst makes them double their pace, 
and they drink as much at once as serves them 
for the future as well as the past; for their 
journeys often last several weeks, and their absti- 
nence continues an equal time. Of all carriages, 
that by camels is the cheapest and most expe- 
ditious. The merchants and other passengers 
unite in a caravan, to prevent the insults and 
robberies of the Arabs. These caravans are 
often very numerous, and are always composed 
of more camels than men. Each camel is 
loaded in proportion to his strength ; and, when 
overloaded, he refuses to march, and continues 
lying till his burden is lightened. The large 
camels generally carry 1000 or 1200 pounds 
weight, and the smallest from 600 to 700. In 
these commercial travels, their march is not has- 
tened ; as the route is often 700 or 800 leagues, 
their motions and journeys are regulated. They 
walk only, and perform from about ten to twelve 
leagues each day. Every night they are un~ 
loaded, and allowed to pasture at freedom. 
When in a rich country, or fertile meadow, they 
eat, in less than an hour, as much as serves them 
to ruminate the whole night, and to nourish them 
twenty-four hours. But they seldom meet with 
such pastures ; neither is this delicate food ne- 
cessary for them. They even seem to prefer 
wormwood, thistles, nettles, broom cassia, and 
other prickly vegetables, to the softest herbage. 
As long as they find plants to browse they easily 
dispense with drink. This facility of abstaining 
long from drink proceeds not, however, from 
habit alone, but is rather an effect of their struc- 
ture. Independent of the four stomachs, which 
are common to ruminating animals, the camels 
have a fifth bag, which serves them as a reser- 
voir for water. This fifth stomach is peculiar to 
the camel. It is so large as to contain a vast 
quantity of fluid, where it remains without cor- 
rupting, or mixing with other aliments. When 
the animal is pressed with thirst, and has oc- 
casion for water to macerate his dry food in ru- 
minating, he makes part of this water mount 
into his paunch, or even as high as the cesopha- 
gus, by a simple contraction of certain muscles. 
It is by this singular construction that the camel 
is enabled to pass several days without drinking, 
and to take at a time a prodigious quantity of 
water. Travellers, when much oppressed with 
drought, are sometimes obliged to kill their 
camels in order to have a supply of drink from 
these reservoirs. These inoffensive creatures 
must suffer much ; for they utter the most la- 
mentable cries, especially when overloaded. 
But though perpetually oppressed, their fortitude 
is equal to their docility. At the first signal, 
they bend their knees and lie down to be loaded. 



C A M E L U S. 

As soon as they are loaded, they rise sponta- 
neously, and without any assistance. One of 
them is mounted by their conductor, who goes 
before, and regulates the march of all the fol- 
lowers. They require neither whip nor spur. 
But, when they begin to be tired, their courage 
is said to be supported, or rather their fatigue is 
charmed, by singing, or by the sound of some 
instrument. Their conductors relieve each other 
in singing; and, when they want to prolong the 
journey, they give the animals but one hour's 
rest, after which, resuming their song, they pro- 
ceed on their march for several hours more, and 
the singing is continued till they arrive at another 
resting place, when the camels again lie down ; 
and their loads, by unloosing the ropes, are al- 
lowed to glide off on each side of the animals. 
Thus they sleep on their bellies in the middle of 
their baggage, which, next morning, is fixed on 
their backs with equal quickness and facility as 
it had been detached the evening before. One 
male only is left for eight or ten females ; and 
the laboring camels a;e generally geldings. 
They are unquestionably weaker than unmuti- 
lated males ; but are more tractable, and always 
ready for service ; while the former are not only 
unmanageable, but almost furious, during the 
rutting season, which lasts forty days, and returns 
annually in the spring. They then foam con- 
tinually, and one or two red vesicles, as large as 
a hog's bladder, issue from their mouths. In 
this season they eat little, and attack and bite 
animals, and even their own masters, to whom 
at all other times they are very submissive. The 
time of gestation is near twelve months ; and like 
all large quadrupeds, the female brings forth only 
one at a birth. Her milk is copious and thick ; 
and when mixed with a large quantity of water, 
affords an excellent nourishment to men. The 
females are not obliged to labor, but are al- 
lowed to pasture and produce at full liberty. 
The advantage derived from their produce 
and their milk is perhaps superior to what 
could be drawn from their working. In some 
places, however, most of the females are cas- 
trated, to fit them for labor; and it is alle- 
ged, that this operation, instead of diminishing 
augments their vigor and plumpness. In gene- 
ral, the fatter camels are, the more they are capa- 
ble of enduring fatigue. During long journeys, 
in\vhich their conductor is obliged to husband 
their food, and when they often suffer much 
hunger and thirst, their bunches gradually dimi- 
nish, and become so flat, that the place where they 
were is only perceptible by the length of the hair, 
which is always longer on these parts than on the 
rest of the back. The meagreness of the body 
augments in proportion as the bunches decrease. 
The Moors, who transport all articles of mer- 
chandise from Barbary and Numidia, as far as 
Ethiopia, set out with their camels well laden, 
which are very fat and vigorous; and bring back 
the same animals so meagre that they commonly 
are sold at a low price to the Arabs of the desert, 
10 be again fattened. Ancient authors assert, that 
camels are in a condition for propagating at the 
age of three years ; but this is doubtful, for, in 
three years, they have not acquired one-half their 
growth. The young camel sucks twelve months, 
but, when meant to be trained, to render him 

strong and robust in the chase, he is allowed to 
suck and pasture at freedom during the first 
year, and is not loaded or made to perform any 
labor till he is four year old. He generally lives 
forty and sometimes fifty years, which duration 
of life is proportioned to the time of his growth. 
Considering, under one point of view, all the 
qualities of this animal, and all the advantages 
derived from him, it must be acknowleged, thai 
he is the most useful creature subjected to the 
service of man. Gold and silk constitute not the 
true riches of the East. The camel is the genuine 
treasure of Asia. 2. Camelus dromedarius, the 
Arabian camel, with one bunch or protuberance 
on the back. It has four callous protuberances 
on the fore legs, and two on the hind ones. 
This species is common in Africa, and the warmer 
parts of Asia. It is a common beast of burdjen 
in Egypt, and along the countries which border 
on the Mediterranean Sea ; in Morocco, Sahara, 
or the Desert, and Ethiopia ; but nowhere south 
of those kingdoms. In Asia it is equally com- 
mon in Turkey or Arabia ; but scarcely seen 
farther north than Persia, being too tender to 
bear a more severe climate. India is destitute of 
this animal. 3. Camelus glama, or llama, the 
South American camel sheep, has an almost 
even black, small head, fine black eyes, and very 
long neck bending much, and very protuberant 
near the junction with the body ; in a tame state, 
with smooth short hair ; in a wild state, with 
long coarse hair, white, gray, and russet, disposed 
in spots ; with a black line from the head along 
the top of the back to the tail, and belly white. 
The tail is short; the height from four to four 
feet and a half; the length from the neck to the 
tail, six feet. In general the shape exactly re- 
sembles a camel, only it wants the dorsal bunch. 
It is the camel of Peru and Chili ; and, before 
the arrival of the Spaniards, was the only beast of 
burden known to the Indians. It is very mild, 
gentle, and tractable. Before the introduction 
of mules, they were used by the Indians to 
plough the land : at present they serve to carry 
burdens of about lOOlbs. They lie down to the 
burden ; and when wearied no blows can pro- 
voke them to go on, and nothing but caresses 
can make them arise. Their flesh is eaten, and 
is said to be as good as mutton. The wool has a 
strong disagreeable scent. They are very sure- 
footed, and are, therefore, used to carry the Pe- 
ruvian ores over the ruggedest hills and narrowest 
paths of the Andes. They inhabit that vast chain 
of mountains through their whole length to the 
straits of Magellan ; but, except where these hills 
approach the sea, as in Patagonia, never appear 
on the coasts. Like the camel, they have powers 
of abstaining long from drink, sometimes for 
four or five days ; like that animal, their food is 
coarse. In a wild state they keep in great herds 
in the highest and steepest parts of the hills ; and 
while they are feeding, one keeps sentry on the 
pinnacle of some rock : if it perceives the ap- 
proach of any one it neighs ; the herd take the 
alarm, and go off with incredible speed. They 
outrun all dogs : there is no way of killing them 
but with the gun. They are killed for the sake 
of their flesh and hair ; for the Indians weave 
the last into cloth. The huanaco, the arcucanus, 
and the vicuna, so nearly resemble this ani- 



mal, that they by no means merit a separate 

4. Camelus pacos, or the sheep of Chili, has no 
bunch on its back. It is covered with a fine va- 
luable wool, which is of a rose red color on the 
back of the animal, and white on the belly. 
They are of the same nature with the llama, in- 
habit the same places, but are more capable of 
supporting the rigor of frost and snow; they 
live in vast herds, are very timid, and exces- 
sively swift. The Indians take the pacos in a 
strange manner; they tie cords with bits of 
cloth or wool hanging on them, about three or 
four feet from the ground, across the narrow 
passes of the mountains, then drive those ani- 
mals towards them, which are so terrified by the 
flutter of the rags that, huddling together, they 
give the hunters an opportunity to kill with their 
slings as many as they please. The tame ones 
will carry from fifty to seventy-five pounds, but 
are kept principally for the sake of the wool and 
the flesh, the latter of which is exceedingly well 

CAMELUS, in zoology, a species of trichoda, 
found in vegetable infusions. This is thickish, 
hairy before, and emarginate on each side in the 

CAMELUS, in entomology, a species of scara- 
bscus; thorax four-homed; shield bicornuted 
behind ; body black. Inhabits Germany. 


CAMERA J^EOLIA, a contrivance for blowing 
the fire for the fusion of ores, without bellows, 
by means of water falling through a funnel into 
a close vessel, which sends from it so much air 
as continually blows the fire if there be the 
space of another vessel for it to expatiate in by 
the way, as it there lets fall its humidity. See 

CAMERA LUCIDA, a contrivance of Dr. Hook 
for making the image of any thing appear on a 
wall in a light room, either by day or night. 
Opposite to the place or wall where the appear- 
ance is to be, make a hole of at least a foot in 
diameter, or if there be a high window with a 
casement opened. At a convenient distance, to 
prevent its being perceived by the company in 
the room, place the object or picture intended to 
be represented, but in an inverted situation. If 
the picture be transparent, reflect the sun's rays 
by means of a looking-glass, so as that they may 
pass through it towards the place of representa- 
tion ; and to prevent any rays from passing aside 
it, let the picture be encompassed with some 
board or cloth. If the object be a statue, or a 
living creature, it must be much enlightened by 
casting the sun's rays on it, either by reflection, 
refraction, or both. Between this object and the 
place of representation put a broad convex glass, 
ground to such a convexity as that it may repre- 
sent the object distinctly in such place. The 
nearer this is situated to the object the more will 
the image be magnified on the wall, and the fur- 
ther the less ; such diversity depending on the 
difference of the spheres of the glasses. If the 
object cannot be conveniently inverted, there 
must be two large glasses of proper spheres, si- 
tuated at suitable distances, easily found by trial, 
to make the representations erect. The whole 

apparatus of object-glasses, &c. with the person 
employed in the management of them, are to be 
placed without the window or hole, so that they 
may not be perceived by the spectators in the 
room, and the operation itself will be easily per- 

CAMERA LUCIDA is also the name of an instru- 
ment for taking views, invented by Dr. Wollas- 
ton in 1807. We shall copy his own description 
of this ingenious invention. 

' While I look directly down at a sheet of 
paper on my table, if I hold between my eye and 
the paper a piece of plane glass, inclined from 
me downwards at an angle of 45, I see by re- 
flection the view that is before me, in the same 
direction that I see my paper through the glass. 
I might then take a sketch of it; but the position 
of the object would be reversed. 

To obtain a direct view it is necessary to have 
two reflections. The transparent glass must for 
this purpose be inclined to the perpendicular 
line of sight only the half of 45, that it may re- 
flect t^~- view a second time from a piece of 
looking-glass placed beneath it, and inclined up- 
wards at an equal angle. The objects now ap- 
pear as if seen through the paper in the same 
place as before ; but they are direct instead of 
being inverted, and they may be discerned in this 
manner sufficiently well for determining the prin- 
cipal positions. 

The pencil, however, and any object which it 
is to trace, cannot both be seen distinctly in the 
same state of the eye, on account of the difference 
of their distances; and the efforts of successive 
adaptation of the eye, to one or the other, would 
become painful if frequently repeated. In order 
to remedy this inconvenience, the paper and 
pencil may be viewed through a convex lens of 
such a focus as to require no more effort than is 
necessary for seeing the distant objects distinctly. 
These will then appear to correspond with the 
paper in distance as well as direction, and may 
be drawn with facility, and with any desired de- 
gree of precision. 

This arrangement of glasses will probably be 
best understood from inspection of plate II., fig. 1., 
a b is the transparent glass ; b c the lower re- 
flector ; 6 d a convex lens (of twelve inches focus) ; 
e the position of the eye ; and fg h e the course 
of the rays. 

In some cases a different construction will be 
preferable. Those eyes, which without assistance 
are adapted to seeing near objects alone, will not 
admit the use of a convex glass ; but will, on the 
contrary, require one that is concave to be placed 
in front, to render the distant objects distinct. 
The frame for a glass of this construction is repre- 
sented at i k, fig. 3, turning upon the same hinge 
at h, with a convex glass in the frame I ?n, and 
moving in such a manner, that either of the 
glasses may be turned alone into its place, as 
may be necessary to suit an eye that is long or 
short sighted. Those persons, however, whose 
sight is nearly perfect, may at pleasure use either 
of the glasses. 

The instrument represented in that figure dif- 
fers, moreover, in other respects from the fore- 
going, which I have chosen to describe first, be- 
cause the action of the reflectors there employed 

F 2 



would be more generally understood. But those 
who are conversant with the science of optics will 
perceive the advantage that may be derived in this 
instance from prismatic reflection ; for when a ray 
of light has entered a solid piece of glass, and falls 
from within upon any surface, at an inclination 
of only twenty-two or twenty-three degrees, as 
above supposed, the refractive power of the glass 
is such as to suffer none of that light to pass out, 
and the surface becomes in this case the most 
brilliant reflector that can be employed. 

Fig. 2. represents the section of a solid pris- 
matic piece of glass, within which both the reflec- 
tions requisite are effected at the surfaces ab,bc, 
in such a manner that the ray fg, after being re- 
flected first at g, and again at h, arrives at the 
eye in a direction h e at right angles to f g. 

There is another circumstance in this construc- 
ion necessary to be attended to, and which re- 
nains to be explained. Where the reflection was 
>roduced by a piece of plane glass, it is obvious 
hat any objects behind the glass, if sufficiently 
lluminated, might be seen through the glass as 
veil as the reflected image. But when the pris- 
matic reflector is employed, since no light can be 
transmitted directly through it, the eye must be 
so placed that only a part of its pupil may be in- 
tercepted by the edge of the prism, as at e, fig. 2. 
The distant objects will then be seen by this por- 
tion of the eye, while the paper and pencil are 
seen past the edge of the prism by the remainder 
of the pupil. 

In order to avoid the inconvenience that might 
prise from an unintentional motion of the eye, the 
relative quantities of light to be received from the 
object, and from the paper, are regulated by a 
small hole in a piece of brass, which by moving 
on a centre at r, fig. 3., is capable of adjustment 
to every inequality of light that is likely to occur. 
Since the size of the whole instrument, from 
being so near the eye, does not require to be 
large, I have, on many accounts, preferred the 
smallest size that could be executed with correct- 
ness, and have had it constructed on such a scale, 
that the lenses are only three-fourths of an inch 
in diameter. 

Though the original design and principal use 
of this instrument is to facilitate the delineation 
of objects in true perspective, yet this is by no 
means the sole purpose to which it is adapted; 
for the same arrangement of reflectors may be 
employed with equal advantage for copying what 
has been already drawn, and may thus assist a 
learner in acquiring at least a correct outline of 
any subject. 

For this purpose, the drawing to be copied 
should be placed as nearly as may be at the same 
distance before the instrument that the paper is 
beneath the eye-hole ; for in that case the size will 
be the same, and no lens will be necessary, either 
to the object or to the pencil. 

By a proper use of the same instrument, every 
purpose of the pentagraph may also be answered, 
as a painting may be reduced in any proportion 
required, by placing it at a distance in due pro- 
portion, greater than that of the paper from the 
instrument. In this case a lens becomes requi- 
site for enabling the .eye to see at two unequal 
distances with equal distinctness ; and in order 

that one lens may suit for all these purposes, there 
is an advantage in carrying the height of the 
stand according to the proportion in which the 
reduction is to be effected. 

The principles upon which the height of the 
stem is adjusted will be readily understood by 
those who are accustomed to optical considera- 
tions. For as in taking a perspective view, the 
rays from the paper are rendered parallel, by 
placing a lens at the distance of its principal 
focus from the paper, because the rays received 
from the distant objects are parallel ; so alsn 
when the object seen by reflection is at so shor 1 
a distance that the rays received from it are, in a 
certain degree, divergent, the rays from the 
paper should be made to have the same degree 
of divergency, in order that the paper may 1)9 
seen distinctly by the same eye ; and for tha 
purpose, the lens must be placed at a distance 
less than its principal focus. The stem of the 
instrument is accordingly marked at certain dis- 
tances, to which the conjugate foci are in the 
several proportions of two, three, four, &,c. to 
one; so that distinct vision may be obtained in 
all cases, by placing the painting proportionably 
more distant. 

By transposing the convex lens to the front of 
the instrument, and reversing the proportional 
distances, the artist might also enlarge his smaller 
sketches with every desirable degree of correci- 
ness, and the naturalist might delineate minute 
objects in any degree magnified. 

Since the primary intention of this instrument 
is already, in some measure, answered by the 
camera obscura, a comparison will naturally be 
made between them. 

The objections to the camera obscura are, 

1st. That it is too large to be carried about 
with convenience. 

The camera lucida is as small and portable as 
can be wished. 

2dly, In the former, all objects that are not 
situated near the centre of view are more or less 

In this there is no distortion ; so that every 
line, even the most remote from the centre of 
view, is as straight as those through the centre. 

3dly, In that the field of view does not extend 
beyond 30, or at most 35 with distinctness. 

But in the camera lucida as much as 70 or 80 
might be included in one view. 

It is obvious, that the preceding contrivance 
may be applied to a telescope, for the purpose of 
taking sketches of the different objects that may 
be contained within the field of view; but as it 
is only a small portion of a landscape, or of any 
large object, that can be seen at once through a 
telescope, it would be desirable to have some 
contrivance by which the objects seen in differem 
fields ot view, and sketched upon the same piece 
of paper, might be all connected with each other 
into one landscape. This, however, can be done 
only to a certain extent, as will appear from 
plate II. fig. 4. Let A B be the direction of th< 
telescope, which, when placed upon a suitable 
stand, can be moved round the axis O in a hori- 
zontal plane, B b b'; B, the extremity of the eye- 
tube at which the prism of the camera lucida is 
fixed ; M N, the paper lying in a horizontal po- 


sition ; and a b, a' b', successive positions of tlie 
telescope in a plane parallel to M N. Let EF 
be the field of view of the telescope, when seen 
on the paper by reflection from the prism ; then 
the instrument must be so constructed, that 
when the telescope is in the position a b, and di- 
rected to the part of the landscape immediately 
adjacent to that which is contained in the field 
EF, the field of view FG, when seen by reflec- 
tion from the prism, must be in contact with 
E F. When this happens we have B b rz C c, 
and the angle B F b E B F the angle subtended 
by the field of view; but it is obvious, that when 
the telescope is moved from the position A B into 
the position ab, its angular motion round O, 
viz. the angle B O b, is equal to an angle com- 
prehended by the field of view, that is, to the 
angle BFE; therefore, in the triangles OB>, 
B F b, we have the angles at O and F equal, and 
the side B 6 common ; and consequently the 
side OB is equal to the side BC. From this it 
follows, that, in order to have the successive 
fields of view, EF, FG, G H, all joined to each 
other, or at their proper relative distances, the 
distance of the eye from the paper must be equal 
to its distance from the centre of motion O, round 
which the telescope revolves. The telescope 
should therefore be placed upon a stand, so con- 
structed that the centre of motion, O, may be 
placed in different positions between the eye- 
piece and the object-glass ; by which means, the 
observer may vary the distance of the paper from 
his eye, according as he wishes to have his draw- 
ing on a large or a small scale. By the instru- 
ment, when thus constructed, we are enabled to 
take a connected panoramic view of any hori- 
zontal zone of a landscape, whose breadth does 
not exceed the field of view of the telescope. 
The objects contained in the different fields of 
view, will be arranged in a circle whose diameter 
is equal to the distance of the eye from the centre 
of motion. 

This instrument is admirably fitted for taking 
a correct outline of the visible horizon, with all 
the various indentations with which that line is 
generally broken by the intervention of valleys 
and mountains. Unless the horizon is extremely 
and unusually contracted, the field of view of a 
common telescope will contain a zone which will 
easily comprehend every depression and eleva- 
tion ; and even when the place of the observer 
is embosomed in an amphitheatre of mountains 
which rise around him with various elevations, 
the field of view may be enlarged by diminishing 
the magnifying power of the telescope. For this 
purpose, the micrometrical telescope, invented 
by Dr. Brewster, is particularly applicable, as 
the magnifying power can be increased or dimi- 
nished without changing any of the lenses; and 
as the distance between the eye and the centre 
of motion, O, can be altered, even though the 
telescope is fixed to its stand. The microme- 
trical telescope having also the properties of a 
compound microscope, any long object which 
cannot be contained in the field of view, in the 
direction of its length, may be delineated in a 

milar manner. This contrivance cannot be ap- 
plied to the common compound microscope, as 
it has not a motion round an axis. 

The camera lucida of Dr. Wollaston might br 
fitted up with a horizontal motion, and without 
the aid of a telescope, so as to delineate one con- 
tinued zone of a landscape ; but when the objects 
are small, or at a considerable distance, a tele- 
scope becomes indispensably necessary. See the 
Philosophical Magazine, vol. xxvii. p. 343 ; Ni- 
cholson's Journal, vol. xvii. p. 1., vol. xxiii. p. 
372, vol. xxiv. p. 146; and Brewster's Treatise 
on New Philosophical Instruments, Edinb. 1812, 
book i. p. 11, book iii. p. 133, and book vi. 

CAMERA OBSCURA, Latin, the dark chamber, an 
optical machine, used in a darkened chamber, so 
that the light coming only through a double con- 
vex glass, objects exposed to day-light, and op- 
posite to the glass, are represented inverted upon 
any white matter placed in the focus of the glass. 
It was invented by Baptista Porta. It affords 
very diverting spectacles, both by exhibiting 
images perfectly like their objects, and each 
clothed in its native colors, and by express- 
ing, at the same time, all their motions ; which 
latter no other art can imitate. By means of 
this instrument, a person unacquainted with de- 
signing will be able to delineate objects with the 
greatest accuracy and justness. See OPTICS. 

CAM'ERADE, n. s. Lat from camera, a 
chamber. One that lodges in the same cham- 
ber ; a bosom companion. By corruption we 
now use comrade. 

Camerades with him, and confederates in his de- 
sign. Rymer. 

GAMER ARIA, in botany : a genus of the 
monogynia order, and pentandria class of plants ; 
natural order, thirtieth, contortae : COR. contorta ; 
two horizontal follicles at the base of the seed- 
case, and the seeds are inserted into a proper 
membrane. There are four species ; the princi- 
pal are 1 C. angustifolia has an irregular 
shrubby stalk, which rises about eight feet, send- 
ing out many branches, garnished with very 
narrow thin leaves, placed opposite, at each 
joint. The flowers are produced scatteringly at 
the end of the branches, which are shaped like 
those of the latifolia, but smaller. It is a native 
of Jamaica. 2. C. latifolia, a native of the 
island of Cuba. It rises with a shrubby stalk to 
ten or twelve feet, dividing into several branches, 
garnished with roundish pointed leaves placed 
opposite. The flowers are produced at the end 
of branches in loose clusters, which have long 
tubes enlarging gradually upward, and at the top 
are cut into five segments, broad at the base, but 
ending in sharp points ; the flower is of a yellow- 
ish white color. Both these plants abound with 
an acrid milky juice like the spurge. They are 
propagated by seeds, which must be procured 
from the places of their growth. They may also 
be produced by cuttings planted in a hot-bed 
during summer : they must have a bark stove 
for they are very tender, but in warm weather 
they must have plenty of air. 

CAMERARIUS (Joachim), one of the most 
learned writers of his time, was born in 1500, 
at Bamberg, in Franconia. He embraced the 
reformation very early, and formed a close friend- 
ship with Melancthon, whose life he wrote. On 
the establishment of a college at Nuremburg ? 




Camerarius was made professor of belles lettres. 
He afterwards removed to Leipsic to superin- 
tend the university, where he died in 1575. He 
translated into Latin, Herodotus, Demosthenes, 
Xenophon, Euclid, Homer, Theocritus, Sopho- 
cles, Lucian, Theodoret, Nicephorus, &c. He 
published a catalogue of the bishops of the prin- 
cipal sees; Greek Epistles; Accounts of his 
Journeys, in Latin verse ; a Commentary on 
Plautus ; the Lives of Helius Eobanus Hessus, 
and Philip Melancthon, &c. 

CA'MERATED, adj. Lat. cameratus, arched ; 
roofed slopewise. 

CAM'ERATION, n. s. Lat. cameratio ; a 
vaulting or arching. 

CAMERLINGO, denotes the cardinal who 
governs the ecclesiastical state, and administers 
justice. It is the most eminent office at the court 
of Rome, because he is at the head of the trea- 
sury. During a vacation of the papal chair, the 
cardinal camerlingo publishes edicts, coins mo- 
ney, and exerts every other prerogative of a so- 
vereign prince; he has under him a treasurer- 
general, auditor-general, and twelve prelates, 
called clerks of the chamber. 

CAMERON (John), one of the most famous 
divines among the Protestants of France, in the 
seventeenth century, was bom at Glasgow, in 
1580, where he taught the Greek tongue ; and 
having read lectures upon that language for 
about a year, travelled, and became professor 
and minister at Bourdeaux, Sedan, and Saumur, 
at which last place he broached his doctrine of 
grace and free will, which was framed by Amy- 
raut, Cappel, Bochart, Daille, and others of the 
more learned among the reformed ministers, who 
judged Calvin's doctrines on these points too 
harsh. He published, 1. Theological Lectures; 
2. Icon Johannis Cameronis ; and some miscel- 
laneous pieces. He died in 1625, aged sixty. 

CAMERON (Richard), the founder of the Scots 
Cameronians, was a famous field-preacher, 
who, refusing to accept the indulgence to tender 
consciences, granted by king Charles II., think- 
ing such an acceptance an acknowledgment of 
the king's supremacy, and that he had before a 
right to silence them, made a defection from his 
brethren, and even headed a rebellion, in which 
he was killed. 

CAMERONIANS, a sect in Scotland, who 
separated from the Presbyterians in 1666, and 
continued long to hold their religious assemblies 
in the fields. The Cameronians took their de- 
nomination from Richard Cameron. They were 
never entirely reduced till the Revolution, when 
they voluntarily submitted to king William. The 
Cameronians adhere rigidly to the form of 
government established in 1648. They are also 
called Cargillites, from another of their preach- 
ers. There are not, it is said, above fourteen or 
fifteen congregations among them, and those not 

CAMERONITES, a party of Calvinists in 
France, who asserted that the will of man is 
only determined by the practical judgment of 
the mind ; that the cause of men's doing good 
or evil proceeds from the knowledge which God 
infuses into them ; and that God does not move 
the will physically, but only morally, in virtue 

of its dependence on the judgment of the mind 
They were so named from professor John Came- 
ron. They are a sort of mitigated Calvinists, 
and approach to the opinion of the Arminians. 

GAMES, a name given to the small slender 
rods of cast lead, of which the glaziers make 
their turned lead. The lead being cast into 
slender rods of twelve or fourteen inches long 
each, is called the came ; sometimes also they 
call each of these rods a came, which, being after- 
wards drawn through their vice, makes their 
turned lead. 

CAMILLA, queen of the Volsci, daughter of 
Metablus and Camilla, was educated in the 
woods, inured to the labors of hunting, and fed 
upon the milk of mares. Her father devoted 
her, when young, to the service of Diana. When 
she was declared queen, she marched at the head 
of an army, accompanied by three youthful 
females like herself, to assist Turnus against 
./Eneas, where she signalised herself by the num- 
bers that perished by her hand. 

CAMILLA, in entomology, an European species 
of papilio, the P. rivularis of Scopoli, and P. lucilla 
of Esper. The wings of this species are indent- 
eel, black, and glossed with blue, with a white 
band and spot on each side ; posterior wings 
beneath at the base silvery and immaculate. 

CAMILLA, and CAMILLI, in antiquity, girls 
and boys who ministered in the sacrifices of the 
gods; and especially those who attended the 
flamen dialis, or priest of Jupiter. The word 
seems borrowed from the language of the ancient 
Etrurians, where it signified minister, and was 
changed from casmillus. 

CAMILLUS (Furius), an illustrious hero of 
the Roman republic. He triumphed four times 
was five times dictator, and was justly honored 
with the title of the second founder of Rome. 
Lucius Apuleius, one of the tribunes, prosecuted 
him to make him give an account of the spoils 
taken at Veii. Camillus anticipated judgment, 
and banished himself voluntarily. During his 
banishment, the Gauls sacked Rome; but instead 
of rejoicing at the punishment of his ungrateful 
countrymen, he exerted all his wisdom and 
bravery to drive away ihe enemy ; and yet kept 
with the utmost strictness the law of Rome, in 
refusing to accept the command, which several 
private persons offered him. The Romans, who 
were besieged in the Capitol, created him dic- 
tator, A. A. C. 363; in which office he acted 
with so much bravery and conduct, that he en- 
tirely drove the Gauls out of the territories of the 
commonwealth. He died A. A. C. 385, aged 81. 
He conquered the Hernici, Volsci, Latini, and 
Etrurians, and dissuaded his countrymen from 
their intention of leaving Rome to reside at 
Veii. When he besieged Falisci, he rejected, 
with proper indignation, the offers of a school- 
master, who had betrayed into his hands the 
sons of the most worthy citizens. 

CAMINA, or YERVA CAM IN A, in botany, an 
American herb, the same with what is otherwise 
called Paraguay tea, or yerva conpallo. See ILEX. 

CAMINISTIQUIA, in geography, a river of 
Upper Canada, which discharges itself into the 
lake Superior, thirty miles east of the Grand 

C A M O E N S. 


CAMION, in the military art, a small cart 
with three wheels, for carrying pullets, &c. 
CAMISA'DO, n. ) From camisa, a shirt. A 
CAM'ISATED, adj. ] nocturnal assault, wherein 
the soldiers wear shirts over their armour, to 
know their own company from the enemy, lest 
they should in the dark kill of their own com- 
pany instead of the enemy. 

For I this day will lead the forlorn hope, 
The camisado shall be given by me. 

Old Play. Four Prentices of London. 

They had appointed the same night, whose dark- 
ness would have encreased the fear, to have given a 
camisado upon the English. Hfiyward. 

CAMISARDS, a name given by the French 
to the Calvinists of the Cevennes, who formed a 
league, and took up arms in their own defence 
in 1688. 

CAMLET, or CAMBLF.T, a kind of stuff made 
of goats' hair, with wool or silk : in some, the 
warp is silk and wool twisted together, and the 
woof hair. The true, or oriental camlet is made 
of the pure hair of a sort of goat, frequent about 
Angora; all the inhabitants whereof are employed 
in the manufacture and commerce of camlets. 
Mention is made in writers of the middle age, of 
stuffs made of camels' hair, under the denomi- 
nations of cameletum and camelinum, whence 
probably the origin of the term ; but these are 
represented as strangely coarse, rough, and 
prickly, and seem to have been chiefly used 
among the monks by way of mortification, as the 
hair shirt of later times. We have no camlets 
made in Europe of the goats' hair alone; even 
at Brussels, they add a mixture of woollen thread. 
England, France, Holland, and Flanders, are the 
chief places of this manufacture. Brussels ex- 
ceeds them all in the beauty and quality of its 
camlets : those of England are reputed the 

CAMLETS, FIGURED, are those of one color, 
whereon are stamped various figures, flowers, 
foliage, &c., by means of hot irons, which are 
a kind of moulds, passed together with the stuff, 
under a press. These are chiefly brought from 
Amiens and Flanders; the commerce of these 
was anciently much more considerable than at 

CAMLETS, WATERED, those which, after 
weaving, receive a certain preparation with wa- 
ter ; and are afterwards passed under a hot press, 
which gives them a smoothness and lustre. 

CAMLETS, WAVED, are those whereon waves 
are impressed, as on taobi nets ; by means of a 
calender, under which they are passed and 
repassed several times. The manufacturers, &c. 
of camlets ought to take care they do not acquire 
any needless plaits ; it being almost impossible 
to get them out again. This is notorious, even 
to a proverb: we say, a person is like camlet, he 
has taken his plait. 

GAMMA, a province of Loango in Africa, the 
inhabitants of which are continually at war with 
those of Gobbi, another province of Loango. See 
GOBBI. The weapons they formerly used in 
heir wars were the short pike, bows and arrows, 
ord and dagger; but since the Europeans 

have become acquainted with that coast, they 
have supplied them with fire-arms. 

CAM'MOCK, n. s. Sax. cammoc; Lat. 
ononis. An herb ; the same with petty whin, or 
rest-harrow, as this herb is always called, though 
the proper name seems to be wrest-harrow, from 
its strong roots resting the harrow aside. 

CAMOENS (Lewis De), a famous Portuguese 
poet, the honor of whose birth is claimed by dif- 
ferent cities. But according to N. Antonia and 
Manuel Correa, his intimate friend, he was born 
at Lisbon in 1517. His family was of conside- 
rable note, and originally Spanish. The elder 
branch of it, according to Castera, intermarried 
with the blood royal of Portugal. But the 
younger branch had the superior honor to pro- 
duce the author of the Lusiad. The misfortunes 
of the poet began early. In his infancy, Simon 
Vaz de Camoens, his father, being commander 
of a vessel, was shipwrecked at Goa, where, with 
his life, the greatest part of his fortune was lost. 
His mother, however, Anne de Macedo of Sant- 
aren, provided for the education of her son Lewis 
at the university of Coimbra. What he acquired 
there his works discover; an intimacy with the 
classics, equal to that of Scaliger, but directed 
by the taste of a Milton or a Pope. When he 
left the university, he appeared at court. He was 
handsome ; had sparkling eyes ; with the finest 
complexion ; and was a polished scholar ; which, 
added to the natural vivacity of his disposition, 
rendered him an accomplished gentleman. Courts 
are the scenes of intrigue ; and intrigue was fa- 
shionable at Lisbon. But the particulars of the 
amours of Camoens are unknown. Only this 
appears ; he aspired above his rank, for he was 
banished from court ; arid in several of his son- 
nets he ascribes his misfortunes to love. He 
now retired to his mother's friends at Santaren. 
Here he renewed his studies, and began his poem 
on the discovery of India. John III. at this time 
prepared an armament against Africa. Camoens, 
tired of his inactive obscure life, went to Ceuta in 
this expedition, and displayed his valor in se- 
veral rencounters. In a naval engagement with 
the Moors in the straits of Gibraltar, in the con- 
flict of boarding, he was among the foremost, and 
lost his right eye. Yet neither the hurry of actual 
service nor the dissipation of the camp could 
stifle his genius. He continued his Lusiad, and 
several of his most beautiful sonnets were written 
in Africa, while, as he expressed it, 
' One hand the pen, and one the sword, employed.' 
The fame of his valor had now reached the court, 
and he obtained permission to return to Lisbon. 
But, while he solicited an establishment which he 
had merited in battle, the malignity of evil tongues 
was injuriously poured upon him. Though the 
bloom of his youth was effaced by long residence 
under the scorching sun-beams of Africa, and 
disfigured by the loss of an eye, his presence 
gave uneasiness to some gentlemen of families of 
the first rank, where he had formerly visited. 
Jealousy is the characteristic of the Spanish and 
Portuguese; its resentment knows no bounds, 
and Camoens now found it prudent to banish 
himself from his native country. Accordingly, 
in 1553, he sailed for India, with a resolution 
never to return. As the ship left the Tagus, he 


C A M O E N S. 

exclaimed in the words of the sepulchral monu- 
ment of Scipio Africanus, Ingrata patria, non 
possedebis ossa mea ! ' Ungrateful country, 
thou shall not possess my bones '. ' But he knew 
not what evils in the East would awake the re- 
membrance of his native fields. When Camoens 
arrived in India, a fleet was ready to sail to re- 
venge the king of Cochin on the king of Pimenta. 
Without any rest on shore after his long voyage, 
he joined this armament, and in the conquest of 
the Alagada islands displayed his usual bravery. 
In 1554 he attended Vasconcello in an expedition 
to the Red Sea. Here, says Faria, as Camoens 
had no use for his sword, he employed his pen. 
Nor was his activity confined to the fleet or camp. 
He visited Mount Felix, and the adjacent inhos- 
pitable regions of Africa, which he so strongly 
pictures in the Lusiad, and in one of his little 
pieces, where he laments the absence of his mis- 
tress. When he returned to Goa, he enjoyed a 
tranquillity which enabled him to bestow his at- 
tention on his Epic. But this serenity was in- 
terrupted, perhaps by his own imprudence. He 
wrote some satires which gave offence ; and, by 
order of the viceroy, Francisco Barreto, he was 
banished to China. The accomplishments of 
Camoens soon found him friends, even under the 
disgrace of banishment. He was appointed 
commissary of the defunct in the island of Ma- 
cao. Here he continued his Lusiad ; and here 
also, after five years residence, he acquired a for- 
tune equal to his wishes. Don Constantine de 
Braganza was now viceroy of India; and Ca- 
moens, desirous to return to Goa, resigned his 
charge. In a ship, freighted by himself, he set 
sail ; but was shipwrecked in the gulf near the 
mouth of the river Mehon on the coast of China. 
All he had acquired was lost ; as he tells us in 
the seventh Lusiad : 

' Now blest with all the wealth fond hope could 

Soon I beheld that wealth beneath the wave 

For ever lost ; 

My life like Judah's heaven-doom'd king of yore, 
By miracle prolong'd.' 

His poems, which he held in one hand, while he 
cut the waves with the other, were all that he 

fossessed, when he stood friendless on the un-> 
nown shore. But the natives gave him a most 
humane reception; which he has immortalised 
n that beautiful prophetic song in the tenth Lu- 
siad. On the banks of the Mehon, he wrote his 
beautiful paraphrase of the psalm, where the 
lews, in the finest strain of poetry, are repre- 
sented as hanging their harps on the willows by 
the rivers of Babylon, and weeping their exile 
from their native country. Here Camoens con- 
tinued some time, till an opportunity offered to 
cany him to Goa. When he arrived at that city, 
Don Constantine de Braganza, the viceroy, ad- 
mitted him into intimate friendship, and Camoens 
was happy till count Rodondo assumed the go- 
vernment. But now, those who had formerly 
procured his banishment, exerted all their arts 
against him. Rodondo, when he entered on of- 
fice, pretended to be the friend of Camoens , yet, 
he soon after suffered him to be thrown into the 
common prison. Camoens, however, in a pub- 

lic trial, fully refuted every accusation of his con- 
duct while commissary at Macao, and his enemies 
were loaded with ignominy. But Camoens had 
some creditors, who detained him in prison a 
considerable time, till the gentlemen of Goa, 
ashamed that a man of his singular merit should 
experience such treatment among them, set him 
at liberty. He again assumed the profession of 
arms, and received the allowance of a gentleman 
volunteer, a character at this time common in 
Portuguese India. Soon after, Pedro Barreto, 
who was appointed governor of the fort at Sofala, 
allured the poet by high promises, to attend him 
thither. Though the only motive of Barreto was 
to retain the conversation of Camoens at his table, 
it was his least care to render the life of his guest 
agreeable. Chagrined with his treatment, and a 
considerable time having elapsed in vain depen- 
dence upon Barreto, Camoens resolved to return 
to his native country. A ship, on the homeward 
voyage, at this time touched at Sofala, and seve- 
ral gentlemen who were on board were desirous 
that Camoens should accompany them. But to 
prevent this, the governor ungenerously charged 
him with a debt for board. Anthony de Cabra 
however, and Hector de Silveira, paid the de- 
mand ; and ' Camoens,' says Faria, ' and the 
honor of Barreto were sold together.' After an 
absence of sixteen years, Camoens, in 1569, re- 
turned to Lisbon, unhappy even in his arrival, 
for the pestilence then raged in that city, and 
prevented his publication for three years. At 
last, in 1572, he printed his Lusiad, which, in 
the opening of the first book, in a most elegant 
turn of compliment, he addressed to king Sebas- 
tian, then in his eighteenth year. The king, 
says the French translator, was so pleased with 
his merit, that he gave the author a pension of 
4000 reals, on condition that he should reside at 
court. But this salary, says the same writer, was 
withdrawn by cardinal Henry, who succeeded to 
the crown of Portugal, lost by Sebastian at the 
battle of Alcazar. Though Henry was the great 
patron of one species of literature, yet the author 
of the Lusiad was utterly neglected by him, and 
under his inglorious reign, died in all the misery 
of poverty. By some, it is said, he died in an 
almshouse. It appears, however, that he had 
not even the certainty of subsistence which these 
houses provide. He had a black servant, who 
had grown old witli him, who had long expe- 
rienced his master's humanity. This grateful 
Indian, a native of Java, who, according to some 
writers, saved his master's life in the shipwreck, 
begged in the streets of Lisbon, for the only man 
in Portugal on whom God had bestowed those 
talents, which tend to elevate the spirit of a dege- 
nerate age. To the eye of a careful observer, the 
fate of Camoens throws great light on that of his 
country, and will appear strictly connected witli 
it. The same ignorance, the same despicable 
spirit, which suffered Camoens to depend on 
alms, sunk the kingdom of Portugal into the 
most abject vassalage ever experienced by a con- 
quered nation. While the grandees were blind 
to the ruin which impended over them, Camoens 
beheld it with a pungency of grief which hasten- 
ed his exit. In one of his letters he has these 
remarkable words : ' Em sim accaberey a vida,' 




&c. 'I am ending the course of my life; the 
world will witness how I have loved my coun- 
try. I have returned, not only to die in her 
bosom, but to die with her.' In this unhappy 
situation, in 1579, in his sixty-second year, the 
year after the fatal defeat of Don Sebastian, died 
Lewis de Camoens, the greatest literary genius 
ever produced in Portugal ; a man equal in mar- 
tial courage and honor to her greatest heroes. 
And he was buried in a manner suitable to the 
poverty in which he died. The Lusiad has been 
translated once into Latin, twice into Italian, once 
into French, four times into Spanish, and once 
into English, by Mr. Mickle. Some of his minor 
poems have been translated into English, in beau- 
tiful, if not very faithful, language, by lord 

CAM'OMILE, n. s. A flower. See ANTHEMIS. 
CAMORTA, one of the Nicobar isles, in the 
Bay of Bengal, on which the Danes had a settle- 
ment during the last century. It is about twenty- 
nine miles in length from north to south, and 
five miles broad. On. the south-east coast is a 
good harbour. It is covered in parts with the 
poon tree, used for masts in India, and has even 
fruitful spots, but is thinly peopled. See NICO- 

CA'MOS, or -N Fr. eamuser; Lat. si- 
CA'MOYS, or / mus ; Ital. camuso. Flat 

CA'MOUS, adj. \nosed; to bend; to break; 
CA'MOUSED, adj. V to flatten the nose ; from 
CA'MOUSLY. J sa/jTrrw, I bend. Dr. 

Johnson says, that camow-nosed is hook-nosed. 

Round was his face, and camitse was his nose ; 
As pilled as an ape was his skull. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

Many Spaniards, of the race of Barbary Moors, 
though after frequent commixture, have not worn out 
the cumous nose unto this day. 

Browne's Vulgar Errotirs, 

CAMOUFLET, in military affairs, a kind of 
stinking combustible blown out of paper cases 
into the miners' faces, when they are at work in 
the galleries of the countermines. They are to 
be ranked at present, not only among the disused, 
but we hope among the never to be renewed 
resources of a weak garrison. 

CAMP', v. & n. ~\ Sax. camp, corresponds 
CAMPAIGN', ^with Lat. castrum, from 

CAMP'-FIGHT, i Goth, kiamp, a soldier ; 
CAMP'-MASTER. JSwed. kamp; Sax. camp; 
Arm. kimp; Welsh, camp ; Irish, campa; Ital. 
campo ; Fr. camp. A contest, or place of armies; 
a military station in the field. The root of the 
Goth, word is kapp, a contest ; from which we 
have our word cope, to contend. Its general 
acceptation is the place and order of tents for 
soldiers in the field. It has also a signification 
that has nothing to do with the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of glorious war ; it often means no 
more than a field, plain, or open country. 
Campaign is equally applied to an extensive 
level country, and to the season that armies 
keep the field. 

From ofimp to camp, through the foul womb of 

The hum of either army stilly sounds. Shukspeare. 

I, his despiteful Juno, sent him forth, 
From courtly friends, with camping foes to live. Id. 

For their trial by camp-fight, the accuser was, with 
fhe peril of his own body, to prove the accused guilty ; 
and, by offering him his glove or gantlet, to challenge 
him to this trial. Hahewell. 

This might have hastened his march, which would 
have made a fair conclusion of the campaign. 


In countries thinly inhabited, and especially in vast 
campaniaS, there are few cities, besides what grow by 
the residence of kings. Temple. 

Command the children of Israel, that they put out 
of the camp every leper, and overy one that hath an 
issue, and whosoever is defiled by the dead : Both 
male and female shall ye put out, without the camp 
shall ye put them ; that they defile not their campa 
in the midst whereof I dwell. Numb. v. 2 4. 

What hindered me from going into Spain ? That 
was my province, where I should have had the less 
dreaded Asdrubal, not Hannibal, to deal with. But 
hearing, as I passed along the coast of Gaul, of this 
enemy's march, I landed my troops, sent the horse 
forward, and pitched my camp upon the Rhone. A 
part of my cavalry encountered, and defeated that of 
the enemy. Hooke's Speech of Scipio. 

I served thee fifteen hard campaigns, 
A nd pitched thy standard in these foreign fields ; 
By me thy greatness grew ; thy years grew with it 
But thy ingratitude out-grew them both. Drydjn. 

Those grateful groves that shade the plain, 

Where Tiber rolls majestic to the main, 

And fattens, as he runs, the fair campaign. Garth. 
An Iliad rising out of one campaign. Add'tMn. 

Next, to secure our camp and naval powers, 

Raise an embattled wall with lofty towers. Pope. 
And perfect victor had the duke remained, 

But that Prince Hubert privately retired, 

And long before the camp at Brescia gained, 

Whence he returned with double fury fired. Gay. 
On Addison's sweet lays. Attention waits, 

And Silence guards the place while he repeats ; 

His muse alike on every subject charms, 

Whether she paints the god of love or anus ; 

In him pathetic Ovid sings again, 

And Homer's Iliad shines in his campaign. Id. 

' Not far from hence/ said he, ' a chosen few 
Lie camped, my trusty followers in the field. Id. 

On the banks of the Niester, the prudent Athan- 
aric, more attentive to his own than to the general 
safety, had fixed the camp of the Visigoths, with the 
firm resolution of opposing the victorious barbarians, 
whom he thought it less advisible to provoke. 


What though I saw with steady view 

Bath spread of nymphs her proud array ; 

And faced, with anguish well concealed, 

The shafts that frequent round me flew ; 
Think not that from the fatal field 

I bore a heart entire away ! 

Nor yet, believe me, thus retired, 

Hill, grove, or lawn, my plaint resound ; 

A secret pleasure soothes my pain, 

And with heroic ardour fired 
I cherish each illustrious wound 

In memory of that bright campaign. Dr. T. Percy. 

And for his tongue, the camp is full of licence, 
And the sharp stinging of a lively rogue 
I* to my mind far preferable to 
The gross, dull, heavy, gloomy, execrations 
Of a mere famished, sullen, grumbling slave. 

Byron, Deformed Transformed. 

CAMP is also used by the Siamese, and some 
other nations in the East Indies, as the name of 
the quarters which they assign to foreigners who 


come to trade. In these every nation forms a 
kind of town, where they carry on their trade, not 
only keeping all their warehouses and shops, but 
also living in these canaps with their whole fami- 
lies. The Europeans, however, may live either 
in the cities or suburbs, as they please. 

CAMPS, in respect to their location, ought to be 
planted near water, in a country of forage, where 
the soldiers may find wood for dressing their 
victuals ; flave a free communication with gar- 
risons, and with a country from whence it may 
be supplied with provisions ; and, if possible, be 
situated on a rising ground, in a dry gravelly 
soil. The advantages of the ground ought also 
to be considered, as marshes, woods, rivers, and 
enclosures ; and if the camp be near the enemy, 
with no river or marsh to cover it, it ought 
to be intrenched. An army generally encamps 
fronting the enemy : in two lines, running paral- 
lel, about 500 yards distance; the horse and 
dragoons on the wings, and the foot in the centre : 
sometimes a body of two, three, or four brigades 
is encamped behind the two lines, and is called 
the reserve. The artillery and bread waggons 
are generally encamped in the rear of the two 
lines. A battalion of foot is allowed eighty or 
100 paces for its camp ; and thirty or forty for 
an interval, betwixt one battalion and another. A 
squadron of horse is allowed thirty for its camp, 
thirty for an interval, and more if the ground 
will allow it. Where the grounds are equally dry, 
those camps are always the most healthful that are 
pitched on the banks of large rivers : because, in 
the hot season, situations of this kind have a stream 
of fresh air from the water, serving to carry off 
noxious exhalations. On the other hand, next to 
marshes, the worst encampments are on low 
grounds close beset with trees : for then the air 
is not only moist and hurtful, but, by stagnating, 
becomes more susceptible of corruption. How- 
ever, let the situation of camps be ever so good, 
they are frequently rendered infectious by putrid 
effluvia of various kinds, which make it neces- 
sary to leave the ground with all the filth of the 
camp behind. This should be frequently done, 
if consistent with the military operations. It 
may also be a proper caution to order the privy- 
pits to be made at a distance, either in the 
front or the rear, as the then stationary winds 
may best carry off the effluvia from the camp. 
It will also be necessary to change the straw fre- 
quently, as being not only apt to rot, but to re- 
tain the infectious steams of the sick. But if 
fresh straw cannot be procured, more care must 
be taken in airing the tents, as well as the old 
straw. Several modern medical writers have 
considered the diseases of camps, among whom 
Drs. Pringle and Monro may be mentioned as 
most celebrated. 

CAMPS, ANCIENT FORMS OF. The disposition 
of the Hebrew encampment was at first laid out 
by God himself. Their camp was of a quadrangu- 
lar form, surrounded with an enclosure of the 
height of ten hand-breadths. It made a square 
of twelve miles in compass about the tabernacle ; 
and within this was the Levites' camp. The 
Greeks had also their camps, fortified with gates 
and ditches. The Lacedaemonians made their 

camp of a round figure, looking upon that as the 
most perfect and defensive of any form ; though 
they doubtless dispensed with it when circum- 
stances required. In the other Grecian camps, 
the most valiant of the soldiers were placed at 
the extremities, the rest in the middle. Thus 
Homer tells us that Achilles arid Ajax were 
posted at the ends of the camp before Troy, as 
bulwarks on each side of the other princes. The 
figure of the Roman camp was a square divided 
into two principal parts : in the upper parts 
were the general's pavilion, or praetorium, and 
the tent of the chief officers ; in the lower, those 
of inferior degree. On one side of the praetorium 
stood the quaestorium, or apartment of the trea- 
surer ; and near this the forum, both for a mar- 
ket-place and the assembling of councils. On 
the other side of the praetorium were lodged the 
legati ; and below it the tribunes had their quar- 
ters, opposite to their respective legions. Aside 
from the tribunes were the praefecti of the foreign 
troops, over against their respective wings ; and 
behind these were the lodgments of the evocati ; 
then those of the extraordinarii and ablecti 
equites, which concluded the higher part of the 
camp. Between the two partitions was a spot of 
ground called principia, for the altars and images 
of the gods, and probably also for the chief en- 
signs. The middle of the lower partition was 
assigned to the Roman horse ; next to them were 
quartered the triarii ; then the principes, and 
close by them the hastati ; afterwards the foreign 
horse, and lastly the foreign foot. They fortified 
their camp with a ditch and parapet, which they 
termed fossa and vallum ; in the latter some dis- 
tinguish two parts, viz. the agger or earth, and 
the sudes or wooden stakes driven in to secure it. 
The camps were sometimes surrounded by walls 
made of hewn stone ; and the tents themselves 
formed of the same matter. 

In the front of a Turkish camp are quartered 
the janissaries and other foot, whose tents encom- 
pass their aga : in the rear are the quarters of the 
spahis and other horsemen. The body of the 
camp is possessed by the stately tents or pa- 
vilions of the vizier, reis effendi, kahija, the tefter- 
dar bashaw, and kapislar kahiasee. In the middle 
of these tents is a spacious field, wherein are 
erected a building for the divan, and a hafna or 
treasury. When the ground is marked out for 
a camp, all wait for the pitching of the tent 
lailac, the place where the courts of justice are 
held ; it being the disposition of this, that regu- 
lates all the rest. The Arabs still live in camps, 
as the ancient Scenites did. The camp of the 
Assyne Emir, or king of the country about Tad- 
mor, is described by a traveller who viewed it, 
as spread over a very large plain, and possessing 
so vast a space, that, though he had the advantage 
of a rising ground, he could not see the utmost 
extent of it. The king's tent was near the mid- 
dle ; scarce distinguishable from the rest, except 
that it was bigger, being made, like the others, 
of a sort of hair-cloth. 

The CAMPAGNA DI ROMA, or Territory of 
Rome, is bounded on the north by II Patrimonio 
di St. Pietro and Sabina, on the north-east and 
east by the kingdom of Naples, and on the south 




and west by the Tuscan Sea. It is the most im- 
portant of the States of the Church, having Rome 
for its capital, and comprehending the greater 
part of ancient Latium. It is from fifty to 
seventy miles long, and from forty to sixty 
broad. Its formation is entirely volcanic. Here 
are> now many waste and unhealthy tracts, thinly 
peopled. The ruins of temples and tombs are 
the only conspicuous objects. The Pontine 
marshes cover a large district in the south-east, 
and fill the atmosphere with the most noxious 
vapors. But a good road has lately been cut 
through them. The soil is generally fertile, and 
wants only an intelligent and healthy population 
to render it productive. The towns of note, 
oesides Rome, are Velletri, Frascati, Palestrina, 
Terracina, Tivoli, Ardea, Veroli, Albano, Net- 
tuno, Ostia, Castel-Gandolfo, and Marino. The 
chief river is the Tiber, which separates this pro- 
vince from St. Peter's Patrimony. 

CAM PAN, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of the Upper Pyrenees, on the left bank of 
the Adour. Population 4200. This is one of 
the most romantic parts of France; the hills 
abound in red, white, and gray marble. The 
inhabitants rear cattle, and travel for employment 
into Spain. Two miles and a half south of 

CAMPANELLA (Thomas), a celebrated 
Italian philosopher, born at Stilo, in Calabria, in 
1568. He distinguished himself very early, for 
at the age of thirteen he was a perfect master of 
the ancient orators and poets. His peculiar in- 
clination was to philosophy, to which he at last 
confined his whole time and study. At the age 
of twenty-two he formed a new system of philo- 
sophy, which raised him many enemies among 
the partizans of Aristotle. This induced him to 
go to Rome, whence he proceeded to Florence 
and Padua. In 1598 he returned to Calabria, 
where he was seized and carried to Naples, put 
seven times to the rack, and finally imprisoned 
for twenty- four years. During his confinement, 
he wrote his famous work, entitled Atheismus 
Triumphatus. Being at length set at liberty, he 
went to Paris, where he was graciously received 
by Louis XIII. and cardinal Richelieu ; the 
latter procured him a pension of 2000 livres. 
Campanella passed the remainder of his days in 
a monastery at Paris, and died in 1639. 


CAMPAN'IFORM, adj. Lat. campana, a bell, 
and forma. A term used of flowers, which are in 
the shape of a bell. 

CAMPANILE, a bell tower, a detached 
tower in some parts of Italy, erected for the pur- 
pose of containing bells. The narrowness of the 
base, combined with the great elevation of these 
towers, has occasioned several of them to settle, 
as it is called, and to deviate considerably from 
their original perpendicular. 

The campanile of Pisa, called Torre Pendente, 
or the hanging tower, is the most remarkable of 
these. Its form is that of a cylinder surrounded 
with eight stories of columns placed over each 
other ; the last story, which forms the belfry, re- 
tiring a little from the general line of elevation. 
All the columns are of marble: from each column 
springs two arches, and between the columns 

and the circular wall of the tower is an open 
gallery. The height to the platform is 150 feet, 
and the building inclines nearly thirteen feet 
from the perpendicular. 

CAMPANULA, the bell-flower, a genus of 
the monogynia order, in the pentandria class of 
plants ; natural order, twenty-ninth, campa- 
naceae : COR. campanulated, with its fundus 
closed up by the valves that support the stamina: 
STIG. trifid : CAP. inferior, or below the recep- 
tacle of the flower, opening and emitting the 
seeds by lateral pores. Of this genus there are 
no fewer than eighty-five species, but the fol- 
lowing are the most worthy of attention : 

1. C. Canariensis, with an orach leaf and tube- 
rous root, is a native of the Canary Islands. The 
flowers are produced from the joints of the stalk, 
which are the perfect bell shape, and hang down- 
ward, they are of a flame color, marked with 
stripes of a brownish red ; the flower is divided 
into five parts ; at the bottom of each is seated a 
nectarium, covered with a white transparent skin, 
much resembling those of the crown imperial, 
but smaller. The flowers begin to open in the 
beginning of October, and there is often a suc- 
cession of them till March. The stalks decay to 
the root in June, and new ones spring up in 

2. C. decurrens, the peach-leaved bell-flower, 
is a native of the northern parts of Europe; of 
this there are some with white, and some with 
blue flowers, and some with double flowers of 
both colors. These last have of late been propa- 
gated in such abundance as to have almost 
banished from the gardens those with single 

3. C. hybrida, or common Venus's looking- 
glass, seldom rises more than six inches, with a 
stalk branching from the bottom upwards. This 
was formerly cultivated in the gardens; but 
since the speculum has been introduced, whose 
flowers are very similar, it has almost supplanted 
this; for the other is a much taller plant, and the 
flowers larger. 

4. C.latifolia, or great bell-flower. The flowers 
come out singly upon short foot-stalks; their 
colors are blue, purple and white. 

5. C. medium, the Canterbury bell-flower, is 
a biennial plant, perishing soon after it has 
ripened its seeds. It grows naturally in the woods 
of Italy and Austria; but is cultivated in the Bri- 
tish gardens for the beauty of its flowers, which 
are blue, purple, white, and striped, with double 
flowers of all the colors. From the setting on 
of the leaves proceed the foot-stalks of the 
flowers; those which are on the lower part of the 
stalk and branches diminishing gradually in 
their length upward, and thereby forming a sort of 
pyramid. The flowers of this kind are very large, 
and make a fine appearance. The seeds ripen 
in September, and the plants decay soon after. 

6. C. ranunculus, the rampion, the roundish 
fleshy roots of which are eatable, and much cul- 
tivated in France for sallads; it was formerly 
cultivated in the English gardens for the same 
purpose, but is now generally neglected. It is a 
native of Britain ; but the roots of the wild sort 
never grow to half the size of those which are 



7. C. speculum with yellow eye-bright leaves. 
From the wings of the leaves come out the 
flowers sitting close to the stalks, which are of a 
beautiful purple, inclining to a violet color. In 
the evening, they contract and fold into a penta- 
gonal figure ; from whence ii is by some called 
viola pentagonia, or five-cornered violet. 

8. C. trachelium, with nettle leaves, and a pe- 
-ennial root. Towards the upper part of the stalks, 
the flowers come out alternately Upon short tri- 
fid foot-stalks having hairy empalements. The 
colors of the flowers are a deep and pale blue 
and white, with double flowers of the same; only 
the double flowered kind merits a place in gardens. 

The first species is propagated by parting the 
roots, which must be done with caution : for if 
they are broken or wounded, the milky juice will 
flow plentifully ; and if planted before the wounds 
are skinned over, they rot : when any of them are 
broken, they should be laid in the green-house a 
few days to heal. They must not be too often 
parted, if they are expected to flower well ; for 
they are thus weakened. The best time for 
transplanting and parting them is in July, soon 
after the stalks are decayed. They succeed best 
in light sandy loam, mixed with a fourth part of 
screened lime-rubbish : when the roots are first 
planted, the pots should be placed in the shade, 
and unless the season is very dry they should 
not be watered. About mid-August the roots 
will begin to put out fibres ; at which time, if 
the pots are placed under a hot-bed frame, 
opened every day to enjoy the free air, it will 
greatly forward them for flowering, and increase 
their strength. The plants thus managed, by the 
middle of September will have grown so tall as 
not to be kept any longer under the glass frame ; 
they must, therefore, be removed into a dry airy 
glass case, where they may enjoy the air in free 
mild weather, but screened from the cold. The 
second, fourth, fifth, and eighth species are so 
easily propagated by parting the roots, or by 
seeds, that no particular directions for the cul- 
ture need be given. The third and seventh 
species are easily propagated by seeds, which 
they produce in plenty. If the seeds are sown 
in autumn, the plants will flower early in the 
spring; but, if sown in spring, they will not 
flower till mid-June; and, if a third sowing is 
performed about the middle of May, the plants 
will flower in August; but good seeds must not 
be expected from these. The ranunculus, which 
is cultivated for its esculent roots, may be pro- 
pagated by seeds, which are to be sown in a 
shady border, and the ground to be well hoed. 
The roots ought to be taken up, in winter, 
as they are wanted. They will continue good 
till April, at which time they send out their stalks, 
when the roots become hard. 

CAM PAS PE, a most beautiful concubine of 
Alexander the Great, who ordered Apelles to 
draw her picture naked. But the painter, dur- 
ing the operation, falling in love with her, the 
conqueror of the world conquered his own pas- 
sion so far, as to give her up to him. 

CAMPBELL (George), D. D. the son of the 
Rev. C. Campbell, was born in 1719 at Aber- 
deen, where he was educated. He was at first 
articled to a writer of Ihe signet, but turned his 

attention to divinity, and obtained in 1748 the 
church of Banchory Ternan. In 1756 he became 
one of the ministers of Aberdeen; and in 1759 
was chosen principal of Marischal College. He 
now began his celebrated Essay on Miracles, in 
answer to Hume, and on the publication of it 
received his diploma from King's College, Aber- 
deen. In 1771 he was elected divinity professor. 
This professorship he resigned some years before 
his death, and the king settled on him a pension 
of 300 a year. He died in 1796. His other prin- 
cipal works are : The Philosophy of Rhetoric, in 
2 vols. 8vo. 1776 ; A Sermon, on Allegiance, 
preached on the king's fast day, 1777, 4to. ; An 
Address to the People of Scotland, on the Alarms 
raised by what is called the Popish Bill, 8vo. 
1780; A Translation of the Gospels, with Pre- 
liminary Dissertations, 2 vols. 8vo., 1793. This 
was his last and greatest work ; the fruit of 
copious erudition and unwearied application, for 
about thirty years ; and will lead the attentive 
reader to regret that the other books of the New' 
Testament had not been elucidated by the same 
judicious author. 

CAMPBELL (John), second duke of Argyle and 
Greenwich, was born October 10th, 1680. At 
the age of fifteen he had made a considerable 
progress in classical learning. His father then 
perceived and encouraged his military disposition, 
and introduced him to king William, who in 1694 
gave him the command of a regiment. In this 
situation he remained till the death of his father 
in 1 703 ; when, becoming duke of Argyle, he 
was sworn of queen Anne's privy council, made 
captain of the Scotch horse guards, and appointed 
one of the extraordinary lords of session. In 
1704 the queen, reviving the Scottish order of 
the thistle, installed the duke one of the knights, 
and soon after appointed him high commissioner 
to the Scotch parliament; where, being of great 
service in promoting the Union, he was on his 
return created a peer of England, and in 1710 
knight of the garter. He first distinguished him- 
self at the battle of Oudenard ; where he com- 
manded as brigadier-general. He was also 
present under the duke of Marlborough at the 
siege of Ghent, and took possession of the town. 
He had a share likewise in the victory of Mal- 
plaquet, by dislodging the French from the 
wood of Sart, and gaining a post of great conse- 
quence. Soon after, he was sent to take the com- 
mand in Spain ; and, after the reduction of Port 
Mahon, returned to England. Having now a 
seat in the house of lords, he censured the mea- 
sures of the ministry with such freedom, that he 
was deprived of all his places : but at the acces- 
sion of George I. he recovered his influence. 
At the breaking out of the rebellion in 1715 he 
was made commander-in-chief in North Britain. 
In direct opposition to that part of the army he 
commanded, at the head of all his Campbells 
was placed Campbell earl of Braidalbin, a noble- 
man of the same family and kindred. The con- 
sequence was, that both sets of Campbells, from 
family affection, refused to strike a stroke, and 
retired out of the battle. He arrived in London 
March 6th, 1716, and was in high favor ; but, to 
the surprise of people of all ranks, he was in a 
few months divested of all his employments ; and 




from this period to 1718 signalised himself in a 
civil capacity. In the beginning of 1719 he was 
again admitted into favor, appointed lord steward 
of the household, and, in April following, created 
duke of Greenwich. He continued in the ad- 
ministration during the remaining part of that 
reign; and, after the accession of king George II, 
till April 1740 ; when he delivered a speech with 
which the ministry being highly offended, he 
was again dismissed. He was soon however 
restored ; but not approving of the measures of 
the new ministry, gave up all his posts for the 
last time, and died in privacy, of a paralytic 
disorder, on the 4th of October, 1743. A noble 
monument, by Roubilliac, was erected in West- 
minster Abbey to his memory. The titles of 
duke and earl of Greenwich, and baron of 
Chatham, became extinct at his death ; but in his 
other titles he was succeeded by his younger 
brother Archibald, earl of Hay. 

CAMPBELL (John), an historical, biographical, 
and political writer, was born at Edinburgh, 
March 8th, 1708; and was the fourth son of 
Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, by a Miss Smith 
of Windsor in Berkshire, a descendant of the 
poet Waller. At five years of age he was brought 
from Scotland to Windsor, where he received his 
education ; and was placed as clerk to an attorney. 
This profession, however, he never followed ; but, 
by a close application to science, qualified him- 
self to appear with great advantage in the literary 
world. In 1736 he gave to the public, in 2 vols. 
folio, The Military History of Prince Eugene 
and the Duke of Marlborough, enriched with 
maps, plans, and cuts. The reputation he ac- 
quired occasioned him soon after to be solicited 
to take a part in the Ancient Universal History. 
Whilst employed in this work, Mr. Campbell 
found leisure to undertake several other pieces. 
In 1739 he published the Travels and Adventures 
of Edward Brown, Esq., 8vo. ; and Memoirs of 
the Bashaw Duke de Ripperda, 8vo. ; reprinted, 
with improvements, in 1740. These were fol- 
lowed, in 1741, by the Concise History of 
Spanish America, 8vo. In 1742 he published 
A Letter to a Friend in the Country, on the Pub- 
lication of Thurloe's State Papers ; and the first 
and second vols. of his Lives of the English Ad- 
mirals, and other eminent British Seamen. The 
two remaining vols. were completed in 1744; 
and the whole, not long after, was translated into 
German. This was the first of Mr. Campbell's 
works to which he prefixed his name. In 1743 
he published Ilermippus Redivivus ; a second 
edition of which, much improved and enlarged, 
came out in 1749. In 1744 he gave to the pub- 
lic, in 2 vols. folio, his Voyages and Travels, on 
Dr. Harris's plan. The time and care employed 
by Mr. Campbell in this important undertaking, 
did not prevent his engaging in another great 
work, the Biographia Britannica, which began to 
be published in weekly numbers in 1745, and 
extended to 7 vols. folio ; but his articles were 
only in the first 4 vols. When the late Mr. 
Dodsley formed the design of the Preceptor, 
which appeared in 1748, Mr. Campbell was en- 
gaged to assist in it. The parts written by him 
were the Introduction to Chronology, and the 
Discourse on Trade and Commerce. In 1750 

he published the first separate edition of his 
Present State of Europe ; a work which had 
been originally begun in 1746 in the Museum, 
a valuable periodical work printed for Dodsley. 
The next great undertaking which called for the 
exertion of his abilities and learning, was The 
Modern Universal History. This extensive 
work was published, in detached parts, till it 
amounted to 16 vols. folio; and a second edition 
of it, in 8vo., began to appear in 1759. The 
parts written by Mr. Campbell were, the his- 
tories of the Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, French, 
Swedish, Danish, atid Ostend Settlements in the 
East Indies ; and the Histories of the kingdoms 
of Spain, Portugal, Algarve, and Navarre ; and of 
France, from Clovis to 1656. The degree of 
LL. D. was conferred upon him June 18th, 1754, 
by the university of Glasgow. His favorite work 
was, A Political Survey of Great Britain, 2 vols. 
4to., published a short time before his death ; in 
which the extent of his knowledge, and hi? 
patriotic spirrt, are equally conspicuous. He 
was, during the latter part of his life, agent for 
the province of Georgia in North America ; and 
died in 1775, aged sixty -seven. 

CAMPBELL, a county of Virginia, bounded on 
the north by the Fluvanna, which divides it from 
Amherst east by Charlotte and Prince Edward 
counties ; north-east by Buckingham ; west by 
Franklin and Bedford counties ; and south by 
Pittsylvania. It is forty-five miles in length, and 
thirty in breadth. 

CAMPBELTOVVN, a royal burgh and post 
town in the parish of the same name, in the county 
of Argyle, seated on the lake of Kilkerran, on 
the eastern shore of the district of Kintyre, of 
which It is the chief town. It has a good har- 
bour; and is now a very considerable place, 
though within these sixty years only a petty fish- 
ing town. It has in fact been created by the 
fishery; having been apppointed the place of 
rendezvous for the busses ; and above 300 have 
been seen in the harbour at once. Its vicinity to 
the markets of Ireland and the Clyde, are advan- 
tages which very few sea-ports enjoy. The har- 
bour is about two miles long and one broad, in 
the form of a crescent, with from six to ten fa- 
thoms water, and excellent anchorage, surrounded 
by high hills on each side, and an island to shel- 
ter the entrance. Two public libraries are also 
established, and a good school. This town was 
erected into a royal burgh in 1701, and is go- 
verned by a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, 
treasurer, and twelve counsellors. It joins with 
Ayr, Irvine, Inverary, and Rothsay, in sending 
a member to parliament. It lies thirty miles 
west of Ayr, and 176 miles west by south from 

CAMPDEN, a market town of Gloucester- 
shire, famous for its stocking manufactures. The 
church is a fine gothic building, said to be as old 
as William II. Here is also a grammar school 
and two charity schools. In the neighbourhood 
is a silk mill and manufactory. Market on Wed- 
nesday. Seven miles east from Evesham, and 
ninety W.NAV. from London. 

CAMPEACHY, a town of Mexico, seated 
on the east coast of the bay of this name, and 
defended by a good wall and strong forts : but it 




>s not so rich as formerly ; having been once the 
principal port for the sale of logwood. It was 
taken by the English in 1596; by the buccaneers 
in 1650 and 1678 ; and by the Flibusters of St. 
Domingo in 1685, who set it on fire. and blew 
up the citadel. It was once a considerable native 
town, and the Spaniards afterwards found many 
curious Indian antiquities here. The port is large, 
but the water shallow. The houses are of stone, 
and generally well built. Population about 6000. 
Its principal trade is in wax and 'cotton cloth, 
which is manufactured here. 

CAMPEACHY. WOOD, in botany. See HJEMA- 

CAM PEN, a fortified town of the Nether- 
lands, has a citadel and harbour ; but the latter 
is almost choked up with sand. It was taken 
by the Dutch in 1578, and by the French in 
1672 ; they abandoned it in 1673. It is seated 
near the mouth of the river Yssel, on the Zuider 
Zee. The most remarkable edifices are the two 
churches, the town-house, and the wooden bridge 
across the Yssel, which is 720 feet long, and 20 
broad The country around can readily be laid 
under water. Population 6200. Thirteen miles 
north of Arnheim, and forty-five north-east of 

CAMPESTRAL, adj. Latin, campestris; 
growing in fields. 

The mountain beech is the whitest ; but the cam- 
pettral, or wild beech, is blacker and more durable. 


CAMPESTRE, in antiquity, a cover for the 
body, worn by the Roman soldiers in their 
field exercises ; being girt under the navel, and 
hanging down to the knees. The name is formed 
from campus, the field, where they performed 
these exercises. 

CAMP FIGHT, among old law writers, is spelt 
KAMP FIGHT. We therefore refer the reader, 
for an account of this obsolete mode of legal 
duelling to that article. 

CAM'PHIRE, v. & n.-\ Ka0pa ; Ar. Heb. 

CAM'PHIRE-TREE, (Per. kafoor ; Sans. 

CAM'PHORATE, n. tkupoor ; Fr.camphre; 

CAM'PHORATED. ) Lat. camphora. A 

white resinous gum. 

There are two sorts of this tree ; one is a native of 
the isle of Borneo, from which the best camphire is 
taken, which is supposed to be a natural exudation 
from the tree, produced in such places where the bark 
of the tree has been wounded or cut. The other sort 
is a native of Japan, which Dr. Kempfer describes to 
be a kind of bay, bearing black or purple berries, 
from whence the inhabitants prepare their camphire, 
by making a simple decoction of the root and wood of 
this tree, cut into small pieces ; but this sort of cam- 
phire is in value eighty or an hundred times less 
than the true Bornean camphire. Miller. 

Spirit of wine camphorated, is a remedy frequently 
applied externally in cases of inflammations, &c. 

Dr. A. Reet. 

concrete juice extracted from the wood of the 
laurus camphora. See LAURUS CAMPHORS.. 

CAMPHOROSMA, in botany, stinking ground 
pine, a genus of the tetrandria order and mono- 
gynia class of plants : natural order twelfth, ho- 
loraceae : CAL. is pitcher-shaped and indented, 

there is no corolla ; and the capsule contains a 
single seed. It is reputed cephalic and nervine ; 
though little used in modern practice. It takes 
the name from its smell, which bears some re- 
semblance to that of camphor. There aie five 
species. Of these the principal is, C. Monspe- 
liensis, which grows especially about Montpelier 
It has been produced as a specific for the dropsy 
and asthma. 

CAMPHUYSEN (Dirk Theodore Raphael), 
an eminent painter, born at Gorcum in 1586. 
He learned the art from Govertze, but soon far 
surpassed his master. His subjects were land- 
scapes, mostly small, with ruinous buildings, 
huts of peasants, or views of villages on the 
banks of rivers. He generally represented them 
by moon light. His pencil is remarkably soft ; 
his coloring very transparent, and his expert- 
ness in perspective is seen in the proportional 
distances of his objects. Few of his works are 
to be met with, and they bring considerable 

CAMPIAN (Edmund), ah English Jesuit, 
born in London, of indigent parents, in 1540; 
and educated at Christ's Hospital, where he had 
the honor to deliver an oration before queen 
Mary on her accession to the throne. He was 
admitted a scholar of St. John's College in Ox- 
ford on its foundation, and took the degree of 
M.A. in 1564. About the same time he was 
ordained, and became an eloquent Protestant 
preacher. In 1566, when queen Elizabeth was 
entertained by the yniversity of Oxford, he spoke 
an elegant oration before her majesty, and was 
also respondent in the philosophy act in St. 
Mary's church. In 1568 he was junior proctor of 
the University. In 1569 he went over to Ireland, 
where he wrote a history of that kingdom, and 
became papist, and being assiduous in persuad- 
ing others to follow his example, was committed 
to prison. He soon, however, made his escape, 
and in 1571 proceeded to Douay in Flanders, 
where he publicly recanted his former opinions, 
and was created B. D. He went soon after to 
Rome, where, in 1573, he was admitted of the 
Society of Jesus, and was sent by the general to 
Vienna, where he wrote his tragedy, called Nec- 
tar et Ambrosia, which was acted before the em- 
peror with great applause. He went next to 
Prague, where he resided in the Jesuits' college^ 
about six years, and then returned to Rome. 
From thence, in 1580, he was sent by pope Gre- 
gory XIII. with father Parsons, to convert the 
people of England. They were joyfully received 
by their friends ; but had not been long in Eng- 
land before Campian was apprehended, and 
conducted in triumph to London. He was im- 
prisoned in the tower ; where, says Wood, ' he 
did undergo many examinations, abuses, wrack- 
ings, tortures.' He was finally condemned on 
the statute 25 Edward III. for high treason; 
and butchered at Tyburn, with two or three of 
his fraternity. ' All writers, whether Protestant 
or Popish, say, that he was a man of admirable 
parts ; an elegant orator, a subtle philosopher 
and disputant, and an exact preacher, whether 
in English or Latin, of a sweet disposition, and 
a well polished man.' His History of Ireland, 
in two books, was published by Sir James Ware, 


from a MS. in the Cotton library, Dublin, 1633, 
folio. He wrote also Chronologia Universalis, 
a very learned work ; and various other tracts. 

CAMPICURSIO, in the ancient military art, 
a march of armed men for several miles, from 
and back again to the camp, to instruct them in 
the military pace. 

the Roman army, officers who instructed the 
soldiery in the discipline and exercises of war, 
and the art of handling their weapons to advan- 
tage. These are also sometimes called campigeni 
and armidoctores. 

CAM'PION, n. s. Lat. lychnis ; a plant. See 

CAMPIOX, Viscous. See SILENE. 
CAMPIT/E, in church history, an appellation 
given to the donatists, on account of their as- 
sembling in the fields for want of churches. 
CAMPIUSA, in botany. See SCABIOSA. 
CAMPO MAYOR, a barrier town and fortress 
of Portugal, in the province of Alentejo, district 
of Elvas. It contains about 5300 inhabitants, 
and is well fortified. The explosion of a pow- 
der magazine in 1712, which was struck by light- 
ning, laid the town in ruins. It was taken in 
the war between Spain and Portugal in 1801, 
but restored at the peace. It is eight miles north 
of Elvas, ten north-west of Badajoz (in Spain), 
and 100 east of Lisbon. 

CAMPS (Francis De), abbot of Notre Dame 
at Signy, was born at Amiens in 1643 ; and dis- 
tinguished himself by his knowledge of medals, 
by writing a History of France, and several 
other works. He died at Paris in 1723. 

CAMPUS, in antiquity, a field or vacant 
plain in a city, not built upon, left vacant on 
account of shows, combats, exercises, or other 
uses of the citizens. 

CAMPUS MARTIUS, in ancient history, a large 
plain in the suburbs of ancient Rome, lying be- 
tween the Quirinal and Capitoline mounts and 
the Tiber; thus called because consecrated to 
the god Mars, and set apart for military sports 
and exercises, to which the Roman youth were 
trained ; such as the use of arms, and all manner 
of feats of activity. Here the races were run, 
either with chariots or single horses ; here also 
stood the villa publica or palace for the reception 
of ambassadors, who were not permitted to enter 
the city. Many of the public comitia were held 
in the same field, part of which was for that pur- 
pose cantoned out. The place was also nobly 
decorated with statues, arches, columns, porti- 
coes, and the like structures. It was given to 
the Roman people by a vestal virgin ; but they 
were deprived of it by Tarquin the Proud, who 
made it a private field, and sowed corn in it. 
\\ hen Tarquin was driven from Rome the people 
recovered it, and threw away into the Tiber the 
corn which had grown there, deeming it unlawful 
for any man to eat of the produce of that land. 
The sheaves which were thrown into the river 
stopped in a shallow ford, and by the accumu- 
lated collection of mud became firm ground, and 
formed an island, which was called the Holy 
Island, or the island of jEsculapius. 


CAMPUS SCELERATUS, a place without the 
walls of ancient Rome, where the Vestals who 
had violated their vows of virginity were buried 

CAMUS (Charles Stephen Lews), a cele- 
brated French mathematician, born at Cressy in 
1699. His early ingenuity in mechanics induced 
his parents to send him to a college at Paris, at 
ten years of age ; where within two years he 
made such rapid progress, that he gave lectures 
on mathematics and defrayed his own expenses, 
without farther charge to them. In 1727 he 
gained the prize given by the Academy of 
Sciences, ' to determine the most advantageous 
way of masting ships ;' in consequence of which, 
he was made adjoint mechanician to the aca- 
demy; and, in 1730, professor of architecture. 
In 1 733 he became secretary and associate ; and 
distinguished himself by his Memoirs on Moving 
Forces ; on the Figure of the Teeth of Wheels 
and Pinions; and on Pumps. In 1736 he was 
sent with Messrs. Clairaut, Maupertius, and 
Monnier, on the celebrated expedition to measure 
a degree at the North Polar circle ; in which he 
proved highly useful, both as a mathematician 
and mechanic. In 1741 he was appointed geo- 
metrician in the academy, and invented a gauging 
rod, to measure all kinds of casks and calculate 
their contents. In 1 747 he was examiner of the 
schools of artillery, and in 1765 elected F. R. S. 
of London. He died, May the 4th, 1768, after 
having published many mathematical works ; 
the principal of which are, Elements of Me- 
chanics, 8vo. and a Course of Mathematics for 
the Use of Engineers, 4 vols. 8vo. 

CAN', v. Goth, kunnan ; Ang. Sax. can, cunnan ; 
Swed.G./c<7ina; Icelandic, /cuna,DutchandGer. 
kennen. In Wicklif's translation of the New 
Testament we constantly find may used for can : 
as in the remarkable passages, John iii. 4, 
Nycodeme seide to him, how may a man be borun 
whanne he is olde ? when he may entre agen 
into his modir wombe ? John vi. 52, How may 
this geve to us his fleich to ete ? and sometimes, 
' moun,' as in John xiv. 5, ' Thomas seith to 
him, Lord, we witen not winder thou goist, and 
how moun we wite the weye ?' Johnson says, it 
is sometimes, though rarely, used alone ; but is 
in constant use as an expression of the potential 
mood ; as, I can do, thou canst do, I could do, 
thon couldst do. It has no other terminations. 
Dr. Johnson also further remarks, that it is dis- 
tinguished from may, as power from permission ; 
I can do it, it is in my power ; I may do it, it is 
allowed me : but in poetry they are confounded. 
Can is used of the person with the verb active, 
where may is used of the thing with the verb 
passive; as, I can do it, it may or can be done. 

But Chaucer (though he can but lewdely 
On metres and on riming craftily) 
Hath sayd hem, in swiche English as he can, 
Of olde time, as knoweth many a man ; 
And if he have not sayd hem, leve brother, 
In a book he hath sayd hem in another. 

Chaucer. The Man of Lowes' Prologue. 

Estward there stood a gate of marble white, 
Westward right swiche another in th' opposite. 
For in the land there's no craftles man, 
That geometric, or arsmetrike can. 

Id. Knight's Tali. 

CAN 80 

But ah ! who can deceive his destiny, 

Or weene by warning to avoyd his fate. Spenser. 

It (original sin) makes God to be all that for which 

any thing or person is or can be hated ; for it makes 

nim neither to be good, nor just, nor reasonable ; but 

an enemy to a great part of mankind. Jer. Taylor. 

for nothing lovelier can be found 

In woman, than to study houshold good. 

And good works in her husband to promote. Milton. 

In place there is licence to do good and evil, 
whereof the latter is a curse ; for, in evil, the best 
condition is not to will ; the second, not to can. 


O, there's the wonder ! 
Mecsnas and Agrippa, who can most 
With Csesar, are his foes. Dryden. 

If she can make me blest ! she only can : 
Empire and wealth, and all she brings beside, 
Are but the train and trappings of her love. /./. 

Simplicity alone can grace 
The manners of the rural race. Swift. 

Fortune ! fury ! rage ! despair ! 
I cannot, cannot, cannot bear. Gay. 

And be it so. Let those deplore their doom 
Whose hope still grovels in this dark sojourn, 

But lofty souls, who look beyond the tomb, 
Can smile at fate, and wonder how they mourn. 

Beat lie. 

Can mortal strength presume to soar so high, 
Can mortal sight so oft bedim'd with tears, 

Such glory bear ! for lo ! the shadows fly 
From nature's face Confusion disappears, 
And order charms the eye, and harmony the ears. 


Can glittering plume, or can the imperial wreath 
Redeem from unrelenting fate the brave ? 

What note of triumph can her clarion breathe 
To alarm the eternal midnight of the grave ? Id. 

If from society we learn to live, 
'Tis solitude should teach us how to die ; 

It hath no flatterers ; vanity can give 
No hollow aid ; alone man with his God must 
strive. Byron's Childe Harold. 

May and might express the possibility or liberty of 
doing a thing; can and could, the power, as it may 
rain ; I may write or read ; He might have improved 
more than he has j He can write much better than, he 
could last year. 

Lindley Murray. 

CAN, re. ) Swed. kann; Teut. karma ; 
CAN'AKIN, jSax. canne; Dutch, kan; Arm. 
can ; Fr. canette ; Lat. cantharus. A drinking 
vessel; a cup, originally, perhaps, formed of 
reeds or canes ; anything hollow, with some de- 
gree of length, easily converted into a vessel 
for drinking. 

Oh ! whether thee I closely hug 
In honest can, or nut-brown jug, 

Or in a tankard hail ; 
In barrel or in bettle pent, 
I give the generous spirit vent, 

Still may 1 feast on ale. Gay. 

A pump's can is a sort of wooden jug or pitcher, 
wherewith seamen pour water into pumps to make 
them work. Can-hook, an instrument used to sling a 
cask by the ends of the staves . it consists of a broad 
and flat hook fixed to each end of a short rope, and 
the tackle which serves to hoist or lower it, is fastened 
to the middle of the rope. Vt. A . Reet. 


One tree, the coco, affordeth stuff for housing, 
clothing, shipping, meat, drink, and can. Grew. 

His empty can, with ears half worn away, 
Was hung on high, to boast the triumph of the day. 


CANA, in ancient geography, a town on the 
confines of Galilee ; memorable for our Saviour's 
first miracle of turning water into wine. 

CANAAN, TWO, Heb. i. e. a merchant; the 
fourth son of Ham. The prophecy of Noah, 
that he ' should be a servant of servants to his 
brethren,' seems to have been fulfilled in his 
descendants. It was completed with regard to 
Shem, not only in that a considerable part of the 
seven nations of the Canaanites were made slaves 
to the Israelites, when they took possession of 
their land, as part of the remainder of them were 
afterwards enslaved by Solomon ; but also by the 
subsequent expeditions of the Assyrians and Per- 
sians, who were both descended from Shem; and 
under whom the Canaanites suffered subjection, 
as well as the Israelites ; not to mention the con- 
quest of part of Canaan by the Elamites, or Per- 
sians, under Chedorlaomer, prior to them all. 
With regard to Japhet, we find a completion of 
the prophecy, in the successive conquests of the 
Greeks and Romans in Palestine and Phoenicia, 
where the Canaanites were settled ; but especially 
in the total subversion of the Carthaginian power 
by the Romans ; besides some invasions of the 
northern nations, as the posterity of Thogarma 
and Magog; wherein many of them, probably, 
were carried away captive. The posterity of 
Canaan were very numerous. His eldest son 
was Sidon, who at least founded and peopled the 
city of Sidon, and was the father of the Sidonians 
and Phoenicians. Canaan had besides ten sons, 
who were the fathers of people dwelling in Pa- 
lestine, and in part of Syria ; namely, the Hit- 
tites, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgasites, 
the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arva- 
dites, the Semarites, and Hamathites. 

CANAAN, the tract of country which lies be- 
tween the Mediterranean Sea and the mountains 
of Arabia, and extends from Egypt to Phoenicia, 
was bounded on the east by the mountains of 
Arabia ; on the south by the wilderness of Paran, 
Iduma;a, and Egypt; on the west by the Medi- 
terranean, called in Hebrew the Great Sea; on 
the north by the mountains of Libanus. Its 
length from the city of Dan to Beersheba, was 
about seventy leagues ; and its breadth from the 
Mediterranean Sea to the eastern borders, in 
some places thirty. This country, afterwards 
called Palestine, from the Philistines, who inha- 
bited the sea coasts, was also denominated the 
Land of Promise, from the promise God made 
Abraham of giving it to him ; the Land of Israel, 
from the Israelites having made themselves mas- 
ters of it; of Judah, from the tribe of Judah, 
which was the most considerable of the twelve ; 
and the Holy Land, from its having been sanc- 
tified by the presence, actions, miracles, and 
death of Jesus Christ. The first inhabitants of ' 
were the Canaanites, who were descended frora 
Canaan, and the eleven sons of that patriarch. 
Here they multiplied extremely ; trade and war 
were their first occupations ; these gave rise to 




their riches, and several colonies were planted 
oy them over the islands and maritime provinces 
of the Mediterranean. The measure of their 
xlolatry and abominations was completed, when 
God delivered their country into the hands of the 
Israelites. In St. Athanasius's time, the African, 
still said they were descended from the Canaan- 
ites ; and the Punic tongue was almost entirely 
the same with the Canaanitish and Hebrew lan- 
guages. The colonies which Cadmus carried 
into Thebes in Boeotia, and his brother Cilix into 
Cilicia, came from the stock of Canaan. The 
isles of Sicily, Sardinia, Malta, Cyprus, Corfu, 
Majorca and Minorca, Gades and Ebusus, are 
thought to have been peopled by them. Bochart, 
in his large work, entitled Canaan, has set this 
matter in a clear light. Many of the old inhabi- 
tants of the north-west of Canaan, however, par- 
ticularly on the coast of Tyre and Sidon, were 
not driven out by the children of Israel, whence 
this tract seems to have retained the name of 
Canaan long after those other parts of the coun- 
try, which were better inhabited by the Israelites, 
had lost the name. The Greeks called this tract, 
inhabited by the old Canaanites, Phoenicia; the 
more inland parts, being inhabited partly by Ca- 
naanites, and partly by Syrians, Syrophcenicia : 
and hence the woman, said by St. Matthew (xv. 
22.) to be a woman of Canaan, whose daughter 
Jesus cured, is said by St. Mark (vii. 26.) to be 
a Syrophcenician by nation, as she was a Greek 
by religion and language. 

p- 46 49, where is a full account of this inter- 
esting colony. 

CANAILLE', n. s. French. The lowest 
people ; the dregs ; the lees ; the offscouring of 
the people : a French term of reproach. 

CANAL', Lat. canalis. Virgil uses canalis 
for a trough. It literally means the hollow of 
any thing, like the hollow of a cane. Thus nar- 
row pieces of water in a garden, which are drawn 
out to any considerable length, are called canals. 
And the term is now appropriated to any tract 
or course of water made by art. It is used in 
its primitive sense, in anatomy, to designate any 
conduit or passage through which the juices of 
the body flow. 

But soche a fairenesse of a necke 
Yhad that swete, that bone nor brecke, 
"N'as there none seen that missesatte, 
It was white, smothe, streight, and pure flatte, 
Withouten hole or canel bone, 
And by seming she had none. 

Chaucer's Boke of the Duchesse. 
The walks and long canals reply. Pope. 

So with strong arm immortal Brindley leads 
His long canals, and parts the velvet meads ; 
Winding in lucid lines, the watery mass 
Mines the firm rock, or loads the deep morass. Dur 

The rushing flood from sloping pavements pours, 
And blackens the canals with dirty showers. Gay. 
CANAL'-COAL, n. s. A fine kind of coal, du<r 
up m England. 

Even our canal-coal nearly equals the foreign jet. 


circular canals placed in the posterior part of the 

labyrinth of the ear. They open by five orifices 
into the vestibulum. See EAR and PHYSIOLOGY. 
CANALIC'ULATED, adj. from Lat. cana- 
liculatus ; channelled ; made like a pipe or 

CANALIS ARTERIOSUS, canaliculus arterio- 
sus ; canalis botalii. A blood-vessel peculiar 
to the foetus, disappearing after birth ; through 
which the blood passes from the pulmonary ar- 
tery into the aorta. 

CANALIS NASALIS, a canal going from the 
internal canthus of the eye downwards into the 
nose : it is situated in the superior maxillary bone, 
and is lined with the pituitary membrane conti- 
nued from the nose. 

CANALIS PETITIANUS, a triangular cavity, 
naturally containing a moisture, between the two 
laminae of the hyaloid membrane of the eye, in 
the anterior part, formed by the separation of the 
anterior lamina from the posterior. It is named 
after its discoverer, M. Petit. 

CANALIS VENOSUS, a canal peculiar to the 
fetus, disappearing after birth, that conveys the 
maternal blood from the porta of the liver to the 
ascending vena cava. 

CANANDAQUA, a post town, the capital of 
Ontario county, seated near the lake, thirty miles 
from Jerusalem, and 434 N. N. W. of Philadel- 
phia. Courts of sessions and common pleas are 
held in it, first Tuesday of June and November. 
CANANORE, a town and district on the 
coast of Malabar, once a separate kingdom. The 
natives are generally Mahommedans ; and tho 
country produces pepper, cardamoms, ginger, mi 
robolans, and tamarinds, in which they drive p 
considerable trade. The town has a safe bar 
bour. It formerly belonged to the Portuguese, 
and had a strong fort to guard it; but in 1683 
the Dutch, together with the natives, drove them 
out, and enlarged the fortifications. It was af- 
terwards taken by Tippoo Saib, and finally by the 
English in 1790. It is under a native sovereign, 
tributary to the East India Company. Distant 
fifteen miles north-east of Tellicherry, and 100 
W. S. W. of Seringapatam. 

CANARA, or CAN ATA, a province of Hindos- 
tan, on the coast of Malabar. Here is a pagoda, 
called Ramtrut, which is visited every year by a 
great number of pilgrims, and the custom 
of burning the wives with their husbands is 
much practised. The lower grounds yield 
every year two crops of corn or rice ; and the 
higher produce pepper, betel-nuts, sanders wood, 
iron and steel. The whole province is about 
180 miles in length, and from thirty to seventy 
broad : the climate fine, and the teak wood 
abundant. The principal towns are Barcelore, 
Batecola, Carwar, Mangalore, and Onore. It 
was ceded by Tippoo Saib to the English in 

CANARIA, in ancient geography, one of the 
Fortunate Islands, a proof that these are what 
we now call the Canaries. Canaria had its name 
from abounding with dogs of an enormous size. 

CANARIA, or the GRAND CANARY, an island 
in the Atlantic Ocean, about 180 miles from the 
coast of Africa. It is forty-two miles long, 
twenty-seven broad, about 100 in circumference, 
and thirty-three in diameter. It is fruitful, and 

CAN 82 

famous for its wine. It also abounds with apples, 
melons, oranges, citrons, pomegranates, figs, 
olives, peaches, and plantations. The fir and 
palm-trees are the most common. The towns 
are, Canary the capital, Gualdera, and Geria. 

CANARINA, in botany, a genus of plants of 
the class hexandria, and order monogynia : CAL. 
six-leaved : COR. six-cleft, and campanulate ; 
STic.six: CAPS, inferior, six-celled, many-seeded. 
Species one only, a native of the Canaries. 

CANARIUM, in antiquity, from canis, a 
dog, a lloman sacrifice, wherein dogs of a red 
color were sacrificed, for a security of the fruits 
of the earth against the raging heats of Sirius in 
the dog-days. 

CANARIUM, in botany, a genus of the dioecia 
order, in the pentandria class of plants. Its cha- 
racters are, that it has male and female flowers ; 
that in both the calyx has three leaves, and the 
corolla consists of three petals ; the fruit is a 
drupa with a three-cornered nut. There is but 
one species, an East Indian tree. 

CANA'RY, a kind of linnet, a dance, and a 
peculiar wine, are imported from the Canary 
Isles, and thence deriving their name. 

I will to my honest knight Falstaff, and drink 
canary with him. I think I shall drink pipe, wine 
first with him ; I'll make him dance. Shakspeare. 

Master, will you win your love with a French 
brawl ? How mean'st thou, brawling in French ? 
No, my compleat master ; but to jigg off a tune at the 
tongue's end, canary to it with your feet, humour it 
with turning up your eyelids. Id. 

Of singing birds, they have linnets, goldfinches, 
ruddocks, canary-birds, blackbirds, thrushes, and 
divers others. Carew. 

CANARY, or CIVIDAD DE PALMAS, the capital 
of the island of Canaria. It has an indifferent 
castle, a court of inquisition, and the supreme 
council of the rest of the Canary Islands. It is a 
bishop's see, and has four convents, two for men 
and two for women. It is about three miles in 
compass, and contains 12,000 inhabitants. The 
houses are only one story high, and flat at the 
top ; but they are well built. The cathedral is 
a handsome structure. 

CANARY BIRDS, in ornithology. See FRIN- 


CANARY ISLANDS, or CANARIES, are situated 
in the Atlantic Ocean, over against Morocco. 
They were formerly called the Fortunate Islands, 
on account of the temperate healthy air, and ex- 
cellent fruits. The land is very fruitful both in 
wheat and barley. The cattle thrive well, and the 
woods are full of all sorts of game. The birds are 
well known throughout Europe. Sugar canes 
abound greatly, but the Spaniards first planted 
vines here, whence we have the wine called 
Canary. These islands were not unknown to 
the ancients ; but they were forgotten till John 
de Betencourt discovered them, in 1402. It is 
said they were first inhabited by the Phoenicians, 
or Carthaginians, but the inhabitants could not 
tell from whence they were derived ; on the con- 
trary they did not know there was any other 
country in the world. Their language, manners, 
and customs, had no resemblance to those of their 
neighbours. They had no. iron. The Spaniards 


obtained possession of them all, except Madeira, 
which belongs to the Portuguese ; and they still 
retain them. The settlers are chiefly Spaniards, 
though there are some of the original natives re- 
maining, whom they call Guanches. These are 
somewhat civilised by their intercourse with the 
Spaniards ; and are a hardy, active, bold people-. 
They live on the mountains, and their chief food 
is goats' milk. Their complexion is tawny and 
their noses flat. The Spanish vessels, when they 
sailed for the West Indies, always called at these 
islands, going and coming. Their names are 


articles.' Long, from 12 to 31 W. Lat. from 
27 30' to 29 30' N. 

CANCALLE, a sea-port town of France, in 
the department of the Morbihan, and ci-devant 
province of Upper Britanny. Here the British 
landed in 1 758, in their way to St. Malo, where 
they burned a great number of ships in the 
harbour, and then retired without loss. It is 
eight miles from St. Malo. 

CANCAMUM, among ancient Greek physi- 
cians, a gum resin, supposed to be gum lac. 
CAN'CEL, v. & n. ~) From Lat. cancelli ; 
CANCELLATED, adj. > lattices ; the mode o f 
CANCELLATION. ^obliteration, by lines 
crossing each other. Hence to cross out, is to 
cancel by wiping out or expunging the contents 
of an instrument by two lines drawn in the man- 
ner of a cross. Blackstone uses the word in its 
technical and proper sense. To blot out; to 
supersede ; to destroy ; in reference to any thins 
written. To cancel a debt is, to cross the bill." 

Now welcome night, thou night so long expected, 
That long day's labour doth at last defray, 
And all my cares which cruel love collected 
Has summed in one, and cancelled for aye. Spenser. 

Know then, I here forget all former griefs, 
Cancel all grudge ; repeal thee home again. 


but those elect 

Angels, contented with their fame in heaven, 
Seek not the praise of men : the other sort, 
In might though wondrous, and in acts of war, 
Nor of renown less eager, yet by doom 
Cancelled from heaven and sacred memory, 
Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. Milton. 

Such a plot was layed, 

Had not Ashley betrayed, 

As had cancelled all former disasters, 

And your wives had been strumpets 
To his highness's trumpets, 
And foot-boys had all been your masters. 


My warm assistance gave thee birth, 
Or thou hadst perished low in earth ; 
But upstarts, to support their station, 
Cancel at once all obligation. Gay. 

The tail of the castor is almost bald, though the 
beast is very hairy ; and cancellated, with some re- 
semblance to the scales of fishes. Grew. 

. Thou, whom avenging powers obey, 
Cancel my debt, too great to pay, 
Before the sad accounting day. Roscommun. 

I pass the bills, my lords, 

For cancelling your debts. Southerns. 

In the proper sense of the word, to cancel is to 
deface an obligation, bv passing the pen from top to 


bottom, or across it ; -which makes a kind of chequer 
lattice, called by the Latins cancelli. Dr. A . Rees. 

CAN'CELEER, s. or ) From Fr. cfiancel- 
CAN'CELIER. \ lor ; the turn of a 

light-flown hawk upon the wing to recover her 
self, when she misses her aim in the stoop. Dr 
Rees (Cyclopedia) says, ' It is when a light- 
flown hawk, in her stooping, turns two or three 
times upon the wing, to recover herself before 
she seizes.' 

Nor with the falcon fetch a cancelleer. 

T. Weever's Epigram. 
Also as a verb, to cancelier, to turn in flight. 

the partridge sprung, 

He makes his stoop ; but wanting breath, is forced 
To cancelier ; then with such speed as if 
He carried lightning in his wings, he strikes 
The trembling bird. Mass. Guard. 

CANCELLATA, in conchology, a species of 
area, inhabiting the American Ocean, the shell of 
which is marked with the cancellated striae, and 
bearded ; the margin gaping in the middle. 

CANCELLI, in building, lattice windows, or 
those made of cross bars disposed latticewise. It 
is also used for rails or balusters enclosing the 
communion table, a court of justice, or the like ; 
and for the net-work in the inside of hollow 

CANCELLING, in the civil law, an act 
whereby a person consents that some former 
deed be rendered null and void ; otherwise called 

CAN'CER, n. "^ Sax. cancere ; Fr. cancre ; 

CAN'CERATE, v. Sltal. cancro ; Span, cancer; 

CAN'CEROUS. 3 Dutch, kancker. A viru- 
lent swelling, which generally suppurates, pro- 
ducing a hard, uneven, obstinate sore, which 
spreads and deepens by fibres which appear like 
the legs and claws of a crab ; while its general 
appearance resembles the creature after which it 
is named. 

But striking his fist upon the point of a nail in the 
wall, his hand cancerated, he fell into a fever, and 
soon after died on't. L' Estrange. 

How they are to be treated when they are stru- 
mous, schirrus, or cancerous, you may see in their 
proper places. Wiseman. 

Any of these three may degenerate into a schirrus, 
and that schirrus into a cancer. Id. 

As when a cancer on the body feeds, 

And gradual death from limb to limb proceeds ; 

So does the chilness to each vital part 

Spread by degrees, and creeps into the heart. 


CAN'CER, n. s. Lat. cancer. A crabfish; the 
sign of the summer solstice. 

When now no more the alternate twins are fired, 
And Cancer reddens with the solar blaze, 
Short is the doubtful empire of the night. Thomson. 

CANCER, in astronomy, one of the twelve signs, 
represented on the globe in the form of a crab, 
and thus marked (03). It is the fourth constel- 
lation in the starry zodiac. See ASTRONOMY. 
The reason generally assigned for its name as 
well as figure, is a supposed resemblance which 
the sun's motion in this sign bears to the crab. 
As the latter walks backwards, so the former, in 
this part of his course, begins to go backwards, 


or recede from us. By others, the disposition of 
stars in this sign is supposed to have giveu the 
first hint to the representation of a crab. It 
gives name to a quadrant of the ecliptic, viz. 

CANCER, TROPIC OF, in astronomy, a lesser 
circle of the sphere, parallel to the equator, and 
passing through the sign Cancer. See ASTRO- 

CANCER, in medicine, a roundish, unequal, hard, 
and livid tumor, generally seated in the glandulous 
part of the body, supposed to be so called, because 
it appears at length with turgid veins, shooting 
out from it, so as to resemble, as it is thought, the 
figure of a crab-fish. See MEDICINE. The mat- 
ter of cancer was found by Dr. Crawford to give 
a green color to syrup of violets, and treated 
with sulphuric acid, to emit a gas resembling 
sulphuretted hydrogen, which he supposes to 
have existed in combination with ammonia in the 
ulcer. Hence the action of virulent pus on me- 
tallic salts. He likewise observed, that its odor 
was destroyed by aqueous chlorine, which he 
therefore recommends for washing cancerous 
sores. But although several medicines, both in- 
ternal and external have been tried, and in some 
instances partially succeeded, the only method of 
cure on which reliance may be placed is that by 
extirpating the part affected. 

CANCER, in zoology, a genus of insects of the 
order of aptera. The generic characters are 
these : they have eight legs (seldom ten or six), 
besides the two large claws which answer the 
purpose of hands. They have two eyes at a con- 
siderable distance from each other, and for the 
most part supported by a kind of pedunculi or 
foot-stalks ; the eyes are likewise elongated and 
moveable ; they have two clawed palpi, and the 
tail is jointed. The species have been well di- 
vided into these classes : 

1. The crab, properly so called, having four 
filiform antennae. See CRAB. 2. Pagarus an- 
tennas, pedunculate, inhabiting cast-off shells. 
3. Galathaea, antennae unequal. 4. Astacus, or 
the lobster, with foliaceous tail. See LOBSTER. 
6. Squilla, with a very short thorax. 6. Gam- 
marus, antennas pedunculate and simple. 7. 
Scyllarus, having two biarticulate plates instead 
of the hinder antennas. See also SHRIMP. 

CANCROMA, or boat-bill, in ornithology, 
a genus of birds belonging to the order of grallae : 
the characters of which are, the bill is broad, 
with a keel along the middle ; the nostrils are 
small, and lodged in a furrow; the tongue is 
small, and the toes are divided. There are two 
species: 1. C. cancrophaga, or the brown boat- 
bill. In this species the under parts, instead of 
ash color, are of a pale rufous brown ; the tail 
rufous ash ; and the upper parts wholly of a 
cream color ; the bill and legs of a yellow brown. 
It inhabits Cayenne, Guiana, and Brasil, and 
chiefly frequents such parts as are near the 
water : in such places it perches on the trees 
which hang over the streams, and like the king's- 
fisher, drops down on the fish which swim be- 
neath. It has been thought to live on crabs like- 
wise, whence the Linnaaan name. 2. C. coch- 
leari, the crested boat-bill, is of the size of a 
fowl ; the length twenty-two inches. The bill is 
four inches long, and of singular form, not un- 



C A N D I A. 

like a boat with the keel uppermost ; the upper 
mandible has a prominent ridge at the top, and 
on each side of this a channel, at the bottom of 
which the nostrils are placed ; these are oval, 
and situated obliquely ; the general color of the 
bill is dusky ; from the hind head springs a long 
black crest, the feathers which compose it narrow, 
and end in a point. 


CANDELA FUMALIS, the smoking candle, 
is an odoriferous mass, shaped like a candle, the 
use of which is to fumigate rooms where there is 
any contagion or noxious smell. The candela fu- 
malis, or candela pro suffitu odorata, as it is also 
called, consists of aromatic powders, mixed up 
with a third or more of the charcoal of willow or 
lime tree, and reduced to a proper consistence 
with a mucilage of gum tragacanth, labdanum, 
or turpentine. It excites a grateful smell with- 
out any flame, and corrects the state of the air. 

CAN'DENT, adj. Lat. candens. Hot; in the 
highest degree of heat, next to fusion. 

If a wire be heated only at one end, according as 
that end is cooled upward or downward, it respec- 
tively acquires a verticity, as we have declared in 
wires totally candent. Brown. 

CANDEROS, in the materia medica, an East 
Indian gum, not much known among us, though 
sometimes imported. It has much the appear- 
ance of amber, only it is white and pellucid. 
Garcias and others tell us that the people of 
Borneo have the art of adulterating the crude 
camphor with large quantities of this gum. 

CANDIA, the ancient Crete, one of the 
largest islands in the Mediterranean, and situate 
south of the Grecian Archipelago, is about 180 
miles long, and twenty-five to thirty broad. 
The island abounds with mountains, the most 
remarkable of which are the Psilorite or Ida of 
the ancients, and the mountains of Sphachia or 
the white mountains, the summits of which are 
covered with snow nearly half the year. The 
fertile valleys abound with springs of excellent 
water. Of the natural advantages and salubri- 
ous climate of this island, travellers speak with 
raptures. The heat is never excessive ; and in 
the plains violent cold is never felt. In the 
warmest days of summer the atmosphere is 
cooled by breezes from the sea. December 
and January are their only winter months, and 
then there is a copious fall of rain ; the sky is 
obscured with clouds, and the north winds blow 
violently ; but in February the ground is again 
overspread with flowers and rising crops ; and 
the rest of the year is almost one continued fine 
day. Thus the air here is always found ex- 
tremely congenial to delicate constitutions, and 
epidemical diseases are almost unknown. Fevers 
prevail here in the summer, but are not gene- 
rally dangerous. This fine country is, however, 
infested with one dreadful disorder, the leprosy, 
which is infectious, and said to be instantaneously 
communicated by contact. The victims who 
are attacked by it, are driven from society, and 
confined to little ruinous houses on the way side. 
They are strictly forbidden to leave these dwell- 
ings, or hold intercourse with any person. 
Having generally beside their huts a small garden 
producing pulse, they. feed poultry; and with 

what they obtain from passengers, find means in 
drag out a painful life in circumstances of shock- 
ing bodily distress. The disorder appears to be 
chiefly confined to the poor Greeks. 

The coast of Candia abounds with excellent 
harbours, the principal of which are Grabusa 
on the west, the bay of Suda on the north, 
and Paleo Castro on the east. The south is 
almost inaccessible. 

But little labor is here required to produce 
the necessaries or the luxuries of life. But the 
insecurity of property, under the tyranny of the 
Turks, prevents all attempts at extensive cultiva- 
tion. It yields, however, abundance of oil, 
silk, honey, wax, saffron, figs, walnuts, apricots, 
almonds, oranges, 'citrons, olives, melons, and 
grapes, which grow very large, and produce 
wine of an excellent flavor. Shrubs and-flowers 
also abound in this salubrious spot. Its princi- 
pal manufacture is soap, which, though not so 
good as French soap, is still preferred by the 
Turks for its cheapness. 

Candia is at present governed by three pachas, 
who reside respectively at Candia, Canea, and 
Retimo. For the earlier history of this island 
see CRETE. It came into the possession of the 
Venetians by purchase, in the year 1194, and 
soon began to flourish under the laws of that 
republic. The inhabitants, encouraged by their 
masters, engaged in commerce and agriculture. 
The Venetian commandants readily afforded to 
those travellers who visited the island, every 
assistance necessary to enable them to extend 
and improve useful knowledge. Belon, the 
naturalist, is lavish in praise of their good offices, 
and describes, in an interesting manner, the 
flourishing state of that part of the island which 
he visited. The seat of government was esta- 
blished at Candia, the magistrates and officers, 
who composed the council, resided there. The 
provisor general was president. He possessed 
the chief authority; and his power extended 
over the whole principality. It continued in 
the possession of the Venetians for five cen- 
turies and a half. Cornaro held the chief com- 
mand when it was threatened with a storm, on 
the side of Constantinople. The Turks, for a 
whole year, had been employed in preparing a 
vast armament. They deceived Coruaro, by as- 
suring him that it was intended against Malta. 
In 1645, in the midst of a solemn peace, they 
appeared unexpectedly before Crete with a fleet 
of 400 sail, having on board 60,000 land forces, 
under the command of four pachas. The em- 
peror Ibrahim, under whom this expedition 
was undertaken, had no fair pretext i n offer in 
justification of the enterprise. He made use of 
all that perfidy which characterises the people of 
the east, to impose on the Venetian senate. He 
loaded their ambassadors with presents; directed 
his fleet to bear for Cape Matapan, as if they 
had been going beyond the Archipelago ; and 
caused the governors of Tina and Cerigna to be 
solemnly assured, that the republic had nothing 
to fear for her possessions. At the very instant 
when he was making those assurances, his nava. 
armament entered the gulf of Canea ; and, pas- 
sing between that city and St. Theodore, anchor, 
ed at the mouth of Platania. Tre Venetians 

C A N D I A. 

not expecting this sudden attack, had made no 
preparations to repel it. The Turks landed 
without opposition. The isle of St. Theodore 
is but a league and a half from Canea, and is 
only three quarters of a league in compass. The 
Venetians had erected two forts there; one of 
which, standing on the summit of the highest 
eminence, on the coast of that little isle, was 
called Turluru ; the other on a lower situation, 
was named St. Theodore. It was an important 
object to the Mussulmans to make themselves 
masters of that rock, which might annoy their 
ships. They immediately attacked it with ardor. 
The first of those fortresses, being destitute of 
soldiers and cannon, was taken without striking 
a blow. The garrison of the other consisted of 
no more than sixty men. They made a gallant 
defence and stood out till the last extremity ; 
and, when the Turks at last prevailed, their num- 
ber was diminished to ten, whom the captain 
pacha cruelly caused to be beheaded. Being 
now masters of that important post, as well as of 
Lazaret, an elevated rock, standing above half a 
league from Canea, the Turks invested the city 
by sea and land. General Cornaro was struck, 
as with a thunder-clap, when he learned the 
descent of the enemy. In the whole island there 
were no more than a body of 3500 infantry, and 
a small number of cavalry. The besieged city 
was defended only by 1000 regular troops, and 
a few citizens, who were able to bear arms. He 
made haste to give the republic notice of his 
distress; and posted himself off the road, that 
he might the more readily succour the besieged 
city. He threw a body of 250 men into the 
town, before the lines of the enemy were com- 
pleted. He afterwards made several attempts 
to strengthen the besieged with other reinforce- 
ments ; but in vain. The Turks had advanced 
in bodies close to the town, had carried a half- 
moon battery, which covered the gate of Retimo ; 
and were battering the walls night and day with 
their numerous artillery. The besieged defended 
themselves with resolute valor, and the smallest 
advantage which the besiegers gained cost them 
dear. Cornaro made an attempt to arm the 
Greeks, particularly the Spachiots, who boasted 
loudly of their valor. He formed a battalion of 
these. But the sera of their valor was long past. 
When they beheld the enemy, and heard the 
thunder of the cannon, they took to flight ; not 
one of them would stand fire. While the senate 
of Venice were deliberating on the means to be 
used for relieving Canea, and endeavouring to 
equip a fleet, the Mahommedan generals were 
sacrificing the lives of their soldiers to bring 
their enterprise to a glorious termination. In 
different engagements they had already lost 
20,000 warriors ; but, descending into the ditches, 
they had undermined the walls, and blown up 
the most impregnable forts with explosions of 
powder. They sprung one of those mines be- 
neath the bastion of St. Demetri. It overturned 
a considerable part of the wall, which crushed 
all the defenders of the bastion. That instant 
the besiegers sprung up with their sabres in their 
hands, and taking advantage of the general con- 
sternation of the besieged in that quarter, made 
themselves masters of the post. The besieged, 

recovering from their terror, attacked them with 
unequalled intrepidity. About 400 men assailed 
2000 Turks already firmly posted on the wall, 
and pressed upon them with such obstinate and 
dauntless valor, that they killed a great number, 
and drove the rest down into the ditch. In this 
extremity, every person in the city was in arms. 
The Greek monks took up muskets ; and the 
women, forgetting the delicacy of their sex, ap- 
peared on the walls among the defenders, either 
supplying the men with ammunition and arms, 
or fighting themselves ; and several of those 
daring heroines lost their lives. For fifty days 
the city held out against all the forces of the 
Turks. If even at the end of that time, the Ve- 
netians had sent a naval armament to its relief r 
the kingdom of Candia might have been saved. 
Doubtless, they were not ignorant of this well- 
known fact. The north wind blows straight 
into the harbour of Canea. When it blows a 
little briskly, the sea rages. It is then impossible 
for any squadron of ships, however numerous, to 
form in line of battle in the harbour, and to 
meet an enemy. If the Venetians had set out 
from Cerigo with a fair wind, they might have 
reached Canea in five hours, and might have en- 
tered the harbour with full sails, without being 
exposed to one cannon shot; while none of the 
Turkish ships would have dared to appear before 
them ; or, if they had ventured, must have been 
driven back on the shore, and dashed in pieces 
among the rocks. But, instead of thus taking 
advantage of the natural circumstances of the 
place, they sent a few galleys, which, not daring 
to double Cape Spada, coasted along the southern 
shore of the island, and failed of accomplishing 
the design of their expedition. At last, the Ca- 
neans, despairing of relief from Venice, seeing 
three breaches made in their walls, through which 
the infidels might easily advance upon them, ex- 
hausted with fatigue and covered with wounds, 
and reduced to the number of 500 men, who 
were obliged to scatter themselves round the 
walls, which were half a league in extent, and 
undermined in all quarters, demanded a parley, 
and offered to capitulate. They obtained very 
honorable conditions ; and after a glorious defence 
of two months, which cost the Turks more than 
20,000 men, marched out of the city with the 
honors of war. Those citizens who did not choose 
to continue in the city were permitted to remove ; 
and the Ottomans faithfully observed their stipu- 

The Venetians, after the loss of Canea, retired 
to Retimo. The captain pacha laid siege to the 
citadel of Suda, situated in the entrance of 
the bay, on a high rock, of about a quarter of a 
league in circumference. He raised earthen 
batteries, and made an ineffectual attempt to 
level its ramparts. At last, despairing of taking 
it by assault, he left some forces to block it up 
from all communication, and advanced toward.' 
Retimo. That city, being unwalled, was de 
fended by a citadel, standing on an eminence 
which overlooks the harbour. General Cornaro 
had retired thither. At the approach of the 
enemy, he advanced from the city, and waited 
for them in the open field. During the action, 
he encouraged his soldiers, by fighting in the 

C A N D I A. 

ranks. A glorious death was the reward of his 
valor ; but his fall determined the fate of Re- 
timo. The Turks having landed additional 
forces, they introduced the plague, which was 
almost a constant attendant on their armies. 
This dreadful pest destroyed most part oT the 
inhabitants. The rest escaped into the Venetian 
territories, and the island was left almost deso- 
late. The siege of the capital commenced in 
1646, and was protracted much longer than that 
of Troy. For two years the Turks scarce 
gained any advantages before that city. They 
were often routed by the Venetians, and some- 
times compelled to retire to Retimo. In 1649 
Ussein Pacha, who blockaded Candia, receiving 
no supplies, owing to the revolutions at Constan- 
tinople by the deposition and death of Ibrahim, 
and accession of Mahomet IV. was compelled 
to raise the siege, and retreat to Canea. The 
Venetians were then on the sea with a strong 
squadron. They attacked the Turkish fleet in 
the bay of Smyrna, burnt twelve of their ships 
and two galleys, and killed 6000 of their men. 
Some time after, the Mahommedans having lan- 
ded an army on Candia, renewed the siege of the 
city with greater vigor, and made themselves 
masters of an advanced fort that was very 
troublesome to the besieged ; which obliged them 
to blow it up. From 1650 to 1658, the Ve- 
netians, continuing masters of the sea, intercep- 
ted the Turks every year in the straits of the 
Dardanelles, and fought them in four naval 
engagements ; in which they defeated their 
numerous fleets, sunk a number of their caravels, 
took others, and extended the terror of their arms 
even to the walls of Constantinople. That 
capital became a scene of tumult and disorder. 
The grand seignior, alarmed, left the city with 
precipitation. These great successes revived the 
hopes of the Venetians and depressed the courage 
of the Turks. The latter converted the siege of 
Candia into a blockade, and suffered consider- 
able losses. The Sultan, to exclude the Ve- 
netian fleet from the Dardanelles, caused two for- 
tresses to be built at the entrance of the straits. 
He ordered the pacha of Canea to appear again 
before the walls of Candia, and to make every 
possible effort to gain the city. In the mean- 
time the Venetians made several attempts on 
Canea. In 1 660 the city was about to surren- 
der, when the pacha of Rhodes' reinforced it 
with a body of 2000 men. He doubled the 
extremity of Cape Melee, within sight of the 
Venetian fleet,' which was becalmed off Cape 
Spada, and could not advance one fathom 
to oppose an enemy considerably weaker than 
themselves. Kiopruli, knowing that the mur- 
murs of the people against the long con- 
tinuance of the siege of Candia were rising to 
a height, and fearing a general revolt, set out 
from Constantinople about the end of 1666, 
at the head of a formidable army. Having 
escaped the Venetian fleet, which was lying off 
Canea, he landed at Palio Castro, and formed 
the lines around Candia. Under his command 
were four pachas, and the flower of the Ottoman 
forces. Those troops, being encouraged by their 
chiefs, and supported by a great quantity of 
aitillery, performed prodigies of valor. All the 

exterior forts were destroyed. Nothing now re- 
mained to the besieged but the bare line of the 
walls, unprotected by fortresses; and these being 
battered, by an incessant discharge of artillery, 
soon gave way on all quarters. Still, however, 
(incredible as it may apppear) the Candians held 
out three years against all the forces of the 
Ottoman empire. At last they were about to 
capitulate, when the hope of assistance from 
France re-animated their valor. The expected 
succours arrived on the 26th of June, 1669. 
They were conducted by the duke of Noailles. 
Next day the ardor of the French prompted 
them to make a general sally. The duke of 
Beaufort, admiral of France, assumed the com- 
mand. He was the first to advance against the 
Mussulmans, and was followed by a numerous 
body of infantry and cavalry. They rushed 
furiously upon the enemy, forced the trenches, 
and would have compelled them to abandon their 
lines and artillery, had not an unforeseen accident 
damped their courage. In the midst of the en- 
gagement a powder magazine blew up ; the duke 
of Beaufort and the foremost of the combatants 
lost their lives ; the French ranks were broken, 
and fled in disorder ; and the duke of Noailles- 
with difficulty effected a retreat within the walls 
of Candia. The French accused the Italians of 
having betrayed them ; and on that pretext pre- 
pared to set off sooner than the time agreed 
upon. No intreaties of the commandant could 
prevail with them to delay their departure. This 
determined the fate of the city, which had only 
500 men left to defend it. Morosoni Capitulated 
with Kiopruli, to whom he surrendered the king- 
dom of Crete, excepting only the Suda, Grabusa, 
and Spina-Longa. The grand vizier made his 
entrance into Candia, Oct. 4th, 1670 ; and stayed 
eight months in it, inspecting the reparation of 
its walls and fortresses. The three fortresses left 
in the hands of the Venetians continued long in 
their possession, but were all taken at last. In 
short, after a war of 30 years continuance, in the 
course of which more than 200,000 men fell, 
Candia was entirely subdued by the Turks, in 
whose hands it still continues. 

CANDIA, the capital of the above island, is a 
fortified town, containing from 12,000 to 15,000 
inhabitants, by far the greater part of whom are 
Turks. The houses are mean and irregular. 
The manufacture of soap is carried on very ex- 
tensively here. The harbour, once large and 
commodious, is now very much choked with 
sand and will not admit more than ten merchant- 
men. The Governor is a pacha of three tails, and 
seraskier or military commandant of the whole 
island. Long 25 4' E., lat. 35 16' N. 

CANDIDATE, v. adj. & n.-j Fr. candide ; 

CAN'DID, adj. I Ital. Candida ; 

CAN'DIDLY, \Span. Candida; 

CAN'DIDNESS, i Lat. Candidas; 

CAN'DOUR. } candidus is from 

candeo, as lucidus is from luceo. Thus, in ad- 
dition to white, it is applied to any thing that is 
bright and glowing, as to snow recently fallen ; 
to polished silver; to the light of a candle. In 
this sense, however, it is rare in English. IB 
process of time it was employed to designate all 
persons, who arc expectants of any office, in ob- 


Jaining which the suffrages of others are required, 
because among the Romans such persons, on 
such occasions, wore a garment more white than 
ordinary ( Candida toga). It is metaphorically 
applied to ingenuousness, openness of temper, 
purity of mind ; without prejudice or malice ; 
or sincere and unpretending goodness. 

It presently sees the guilt of a sinful action; and, 
on the other side, observes the candidncss of a man's 
very principles, and the sincerity of his intentions. 

The box receives all back ; but, poured from 

The stoucs came candid forth, the hue of innocence. 

Dry den. 

Thy first-fruits of poesy were given 
To make thyself a welcome inmate there, 
While yet a youug probationer, 
And candidate of heaven. Id. 

We have often desired they would deal candidly 
with us ; for, if the matter stuck only there, we would 
propose that every one should swear, that is a mem- 
ber of the church of Ireland. Swift. 
The import of the discourse will, for'the most part, 
if there be no designed fallacy, sufficiently lead candid 
aud intelligent readers into the true meaning of it. 


A candid judge will read each piece of wit, 
With the same spirit that its author writ. Pope. 
What could thus high thy rash ambition raise ? 
Art thou, fond youth, a candidate for praise ? Id. 

So many candidates there stand for wit, 
A place at court is scarce so hard to get. Anonymous. 
One would be surprised to see so many candidates 
for glory. Addison. 

But let untender thoughts afar be driven, 

Nor venture to arraign the dread decree, 
For know to man, as candidate for heaven, 

The voice of the Eternal said, Be free ! Seattle. 
Yet are the darkened eye, the withered face, 

Or hoary hair, I never will repine ; 
But spare, O time, whate'er of mental grace, 

Of candour, love, or sympathy divine, 
Whate'er of fancy's ray or friendship's flame is 
mine. Id. 

CANDIDATES, in the college of physicians, 
London, is the order of members, out of whom 
the fellows are chosen. They must be natives of 
England, doctors of physic, admitted to the de- 
grees in our own universities, and ought to have 
practised four years before they are admitted into 
the order. 

CANDIDATI MILITES, an order of soldiers, 
among the Romans, who served as the emperor's 
body-guards to defend him in battle. They were 
the tallest and strongest of the whole troops, and 
most proper to inspire terror. They were called 
candidati, because clothed in white, either that 
they might be more conspicuous, or because they 
were considered in the way of preferment. 

CANDIDATI PRINCIPIS, were those who were 
recommended to any offices by the emperors. 
The candidatus principis was also an office in 
the court of the emperor of Constantinople, an- 
swering to a secretary of state among us. 

CANDIDUS, in entomology, a species of 
cerambyx ; color white, thorax and body fuscous, 
with two white stripes : its country unknown. 

CAN'DIFY, v. a. Lat. candifico. To make 
white; to whiten. 

87 CAN 

CANDISH, a considerable province of Asia, 
in the dominions of the Great Mogul, bounded 
by Chytor and Malvo on the north, Orixa on the 
east, Deccan on the south, and Guzarat on the 
west. It is populous and rich ; and abounds in 
cotton, rice, and Indigo. Brampore is the 
capital town. It is subject to the Poonah 

CANDITEERS, in fortification, frames to lay 
brushwood on to cover the workmen. 

C AN'DLE, n. ~\ Lat. candela ; Ara. qun- 
CAN'DLE-BEAM, del ; Per.candel; Yr.chan- 
CAN'DLE-CASE, delle ; supposed from can- 

CAN'DLE-HOLDER, dldus, white ; but Goth. 
CAN'DLE-LIGHT, k^ndcl, from kyndael, is a 
CAN'DLE-MINE, ( fire-match ; and kyndil, 
CAN'DLE-SNUFF, (Sax. candel, a torch, a 
CAN'DLE-STICK, light ; icaiw, to bum. See 
CAN'DLE-STUFF, KINDLE. The metaphori- 
CAN'DLE-TREES, cal beam of light is cha- 
CAN'DLE-WASTER, racterised according to the 
CAN'DLES'-ENDS. J luminous body by or from 
which it is supposed to be protruded. It is 
hence that we speak of sun-beams and of moon- 
beams. Our ancestors spoke of candle-beams ; 
and the sonneteer still sings of the lustre that 
beamed from the eye of his mistress. Candle- 
stick, Sax. condelsticca ; condletreow is a stock 
or tree for a candle ; that which holds the candle. 
Candles'-ends, to drink off. A piece of 
romantic extravagance long practised by amorous 
gallants. It perhaps may be asked, why drink- 
ing offcandles'-ends, for flap-dragons, should be 
esteemed an agreeable qualification? The an- 
swer is, that, as a feat of gallantry, to swallow a 
candles'-end formed a more formidable and dis- 
agreeable flap-dragon than any other substance, 
and therefore afforded a stronger testimony of 
zeal for the lady to whose health it was drank. 

Why doth the prince love him so then ? Because 
he eats conger and fennel ; and drinks off candles'-ends 
for flap-dragons. Shahspeare. 

CANDLE-WASTERS; rakes who sit up all night, 
and therefore waste much candle. It certainly 
does not, as some have supposed, relate to the 
custom explained under the words candles'-ends ; 
for a book-worm is called a candle-waster. See 

Let wantons, light of heart 
Tickle the senseless rushes with their heels ; 
For I am propertied with a grandsire phrase, 
To be a candle-holder, and look on. Shahtpeare. 

How far that little candle throws his beams ! 
So shines a good deed in a naughty world. Id. 

The horsemen sit like fixed candlesticks, 
With torch-staves in their hands ; and their poor jades 
Lob down their heads. Id, 

By these blessed candles of the night, 
Had you been there, I think you would have begged 
The ring of me, to give the worthy doctor. Id. 

Why, Petruchio is coming, in a new hat, and an 
old jerkin ; a pair of old breeches, thrice turned ; a 
pair of boots that had been candle-cnsei ; an old rusty 
sword taken out of the town armory, with a broken 
hilt, and chapcless, with two broken points. Id. 




Here burns my candle out, ay, here it dies, 
Which, while it lasted , gave king Henry light. Id. 

We see the wax candies last longer than tallow 
cardies f because wax is more firm and hard. 

Bacon's Natural History. 

In darkness candlelight may serve to guide men's 
steps, which to use in the day were madness. 


By the help of oil, and wax, and other candlestuff, 
the flame may continue, and the y ick not burn. 


These countries were once Christian, and members 

of the church, and where the golden candlesticks did 

stand. Bacon. 

Carouse her health in cans 

And candles' -ends. Beaumont and Fletcher. 

But none that will hung themselves for love, or eat 
candles' -ends, &c. as the sublunary lovers do. 

Ben Jonson's Masque of the Moon. 

Before the day was done, her work she sped, 
And never went by candlelight to bed. Dryd. Fab. 
The boding owl 

Steals from her private cell by night, 

And flies about the candlelight. Swift. 

Such as are adapted to meals, will indifferently 
serve for dinners or suppers, only distinguishing 
between daylight and candle-light. Id. 

Take a child, and, setting a candle before him, you 
shall find his pupil to contract very much, to exclude 
the light, with the brightness whereof it would other- 
wise be dazzled. Ray. 

I know a friend, who has converted the essays of a 
man of quality into a kind of fringe for his candlesticks. 


I shall find him coals and candlelight. 

Molineux to Locke. 

CANDLE. A tallow candle, to be good, must 
be part sheeps' and part bullocks' tallow. Hogs' 
tallow makes the caadle gutter, and always gives 
an offensive smell, with a thick black smoke. 
The wick ought to be pure, sufficiently dry, and 
properly twisted ; otherwise the candle will emit 
an inconstant vibratory flame, which is both pre- 
judicial to the eyes and insufficient for the dis- 
tinct illumination of objects. There are two 
sorts of tallow candles; the one dipped, the 
other moulded : the former are the common 
candles ; the others the invention of the sieur le 
Brege at Paris. Candles are also made of sper- 
maceti and wax. 


when a small piece of candle, being lighted, the 
bystanders are allowed to bid for the merchan- 
dise that is selling ; but the moment the candle 
is out, the commodity is adjudged to the highest 
bidder. This mode of sale seems to have been 
borrowed from the church of Rome, where there 
is an excommunication by inch of candle, when 
the sinner is allowed to come to repentance 
while the candle continues burning ; but after it 
is consumed he remains finally excommunicated. 


CANDLE BOMBS, a name given to small glass 
bubbles, having a neck about an inch long, with 
a very slender bore, by means of which a small 
quantity of water is introduced into them, and 
the orifice afterwards closed up. The stalk being 
put through the wick of a burning candle, the 
flame soon rarifies the water into steam, by the 

elasticity of which the glass is burst with a loud 
crack. They are of dangerous use. 

CANDLEMAS, n. s. from candle and mass. 
The feast of the Purification of the Blessed Vir- 
gin, which was formerly celebrated with many 
lights in churches. 

The harvest dinners are held by every wealthy man , 
or, as we term it, by every good liver, between 
Michaelmas and candlemuss. 

Carew's Survey of Cornwall. 

There is a general tradition in most parts of Europe, 
that inferreth the coldness of the succeeding winter, 
upon shining of the sun upon candlemas day. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Come candlemas nine years ago she died, 
And now lies bury'd by the yew-tree side. Gay. 

CANDLEMAS, a feast in honor of the puri- 
fication of the Virgin Mary, held on the 2d of 
February. The ancient Christians on that day 
used lights in their churches and processions, in 
memory, it is said, of our Saviour's being on 
that day declared by Simon ' to be a light to 
lighten the Gentiles.' In imitation of this custom, 
the Roman Catholics on this day consecrate aL 
the tapers and candles which they use in their 
churches during the whole year. At Rome, the 
pope performs that ceremony himself, and dis- 
tributes wax-candles to the cardinals and others, 
who carry them in procession through the great 
hall of the pope's palace. This ceremony was 
prohibited in England by an order of council in 
1548. Candlemas is one of the four terms of the 
year for paying and receiving rents, or borrowed 
money, &c. In the courts of law Candlemas 
term begins 1 5th January, and ends 3d February. 

CANDLESTICK, GOLDEN, one of the sacred 
utensils made by Moses to be placed in the 
Jewish tabernacle. See Exod. xxv. 31, Sec. and 
1 Kings vii. 49. This sacred utensil, upon the 
destruction of the temple by the Romans, was 
lodged in the temple of peace built by Vespa- 
sian ; and the representation of it is still to be 
seen on the triumphal arch at the foot of mount 
Palatine, on which this triumph is delineated. 

CAN'DOCK, n. s.. Aweed that grows in rivers. 

Let the pond lie dry six or twelve months, both to 
kill the water-weeds, as water-lilies, candocks, reate, 
and bullruRhes ; and also, that as these die for want 
of water, so grass may grow on the pond's bottom. 


CAN'DY, from Sans, khand; Per. cande; Ara. 
alkende. To conserve with sugar; to incrust 
with congelations; to give certain appearances 
resembling those of sugarcandy ; to form or con- 
geal into glistening substances ; into icicles. The 
word is sometimes used to whiten, to give the 
appearance of purity and innocence. 

Will the cold brook, 

Candied with ice, cawdle thy morning toast, 
To cure thy o'er-night's surfeit ? Shakspeare. 

Should the poor be flatterM ? 
?Jo, let the candy'd tongue lick absurd pomp, 
And crook the pregnant hinges of the knee, 
Where thrift may follow fawning. Shakspeare 

Since when those frosts that winter brings, 

Which candy ever green, 
Renew us like the teeming springs, 

And we thus fresh are seen. Draytoi.. 




Now that the winter 's gone, the earth hath lost 
Her snow-white robes, and now no more the frost 
Candies the grass, or casts an icy cream 
Upon the silver lake or chrystal stream. 
But the warm sun thaws the benumbed earth. 
And makes it tender, gives a record birth 
To the dead swallow, wakes in hollow tree 
The drowsy cuckoo and the humble bee. 

Carew. The Spring. 

They have in Turkey confections like to candied son- 
serves, made of sugar and lemon, or sugar and citrons, 
or sugar and violets, and some other flowers, and mix. 
ture of amber. Bacon. 

With candy'd plantanes, and the juicy pine, 
On choicest melons and sweet grapes they dine. 


CANDY, or SUGAR CANDY, a preparation of 
sugar made by melting and crystallising it six or 
seven times over, to render it hard or transpa- 
rent. It is of three kinds, white, yellow, and 
red. The white comes from the loaf-sugar, the 
yellow from the cassonado, the brown from the 

CANDY, a kingdom of Asia, in the centre of 
the island of Ceylon, is separated from the 
country possessed by Europeans on the coast by 
almost impenetrable woods and mountains. The 
passes are extremely steep and difficult, and so 
little known, even to the natives, that the exact 
dimensions of these dominions have nerer been 
ascertained. The climate is particularly un- 
healthy to Europeans on account of the heavy 
fogs which prevail. 

The country is divided into provinces and 
districts. A high range of mountains extends 
across the whole country, and divides the island 
into two different climates. On one side the 
rains are incessant, and on the other there has 
been a continued drought for several years. 
Several rivers intersect this country > but they are 
rendered unnavigable by the very rapid current 
during the rainy season, and they are almost 
dried up during the summer months. The 
Candians are divided into castes ; the nobles 
form the first or highest rank, the second in- 
cludes the better artificers, such as goldsmiths, 
painters, &c. the third the meaner kind of arti- 
ficers, as barbers, weavers, and the common 
soldiers ; the laborers of all descriptions and the 
peasantry are included in the fourth caste. They 
worship the idol Buddha. 

The government is despotic, and supported by 
presents or contributions brought by the peo- 
ple, or rather enforced by the king's officers. 
They consist of money, corn, fruit, precious 
stones, and all articles of their own manufacture. 
The submission of the subject to the sovereign 
is almost unbounded. The former never dares 
appear on horseback ; indeed this animal is only 
kept in the royal stud. 

The capital (see below) has been frequently 
attacked by Europeans and again given up. It 
was taken by the Dutch in 1796, but they only 
kept possession about nine months. In 1 802 a war 
again broke out, and the Candians submitted to the 
English army of 3000 men, under the command of 
Major Mendarval, who left here Major Davie, 
with a garrison. The garrison, however, being 
small, they soon suffered very materially from 

the climate, and were obliged to surrender, on 
condition of being allowed to march to 
Trincomalee. This treacherous people, however, 
felt no repugnance at misleading and cruelly 
murdering the greater part of them in cold 
blood. Another expedition failed in 1804, but a 
third was resolved upon in 1815, and an army of 
3000 men took possession of the capital. ID 
March, 1816, the monarch, Wikremc R^jaSinha, 
was finally deposed, and the 'kingdom annexed 
to the British dominions. 

CANDY, the capital of the Candian dominions, 
about 142 miles from Trincomalee, and 108 
from Columbo, stands on a plain, surrounded by 
mountains covered with thick jungle and almost 
impenetrable woods. The town is, as it were, 
fortified by a thick thorn hedge, and is ap- 
proached by difficult narrow passes, guarded by 
gates of the same materials. The town stands 
near the banks of the river Maha-villa-gonga, and 
is formed of one principal street, about two miles 
long, with narrow lanes branching from it. At 
the extremity of the street is the palace, containing 
a great number of apartments, some of them 
curiously painted, and others ornamented with 
plate glasses. The principal building consists of 
two squares, one within the other ; the interior is 
the royal residence. The houses of the town are 
very mean. Long. 80 47' E., lat. 7 23' N. See 

CANE, n. & v. ) TLavva; Lat. canna. A 

CA'KY. J kind of strong reed, of 

which walking staffs are made ; a walking-staff. 
A lance; a dart made of cane: whence the 
Spanish inego de cannas. The plant which yields 
the sugar. To beat with a walking-stick. Cany 
signifies full of canes, or consisting of canes. 

Shall I to please another wine-sprung mind 
Lose all mine own ; God hath given me a measure 
Short of his cane and body : must I find 
A pain in that wherein he finds a pleasure. Herbert. 

But in his way lights on the barren plains 
Of Sericana, where Chineses drive, 
With sails and wind, their cany waggons light. Milton. 

The king thrust the captain from him with his cane ; 
whereupon he took his leave and went home. Harvey. 

Abenamar, thy youth these sports has known, 
Of which thy age is now spectator grown ; 
Judge-like thou sitt'st, to praise or to arraign 
The flying skirmish of the darted cane. Dryden. 

If the poker be out of the way, or broken, stir the 
fire with your master's cane. Swift. 

If the strong cane support thy walking hand, 
Chairmen no longer shall the wall command. 

Gay's Trivia. 

This cane or reed, grows plentifully both in the East 
and West Indies. Other reeds have their skin hard and 
dry, and their pulp void of juice ; but the skin of the su- 
gar cane is soft. It usually grows four or five feet high, 
and about half an inch in diameter. The stem or 
stalk is divided by knots a foot and a half apart. At 
the top it puts forth long green tufted leaves, from the 
middle of which arise the flower and the seed. They 
usually plant them in pieces a foot and a half below 
the top of the flower ; and they are ordinarily ripe in 
ten months, at which time they are found quite full 
of a white succulent marrow, whence is expressed the 
liquor of which sugar is made. Chambers. 

And the sweet liquor on the cane bestow 
From which prepared the luscious sugars flow. 





Ambition '. does ambition there reside ? 
Yes ! when the boy in manly mood astride, 
Of headstrong prowess innocently vain, 
Canters, the jockey of his father's cane. Biihop. 

CANE, GROTTO DEL, i. e. the dog's grotto, 
a cave of Naples, seven miles from Puzzoii, 
where many dogs have been suffocated to show 
the effect of a mephitic vapgr, which rises a foot 
above the bottom of this grotto. 
CANE, in botany. See ARUNDO. 
CANELLA, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order, and dodecandria class of plants, 
natural order twelfth, holoraceae : CAL. three- 
lobed; the petals five; the anthera twelve to 
twenty-one, growing on an urceolated or bladder- 
shaped nectarium ; and the fruit is a trilocular 
berry with two seeds. There is but one known 
species, C. alba. It grows usually about twenty 
feet high, and eight or ten inches in thickness, 
in most of the Bahama islands. The leaves are 
narrow at the stalk, growing wider at their ends, 
which are broad and rounding, having a middle 
rib only ; they are very smooth, and of a light 
shining green. The whole plant is very aromatic, 
the bark particularly, being used in distilling, 
and in greater esteem in the more northern parts 
of the world than in Britain. The bark is the 
canella alba of the shops. It is brought to us 
rolled up into long quills, thicker than the cin- 
namon, and both outwardly and inwardly of a 
whitish color, lightly inclining to yellow. Infu- 
sions of it in water are of a yellowish color, and 
smell of the canella : but they are rather bitter 
than aromatic. Tinctures in rectified spirit have 
the warmth of the bark, but little of its smell. 
Proof spirit dissolves the aromatic as well as the 
bitter matter of the canella, and is therefore the 
best menstruum. This bark is a warm pungent 
aromatic, though not of the most agreeable kind : 
nor are any of the preparations of it very grate- 
ful. Canella alba is often employed where a 
warm stimulant to the stomach is necessary, and 
as a corrigent of other articles. It is now, how- 
ever, little used in composition by the London 
College ; the only officinal formula which it enters 
being the pulvis aloeticus ; but with the Edin- 
burgh College it is an ingredient in the tinctura 
amaro, vinum amarum, vinum rhei, as it is use- 
ful as covering the taste of some other articles. 

CANEPHORIA, a ceremony celebrated by 
the Athenian virgins on the eve of their marriage 
day, in which the maid, conducted by her father 
,and mother, went to the temple of Minerva, car- 
rying with her a basket full of little curiosities, as 
presents to Diana, to engage her to make the 
marriage state happy; or, as the scholiast of 
Theocritus has it, the basket was intended as a 
kind of honorable amends made to that goddess, 
the protectrix of virginity, for abandoning her 
party ; or as a ceremony to appease her wrath. 
Suidas calls it a festival in honor of Diana. Ca- 
nephoria was also a festival in honor of Bacchus, 
celebrated particularly by the Athenians, in which 
the young maids carried golden baskets full of 
fruit, covered to conceal the mystery from the 

CANES, in Egypt and other eastern countries, 
a poor sort of buildings for the receolion of 

strangers and travellers, who are accommodated 
with a room at a small price, but with no other 
necessaries ; so that, excepting the room, there 
are no greater accommodations in these nouses 
than in the deserts except that there is a market 

CANES VF.NATICI, m astronomy, the grey- 
hounds, two new constellations first established 
by Hevelius, between the tail of the Great Bear 
and the arms of Bootes, above the Coma Berenices. 
The first is called asterion, being next the Bear's 
tail ; the other chara 

CANGA, in the Chinese affairs, a wooden 
clog borne on the neck by way of punishment 
for divers offences -The canga is composed of 
two pieces of wood notched, to receive the cri- 
minal's neck ; the load lies on his shoulders, 
and is more or less heavy according to the qua- 
lity of his offence. Some cangas weigh 200lbs. ; 
the generality from fifty to sixty. The manda- 
rins condemn to the punishment of the canga, 
Sentence of death is sometimes changed for this 
kind of punishment. 

CANGE (Sieu Du). See FRESNE Du. 

CANGIAGIO, or CAMBIASI, (Lewis), one of 
the most eminent of the Genoese painters, was 
born in 1527. His works at Genoa are very nu- 
merous ; and he was employed by the king of 
Spain to adorn part of the Escurial. He was 
not only expeditious, but worked equally well 
with both hands ; and, by that unusual power, 
executed more designs, and finished grand works 
with his own pencil, in a much shorter time, 
than most other artists could do with several as- 
sistants. At the age of seventeen, being employed 
in painting the front of an elegant house, in fresco, 
on his entering on the scaffold the other artists 
concluded from his youth that he could be no- 
thing more than a grinder of colors, and, there- 
fore, when he took up the pallet, they attempted 
to prevent him, being apprehensive that he would 
spoil the work, but after a few strokes of his 
pencil they acknowledged their mistake, and 
allowed him to proceed. He died in 1585. 

CANICULA, in astronomy, a star in the con- 
stellation canis major, called also the dog-star ; 
by the Greeks Sapioc, Sirius. It is the tenth in 
order in the Britannic catalogue; in Tycho's 
and Ptolemy's it is the second, It is situated in 
the mouth of the constellation, and is of the first 
magnitude, being the largest and brightest star in 
the heavens. From the rising of this star not 
cosmically, or with the sun, but heliacally, that 
is, its emersion from the, sun's rays, the ancients 
reckoned their dies caniculares, canicular days, 
or dog days. The Egyptians and Ethiopians 
began their year at the rising of the canicula, 
reckoning to its rise again the next year. The 
reason of their choice of the canicula, before the 
other stars, to compute their time by, was not 
only the superior brightness of that star, but be- 
cause its heliacal rising was in Egypt a time of 
singular note, as falling on the greatest augmen- 
tation of the Nile. Ephestion adds, that from the 
aspect and color of canicula the Egyptians drew 
prognostics concerning the rise of the Nile ; and, 
according to Florus, predicted the future state of 
the year ; so that the first rising of this star was 
annually observed with great attention. 

f age 366, Vol.7 


Order Can is 

Dalmatian .Dct, 

J.Slmrv. Si 


Order Ctinis 

C.Lupus.TK-Z/ 1 

C.Yulpus. Fox 

C . Lao-opus .Arctic Fox 

C.ttjaena. Striped Hy 

C. Aivreiis .Tnckall 

C A N I S. 


CANICULAR, adj. Lat. canicularis. Belong- 
ing to the dog-star; as canicular, or dog days. 

In regard to different latitudes, unto some the cani- 
cular days are in the winter, as unto such as are un- 
der the equinoctial line ; for unto them the dog-star 
ariseth, when the sun is about the tropick of Cancer, 
which season unto them is winter. Browne's Vul. Err. 

CANICULUM, or CANICULUS, in the Byzan- 
tine antiquities, a golden standish or ink vessel, 
decorated with precious stones, wherein was 
kept the sacred encaustum, or red ink, where- 
with the emperors signed their decrees, letters, 
&c. The name alludes to the figure of a dog 
which it represented, or rather because it was 
supported by the figures of dogs. The caniculum 
was under the care of a particular officer of state. 

CANINANA, in zoology, a species of serpent 
found in America, and esteemed one of the less 
poisonous kinds. It grows to about two feet 
long ; and is green on the back, and yellow on 
the belly. It feeds on eggs and small birds : 
the natives cut off the head and tail, and eat the 
body as a delicate fish. 

CANINE', adj. Lat. caninus. Having the pro- 
perties of a dog. Canine hunger, or bulimia, in 
medicine, is an appetite that cannot be satisfied. 

A kind of women are made up of canine particles : 
these are scolds, who imitate the animals out of which 
they were taken, always busy and barking, and snarl 
at every one that come* in their way. Addison. 

It may occasion an exorbitant appetite of usual 
things, which they will take in such quantities, till 
they vomit them up like dogs ; from whence it is 
called canine. Arbuthnot. 


CANINE TEETH, are two sharp edged teeth in 
each jaw : one on each side, placed between the 
incisores and molares. 

CANINI (John Angelo and Mark Anthony), 
two brothers, natives of Rome, celebrated for 
their love of antiquities. John excelled in de- 
signs for engraving on stones, particularly heads ; 
Mark engraved them. They were encouraged 
by Colbert to publish a succession of heads of 
the heroes and great men of antiquity, designed 
from medals, antique stones, and other ancient 
remains ; but John died at Rome soon after the 
work was begun : Mark Anthony, however, pro- 
cured assistance, finished and published it in 
Italian, in 1669. The cuts of this edition were 
engraved by Canini, Picard, and Valet; and a 
curious explanation is given, which discovers the 
skill of the Caninis in history and mythology. 
The French edition of Amsterdam, 1731, is spu- 

CANIS, in zoology, the dog, a genus of qua- 
drupeds, belonging to the order of ferae. The 
characters of the dog are these : six fore-teeth in 
the upper jaw, those in the sides longer than the 
intermediate ones, which are lobated ; in the 
under jaw there are also six fore-teeth, those on 
the sides being lobated. He has six grinders in 
the upper, and seven in the lower jaw. The 
teeth called dog-teeth are four, one on each side, 
both in the lower and upper jaw, sharp-pointed, 
bent a little inward, and at a distance from any 
of the rest. Zoologists commonly reckon four- 
teen species of this genus. Mr. Kerr, in his Ani- 
mal kingdom, -enumerates seventeen : but zoolo- 

gical arrangement seems not yet to have arrived 
at its perfection. Mr. Pennant, with consider- 
able propriety (as Mr. Kerr remarks), excludes 
all the hyenae from this genus. Indeed to ordi- 
nary readers it must appear somewhat strange, 
to class animals of such very opposite natures as 
the fox, the wolf, and the hyenae, under the same 
genus with the dog. Adopting Mr. Kerr's ar- 
rangement in general, we state the different spe- 
cies and varieties as follows : 

I. CANIS ADIVE, the barbary fox, or chacal of 
Buffon, the jackal adive, has a long and slender 
nose, sharp upright ears, long bushy tail ; color, 
a very pale brown ; space above and below the 
eyes black ; from behind each ear there is a 
black line, which soon divides into two, which 
extend to the lower part of the neck ; and the 
tail is surrounded with three broad rings. This 
species is of the size of the common fox, but the 
limbs are shorter, and the nose is more slender. 

II. CANIS ANTABCTICUS, the new Holland 
dog, or dog of New South Wales, is thus de- 
scribed by Mr. Kerr : ' the tail is bushy and 
hangs downwards; the ears are short and erect; 
and the muzzle is pointed. It inhabits New 
Holland ; is rather less than two feet high ; and 
about two feet and a half in length. His head 
resembles that of a fox, having a pointed muzzle, 
garnished with whiskers, and short erect ears ; 
the body and tail light brown; paler towards the 
belly, on the sides of the face and throat. The 
hind parts of the fore-legs, the fore parts of 
the hind-legs, and all the feet, are white. On the 
whole it is a very elegant, but fierce and cruel, 
animal ; from which, with its figure, the total 
want of the common voice of the dog, and from 
general resemblance in other respects, it seems 
more properly to belong to the wolf kind.' 

III. CANIS AUREVS, the schackal, or jackal, 
as described by Pennant, has yellowish brown 
irides; ears erect, formed like those of a fox, but 
shorter and less pointed ; hairy, with white 
within ; brown without, tinged and dusky : head 
shorter than that of a fox, and nose blunter: 
lips black, and somewhat loose : neck and body 
very much resembling those of that animal, but 
the body more compressed ; the legs have the 
same resemblance, but are longer : tail thickest 
in the middle, tapering to the point : five toes on 
the fore-feet, the inner toe very short, and placed 
high : four toes on the hind feet, all covered 
with hair even to the claws. The hairs are much 
stifFer than those of a fox, but scarcely so stiff as 
those of a wolf ; short about the nose; on the 
back three inches long ; on the belly shorter : 
those at the end of the tail four inches long: 
color of the upper part of the body a dirty 
tawny ; on the back, mixed with black : lower 
part of the body of a yellowish white: tail tipt 
with black ; the rest of ihe same color with the 
back : the legs of an unmixed tawny brown : the 
fore-legs marked (but not always) with a black 
spot on the knees; but on no part are those 
vivid colors which could merit the title of golden, 
bestowed on it by Ksempfer. The length from 
the nose to the root of the tail is little more than 
twenty-nine inches English : the tail, to the ends 
of the hairs, ten inches and three quarters, the 
tip reaching to the top of the hind legs: the 


C A N 1 S. 

height, from the space between the shoulders to 
the ground, rather more than eighteen inches and 
a half; the hind parts a little higher. This spe- inhabits all the hot and temperate parts of 
Asia, India, Persia, Arabia, Great Tartary, and 
about Mount Caucasus, Syria, and the Holy 
Land. It is found in most parts of Africa, from 
Barbary to the Cape of Good Hope. 

IV. CANIS CERDO, the zerda, has a very 
pointed visage; large bright black eyes; very 
large ears, of a bright rose color, internally lined 
with long hairs ; the orifice so small as not to be 
risible, probably covered with a valve or mem- 
brane ; the legs and feet are like those of a dog ; 
the tail is taper ; color between a straw and pale 
brown : length from nose to tail ten inches ; ears 
three inches and a half long ; tail six ; height 
not five. It inhabits the vast desert of Sahara, 
which extends beyond mount Atlas. It burrows 
in the sandy ground, which shows the necessity 
of the valves to the ears ; and is so exceedingly 
swift that it is very rarely taken alive. It feeds 
on insects, especially locusts, sits on its rump, 
is very vigilant, barks like a dog, but much 
shiiller, and that chiefly in the night: is never 
observed to be sportive. We are indebted to 
Mr. Eric Skioldebrand, formerly Swedish con- 
sul at Algiers, for our knowledge of this singular 
animal. He never could procure but one alive, 
which escaped before he examined its teeth : the 
genus is very uncertain : the form of its head 
and legs, and some of its manners, determined 
Mr. Pennant to rank it in this genus. That 
which was in possession of Mr. Skioldebrand 
fed freely from the hand, and would eat bread or 
boiled meat. Buffon has given a figure of this 
animal; but from the authority of Mr. Bruce 
ascribes to it a different place, and different 
manners. He says that it is found to the south 
of the Palus Tritonides, in Lybia; that it has 
something of the nature of the hare, and some- 
thing of the squirrel; and that it lives on the 
palm-trees, and feeds on the fruits. 

fox of Louisiana, resembles the common fox in 
form, but has a most beautiful coat. The short 
hairs are of a deep brown ; and over them spring 
long silvery hairs, which give the animal a very 
elegant appearance. They live in forests abound- 
ing in game, and never attempt the poultry 
which run at large. The woody eminences in 
Louisiana are everywhere pierced with their 

VI. CANIS FAMILIARIS, the domestic or faith- 
ful dog, is distinguished from the other species 
by having its tail bent to the left side, which 
mark is so singular, that perhaps the tail of no 
other quadruped is bent in this manner. Of 
this species there are a great number of varieties. 
Linnaeus enumerates eleven ; Buffon gives figures 
of twenty-seven ; and Mr. Kerr enumerates no 
fewer than forty. He is so important an animal 
that we shall resume the consideration of the 
species under the article Doc. 

VII. CANIS HYJENA has a straight jointed 
tail, with the hair of its neck erect, small naked 
ears, and four toes on each foot. See HYJENA. 

Urctic fox, the coyotl of Fernandez, and the 

loup-renard of Bougainville, has short pointed 
ears ; irides hazel ; head and body cinereous 
brown ; hair more woolly than that of the com- 
mon fox, resembling much that of the arctic ; 
legs dashed with rust color; tail dusky, tipped 
with white, shorter and more bushy than that of 
the common fox, than which it is about one-third 
larger. It has much the habit of the wolf, in 
ears, tail, and strength of limbs. Hence the 
French name loup-renard, or wolf-fox. It may 
be a wolf degenerated by climate. The largest 
are those of Senegal : the next are the European : 
those of North America are still smaller. The 
Mexican wolves, which Mr. Pennant apprehends 
to be this species, are again less ; and this, which 
inhabits the Falkland Isles, near the extremity of 
South America, is dwindled to the size described. 

IX. CANIS LACOPUS, the arctic fox, has a sharp 
nose ; short rounded ears, almost hid in the fur ; 
long and soft hair, somewhat woolly ; short legs ; 
toes covered on all parts, like that of a common 
hare, with fur ; tail short and more bushy than 
that of the common fox, of a bluish gray or ash 
color, sometimes white : the young of the gray 
are black before they come to maturity : the hair 
much longer in winter than summer, as is usual 
with animals of cold climates. It inhabits the 
countries bordering on the Frozen Sea ; Kams- 
chatka ; the isles between it and America, and 
the opposite parts of America discovered in Beh- 
ring's expedition in 1741 ; and is found in Green- 
land, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and 
Lapland. It burrows under ground, forms holes 
many feet in length, and strews the bottom with 
moss. In Greenland and Spitzbergen it lives in 
the clefts of recks, not being able to burrow by 
reason of the frost : two or three pair inhabit the 
same hole. They are in heat about Lady-day ; 
and during that time they continue in the open 
air, but afterwards take to their holes. The 
Greenlanders take them either in pitfalls dug in 
the snow, and baited with the capelin fish ; or in 
springes made with whalebone, laid over a hole 
made in the snow, strewed over at bottom with 
the same kind of fish ; or in traps made like little 
huts, with flat stones, with a broad one by way 
of door, which falls down, by means of a string 
baited on the inside with a piece of flesh, when- 
ever the fox enters and pulls at it. The Green- 
landers preserve the skins for traffic ; and in cases 
of necessity eat the flesh. They also make but- 
tons of the skins ; and split the tendons, and make 
use of them instead of thread. Mr. Kerr men- 
tions two varieties : viz. 1. C. lagopus albus, the 
isatis, or white arctic fox; and 2. C. lagopus 
caerulescens, the bluish arctic fox. The furs of 
these are more esteemed than those of the white. 

X. CANIS LUPUS, the wolf, has a long head, 
pointed nose, ears erect and\sharp, long legs well 
clothed with hair; tail bushy and bending down, 
with the tip black ; head and neck ash colored ; 
body generally pale brown tinged with yellow : 
sometimes found white, and sometimes entirely 
black. He is larger and fiercer than a dog. His 
eyes sparkle, and there is a great degree of fury 
and wildness in his looks. When he walks he 
draws up his claws, to prevent his tread from 
being heard. His neck is short, but admits of 
quick motion to either side. His teeth are large 

C A N I S. 


and sharp ; ancWiis bite is terrible, as his strength 
is great. Cruel, cowardly, and suspicious, the 
wolf flies from man ; and seldom ventures out of 
the woods, except pressed by hunger : but when 
this becomes extreme, he braves danger, and will 
attack men, horses, dogs, and cattle of all kinds; 
even the graves of the dead are not proof against 
his rapacity. Unlike the dog, he is ar enemy to 
all society, and keeps no company even with those 
of his own species. When several wolves appear 
together, it is not a society of peace, but of war; 
it is attended with tumult and dreadful bowlings, 
and indicates an attack upon some large animal, 
as a stag, an ox, or a formidable mastiff. This 
military expedition is no sooner finished than 
they separate, and each returns in silence to his 
solitude. There is even little intercourse between 
the males and females : they feel the mutual at- 
tractions of love but once a year, and never re- 
main long together. The females come in season 
iu winter : many males follow the same female ; 
and this association is more bloody than the for- 
mer ; for they growl, chase, fight, and tear one 
another, and often sacrifice him that is preferred 
by, the female. The female commonly flies a 
long time, fatigues her admirers, and retires while 
they sleep, with the most alert or most favorite 
male. They begin with the old females about the 
end of December, and finish with the young ones 
in February or beginning of March. The time 
of gestation is about four months and a half; and 
young whelps are found from the end of April to 
the month of July. When the females are about 
to bring forth they search for a concealed place 
in the inmost recesses of the forest. After fixing 
on the spot, they make it smooth and plain for 
a considerable space, by cutting and tearing up 
with their teeth all the brambles and brush-wood. 
They then bring great quantities of moss, and 
prepare a commodious bed for their young, 
which are generally five or six, though sometimes 
they bring forth seven, eight, and even nine, but 
never less than three. They come into the world 
blind, like dogs ; the mother suckles them some 
weeks, and soon learns them to eat flesh, which 
she prepares for them by tearing it into small 
pieces. Some time after she brings them field 
mice, young hares, partridges, and other fowls. 
The young wolves begin by playing with these 
animals, and at last worry them ; then the mother 
pulls off the feathers, tears them in pieces, and 
gives a part to each of her young. They never 
leave their den till the end of six weeks or two 
months. They then follow their mother, who 
leads them to drink. She conducts them back to 
the den, or, when any danger is apprehended, 
obliges them to conceal themselves elsewhere. 
Though, like other females, the she wolf is 
naturally more timid than the male ; yet, when 
her young are attacked, she defends them with 
intrepidity, loses all sense of danger, and becomes 
perfectly furious. She never leaves them till their 
education is finished, till they are so strong as to 
need no assistance or protection, and have ac- 
quired talents for rapine, which generally hap- 
pens in ten or twelve months after their first teeth 
(which commonly fall out in the first month) are 
replaced. Wolves are full grown at the end of 
two or three years, and live fifteen or twenty 
years. When old, they turn whitish, and their 

teeth are much worn. They sleep, but more 
during the day than the night, and it is always a 
slight slumber. They drink often ; and, in the 
time of drought, when there is no water in the 
hollows, or in the trunks of old trees, they repair, 
several times in a day, to the brooks or rivulets. 
Though extremely voracious, if supplied with 
water, they can pass four or five days without 
meat. The wolf has great strength, especially in 
the anterior parts of the body, in the muscles of 
the neck and jaws. He carries a sheep in his 
mouth, and, at the same time, outruns the shep- 
herds ; so that he can only be stopped or de- 
prived of his prey by dogs. His bite is cruel, and 
always more obstinate in proportion to the small- 
ness of the resistance ; for, when an animal can 
defend itself, he is cautious and circumspect. 
He never fights but from necessity. When 
wounded with a ball, he cries; and yet, when 
despatching him with bludgeons, he complains 
not. When he falls into a snare, he is so over- 
come with terror, that he may either be killed 
or taken alive without resistance : he allows him- 
self to be chained, muzzled, and led any where, 
without exhibiting the least symptom of resent- 
ment or discontent. The senses of the wolf are 
excellent, but particularly that of smelling, which 
often extends farther than his eye. The odor 
of carrion strikes him at the distance of more than 
a league. He likewise scents live animals very 
far, and hunts them a long time by following 
their track. When he issues from the wood, he 
never loses the wind. He stops upon the borders 
of the forest, smells on all sides, and receives 
the emanations of living or dead animals ; brought 
to him from a distance by the wind. Though he 
gives the preference to living animals ; yet he de- 
vours the most putrid carcases. He is fond of 
human flesh ; and, if stronger, he would perhaps 
eat no other. Wolves have been known to follow 
armies, to come in troops to the field of battle, 
where bodies are carelessly interred, to tear them 
up, and to devour them with an insatiable avi- 
dity. And, when once accustomed to human 
flesh, are said ever after to attack men. Wolves 
of this vicious disposition are called loups ga- 
roux by the French peasants, who suppose them 
to be possessed with some evil spirits; and of 
this nature were the were- wulfs of the old Saxons. 
The wolf inhabits the continents of Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and America; Kamtschatka, and 
even as high as the arctic circle. Those of North 
America are the smallest ; and, when reclaimed, 
are the dogs of the natives : the wolves of Sene- 
gal are the largest and fiercest; they prey in 
company with the lion. They are found in Africa 
as low as the Cape. In the east, and particu- 
larly in Persia, wolves are exhibited as spectacles 
to the people. When young, they are learned to 
dance, or rather to perform a kind of wrestling 
with a number of men. Buffon brought up se- 
veral of them : ' When young, or during the first 
year,' he informs us, ' they are very docile, and 
even caressing; and, if well fed, neither disturb 
the poultry nor any other animal : but at the age 
of eighteen months or two years, their natural 
ferocity appears, and they must be chained to 
prevent them from running off and doing mis- 
chief. I brought up one till the age of eighteen 
or nineteen months, in a court along with fowls 


C A N I S. 

none of which he ever attacked; but, for his first 
essay, he killed the whole in one night, without 
eating any of them. Another, having broken his 
chain, ran off, after killing a dog with whom he 
had lived in great familiarity.' In England king 
Edgar is said first to have attempted the extirpa- 
tion of wolves, by commuting the punishments 
of certain crimes into the acceptance of a certain 
number of wolves' tongues from the criminal ; 
and in Wales, by converting the tax of gold and 
silver into an annual tax of 300 wolves' heads. 
We find, however, that some centuries after the 
reign of this monarch, these animals were in- 
creased to such a degree as to become again the 
object of royal attention : accordingly Edward I. 
issued his royal mandate to Peter Corbet to su- 
perintend and assist in the destruction of them 
m the several counties of Gloucester, Worcester, 
Hereford, Salop, and Stafford ; and in the adja- 
cent county of Derby, certain persons at Worm- 
hill, says Camden, held their lands by the duty 
of hunting and taking the wolves that infested the 
country, whence they were styled wolvehunt. Far- 
ther back, in Athelstan's reign, wolves abounded 
so much in Yorkshire, that a retreat was built at 
Flixton, in that county, ' to defend passengers 
from the wolves, that they should not be devour- 
ed by them :' and such ravages did those animals 
make during winter, particularly in January, 
when the cold was severest, that the Saxons dis- 
tinguished that month by the name of the wolf 
month. They also called an outlaw wolf's-head, 
as being out of the protection of the law, pro- 
scribed, and as liable to be killed as that de- 
structive beast. 

Ireland was infested by wolves for many cen- 
turies after their extinction in England; for there 
are accounts of some being found there as late as 
1710, the last presentment for killing of wolves 
being made in the county of Cork about that 
time. In many parts of Sweden the number of 
wolves has been considerably diminished by 
placing poisoned carcases in their way : but in 
other places they are found in great multitudes. 
Hunger sometimes compels them to eat lichens : 
these vegetables were found in the body of one 
killed by a soldier; but it was so weak, that it 
could scarcely move. It probably had fed on 
the lichen vulpinus, which is a known poison to 
these animals. Madness, in certain years, is apt 
to seize the wolf. The consequences are often 
very melancholy. Mad wolves will bite hogs 
and dogs, and the last again the human species. 
The symptoms are the same with those attendant 
on the bite of a mad dog. Fury sparkles in 
their eyes; a glutinous saliva distils from their 
mouths; they carry their tails low, and bite in- 
differently men and beasts. It is remarkable 
that this disease happens in the depth of winter. 
Often, towards spring, wolves get upon the ice 
of the sea, to prey on the young seals, which 
they catch asleep : but this repast often proves 
fatal to them; for the ice, detached from the 
shore, carries them to a great distance from land, 
before they are sensible of it. In some years a 
large district is by this means delivered from 
these pernicious beasts; which are heard howl- 
ing in a most dreadful manner, far in the sea. 
When wolves come to make their attack on 
cattle, they never fail attempting to frighten away 

the men by their loud cries ; but the sound of 
the horn makes them fly. Then} is nothing va- 
luable in the wolf but "his skin, which makes a 
warm durable fur. His flesh is so bad, that it is 
rejected with abhorrence by all other quadrupeds ; 
no animal but a wolf will voluntarily eat a wolf. 
The smell of his breath is exceedingly offensive, 
As, to appease hunger, he swallows indiscrimi- 
nately everything he can find, corrupted flesh 
bones, hair, skins half tanned and covered with 
lime, he vomits frequently. In fine, the wolf is 
consummately disagreeable ; his aspect is base 
and savage, his voice dreadful, his odor insup- 
portable, his disposition perverse, his manners 
ferocious ; odious and destructive when living, 
and, when dead, perfectly useless, except for his 
fur. Mr. Kerr enumerates four other varieties 
of this species, viz. 2. C. lupus albus, the white 
wolf,- found near the Jenisea, in the eastern parts 
of Asiatic Russia, much valued on account of its 
fur. 3. C. lupus fasciatus, the striped wolf. It 
is of a gray color striped with black, and inha- 
bits the Cape of Good Hope. 4. C. lupus flavus, 
the yellow wolf, found in France and Germany, 
having a thicker fur, and more yellow color than 
the common kind. It is more wild, but less 
destructive, as it never troubles the flocks, or 
the habitations of men. 5. C. lupus niger, the 
black wolf. This variety inhabits Canada, and 
is of a uniform black color. It is not so long as 
the common kind; the ears are larger, more 
erect and more distant, but in every other cir- 
cumstance it resembles the common European 

XI. CANIS MESOMELAS, the capesch of Schre- 
ber, the tenlie, or kenlie, of the Hottentots, the 
Cape jackal, has erect yellowish brown ears, 
mixed with a few scattered black hairs : the head 
is of a yellowish brown, mixed with black and 
white, growing darker towards the hind part ; 
the sides are of a light brown, varied with dusky 
hairs : the body and also the back part of the 
legs are of a yellowish brown, lightest on the 
body ; the throat, breast, and belly white. On 
the neck, shoulders, and back, is a band 01 
black. The tail is bushy, of a yellowish brown : 
marked on the upper part with a longitudinal 
stripe of black, and towards the end encircled 
with two rings of black, and is tipt with white. 
In length, the animal is two feet and three 
quarters, to the the origin of the tail : the tail 
is one foot. It inhabits the countries about 
the Cape of Good Hope, and is found as high 
as the line. 

XII. CANIS MEXICANUS, has a smooth tail, 
bent downwards. The body is ash colored, va- 
riegated with dusky stripes and tawny spots, 
on the forehead, neck, breast, belly, and tail. 
Its head is large, and neck thick. It has great 
jaws and strong teeth. Above its mouth are 
bristles as large, but not so hard, as the spines 
of a hedgehog. Seba calls it the quauhpecolti, 
or mountain cat; and Hernandes stiles it the 
xoloitcuintli, or Mexican wolf. It inhabits the 
warm parts of Mexico and New Spain, and 
agrees with the European wolf in its manners ; 
whence it is also called lupus, though ranked as 
a different species. There is also a white Mexi 
can wolf. 

XIII. CANIS THOUS, or the Surinam wolf, 

C A N I S. 


has a smooth tail bent downwaids. The body 
is gray on the upper and white on the under 
parts. Its face has a wart over each eye, on each 
cheek, and under the throat. It is about the 
size of a large cat ; and, according to Linnaeus, 
is found at Surinam. It is mentioned also by 

XIV. CA.NIS VtRGiNiANUs, the gray fox of 
Catesby, Sec. has a sharp nose ; sharp, long, up- 
right ears ; legs long ; color gray, except a little 
redness about the ears. It inhabits Carolina, 
and the warmer parts of North America, and 
differs from the arctic fox in form, and the nature 
of its dwelling : agreeing with the common fox 
in the first, but not in the last. It never bur- 
rows, but lives in hollow trees; it gives no 
diversion to the sportsman ; for after a mile's 
chase, it takes to its retreat; it has no strong 
smell ; it feeds on poultry, birds, &c. These 
foxes are easily made tame ; their skins, when in 
season, are used for muffs. 

XV. 1. CANisVuLPES, the common fox, has a 
straight tail, white at the point. His body is 
yellowish, or rather straw-colored ; his ears are 
small and erect ; his lips are whitish, and his 
fore feet black. From the base of the tail a 
strong scent is emitted, which to some people is 
very fragrant, and to others extremely disagree- 
able. The fox is a native of almost every quarter 
of the globe, and is of such a wild and savage 
nature, that it is impossible fully to tame him. 
He is esteemed the most sagacious and crafty of 
all beasts of prey. The former quality he shows 
in his method of providing himself with an asy- 
lum, where he retires from pressing dangers, 
dwells, and brings up his young : and his crafti- 
ness is chiefly discovered by the schemes he falls 
upon to catch lambs, geese, hens, and all kinds 
of small birds. The fox fixes his abode on the 
border of the wood, in the neighbourhood of cot- 
tages : he listens to the crowing of the cocks and 
the cries of the poultry. He scents them at a 
distance; he chooses his time with judgment; 
he conceals his road as well as his design : he 
slips forward with caution, sometimes even trail- 
ing his body, and seldom makes a fruitless 
expedition. If he can leap the wall, or get in 
underneath, he ravages the poultry yard, puts all 
to death, and then retires softly with his prey, 
which he either hides under the herbage, or car- 
ries off to his kennel. He returns in a few 
minutes for another, which he carries off, or con- 
ceals in the same manner, but in a different 
plaice. In this way he proceeds till the progress 
of the sun, or some movements in the house, ad- 
vertise him that it is time to retire to his den. 
He plays the same game with the catchers of 
thrushes, woodcocks, &c. He visits the nets and 
bird-lime very early in the morning, carries off 
successively the birds which are entangled, and 
lays them in different places, especially near the 
sides of highways, in the furrows, under the 
herbage or brushwood, where they sometimes lie 
two or three days ; but he knows perfectly where 
to find them when he is in need. He hunts the 
young hares in the plains, seizes old ones in their 
seats, never misses those which are wounded, 
digs out the rabbits in the warrens, discovers the 
nests of partridges and quails, seizes the mothers 

on the eggs, and destroys- a vast quantity of 
game. The fox is exceedingly voracious ; be- 
sides flesh of all kinds, he eats, with equal 
avidity, eggs, milk, cheese, fruits, and particu- 
larly grapes. When the young hares and par- 
tridges fail him, he makes war against rats, field 
mice, serpents, lizards, toads, &c. Of these he 
destroys vast numbers ; and this is the only 
service he does to mankind. He is so fond of 
honey, that he attacks the wild bees, wasps, and 
hornets. They at first put him to flight by a 
thousand stings; but he retires only for the put- 
pose of rolling himself on the ground to crush 
them ; and he returns so often to the charge, that 
he obliges them to abandon the hive, which he 
soon uncovers, and devours both the honey, and 
wax. In a word he eats fish, lobsters, grass- 
hoppers, &c. The fox is not easily, and never 
fully tamed : he languishes when deprived of 
liberty ; and, if kept too long in a domestic 
state, he dies of chagrin. Foxes produce but 
once a year; and the litter Commonly consists of 
four or five, seldom six, and never less than 
three. When the female is full, she retires, and 
seldom goes out of her hole, where she prepares 
a bed for her young. She comes in season in 
the winter ; and young foxes are found in the 
month of April. When she perceives that her 
retreat is discovered, and that her young have 
been disturbed, she carries them off one by one, 
and goes in search of another habitation. The 
young are brought forth blind; like the dog's, 
they grow eighteen months or two years, and 
live thirteen or fourteen years. The senses of the 
fox are as good as those of the wolf ; the organs 
of his voice are more pliant and perfect. The 
wolf sends forth only frightful bowlings ; but the 
fox barks, yelps, and utters a mournful cry like 
that of the peacock. He varies his tones accord- 
ing to the different sentiments with which he is 
affected : he has an accent peculiar to the chase, 
and tones of desire, of complaint, and of sorrow. 
He has another cry expressive of acute pain, 
which he utters only when he is shot, or has 
some of his members broken; for he never 
mourns over any other wound; and, like the 
wolf, may be beat till he is killed with a blud- 
geon without complaining : but he always defends 
himself to the last with great courage and 
bravery. His bite is obstinate and dangerous ; 
and the severest blows will hardly make him quit 
his hold. In winter, particularly during frost, 
he yelps perpetually; but, in summer, he is 
almost entirely silent, and, during this season, 
casts his hair. He sleeps sound, in a round 
form, and may be easily approached without 
wakening ; but, when he only reposes himself, 
he extends his hind legs, and lies on his belly. 
It is in this situation that he spies the birds along 
the hedges, and meditates schemes for their sur- 
prise. The fox flies when he hears the explosion 
of a gun, or smells gunpowder. He is exceed- 
ingly fond of grapes, and does much mischief in 
vineyards. Various methods are daily employed 
to destroy foxes : they are hunted with dogs; 
iron traps are frequently set at their holes ; which 
are sometimes smoked to make them rim out, 
that they may fall into the snares, or be killed by 
dogs or fire-arms. The chase of the fox requiies 


less apparatus, and is more amusing than that of 
the wolf. To the latter every dog has great 
reluctance ; but all dogs hunt the fox spontane- 
ously and with pleasure ; for, though his odor 
be strong, they often prefer him to the stag or 
the hare. 

Of all animals the fox has the most significant 
eye, by which it expresses every passion of love, 
fear, hatred, &c. He is remarkably playful ; 
but, like all savage creatures, half reclaimed, 
will on the least offence bite those he is most 
familiar with. He is a great admirer of his 
bushy tail, with which he frequently amuses 
and exercises himself, by running in circles to 
catch it : and in cold weather, wraps it round 
his nose. The smell of this animal is in general 
very strong, and that of his urine remarkably 
fetid. It is so obnoxious, that it has often 
proved the means of his escape from the dogs. 
In warm weather it will quit its habitation for 
the sake of basking in the sun, or to enjoy the 
free air; but then it rarely lies exposed, but 
chooses some thick brake, that it may rest secure 
from surprise. Crows, magpies, and other birds 
who consider the fox as their common enemy, 
will often, by their notes of anger point out its 
retreat. The skin of this animal is furnished 
with a warm soft fur, which in many parts of 
Europe is used to make muffs, and to line 
clothes. Vast numbers are taken in the Valais, 
and the Alpine parts of Switzerland. At Lau- 
sanne there are furriers who are often in posses- 
sion of between 2000 and 3000 skins, all taken 
in one winter. There are several varieties of the 
fox, differing either in color or form, viz. : 2 
4. C. vulpes alopex, the brant fox, or field fox 
of Linnaeus, considered by him as a distinct spe- 
cies, has a straight tail, with a black tip, and a 
blackish fur, thicker than that of the common 
kind. Mr. Kerr says, it ' inhabits Europe, Asia, 
and Chili, and is less frequent, smaller, and of a 
darker color than the common fox, to which it 
is very similar in all other respects. That 
described by Mr. Pennant came from Pennsyl- 
vania. Authors do not seem properly agreed 
about the animal to which this name is given : 
at least the coal fox, of Buffbn, and the brant 
fox, of Pennant, are considerably different, 
though quoted by Gmelin as synonymous.' 
They are therefore added as sub-varieties, a. 
C. vulpes alopex Americanus, the brant fox, as 
described by Gesner and Linnaeus, is of a fiery 
redness; and called by the first brand-fuchs, 
by the last brandraef ; it is scarcely half the size 
of the common fox : the nose is black, and much 
sharper ; the space round the ears ferruginous ; 
the forehead, back, shoulders, thighs, and sides, 
black, mixed with red, ash-co'or, and black; the 
belly yellowish ; the tail black above, red 
beneath, and cinereous on its side. It is a native 
of Pennsylvania, b. C. vulpes alopex Euro- 
paeus, the charbonnier, or coal fox of Buffon, has 
remarkably black feet and legs, and inhabits that 
part of France formerly called Burgundy. It is of 
a silvery gray color, and has the tail tipt with white. 
C. lycaon, the black fox, is the most cunning of 
the genus, and its skin the most valuable ; a lin- 
ing of it is, in Russia, esteemed preferable to the 
finest sables : a single skin will sell for 400 ru- 


bles. It inhabits the northern parts of Europe, 
Asia, and North America. 

CANIS MAJOR, the great dog, in astronomy, 
a constellation of the southern hemisphere, below 
Orion's feet, somewhat to the westward. See 

CANIS MINOR, the little dog, in astronomy, 
a constellation of the northern hemisphere ; called 
also by the Greeks Procyon, and by the Latins 
Antecanis and Canicula. See ASTRONOMY. 

CANISIUS (Henry), a native of Nimeguen, 
whose real name was De Hondt, one of the most 
learned men of his time, was professor of canon 
law at Ingolstadt. His principal works are, 1 . 
Summa Juris Canonici. 2. Antiquae Lexicones, 
7 vols. 4to, a very valuable work. He died in 

CANISTER, n. s. Lat. canistrum. A small 
basket. A small vessel in which any thing, such 
as tea or coffee, is laid up. 

White lilies in full canisters they bring, 

With all the glories of the purple spring. Dryden. 

CAN'KER, v. a. & n. } Lat. cancer. It 
CAN'KERBIT, part. adj. (seems to have the 
same meaning and original with cancer, but to 
be accidentally written with a ft, when it denotes 
bad qualities in a less degree; or canker might 
come from, Fr. chancre, Ital. canchero, and can- 
cer from the Latin. A worm, that preys upon 
and destroys fruits. A fly that commits the same 
species of depredation. Any thing that corrupts 
or consumes. An eating or corroding humor. 
Corrosion : virulence. A kind of wild worthless 
rose; the dog rose. To grow corrupt: implying 
something venomous and malignant. To cor- 
rupt ; to corrode. To infect ; to pollute. 

His chamber all was Banged about with rolls 

And old records from ancient times derived 
Some made in books, some in long parchment scrolls, 
That were all worm-eaten and full of canlter holes. 


And loathfull idlenes he doth detest, 
The canfer-worme of everie gentle brest ; 
The which to banish with faire exercise 
Of knightly feates, he daylie doth devise. 

Spenser. Mother Hubberd's Tale. 
I am not glad, that such a sore of time 
Should seek a plaister by a contemn'd revolt, 
And heal the inveterate canker of one wound 
By making many. SJiakfpcart. 

As with age his body uglier grows, 
So his mind with cankers. Id. 

Yet writers say, as in the sweetest bud 
The eating canker dwells ; so eating love 
Inhabits in the finest wits of all. Id. 

Know, my name is lost, 
By treason's tooth baregnawn and cankerbit. Id. 

Or if these cankered foes, as most men say, 
So mighty be, that gird this wall of clay, 
What makes it hold so long, and threatened ruin stay. 
Fletc/ier'i Purple Island. 
Restore to God his due in tithe and time : 
A tithe purloined cankers the whole estate. Herbert. 
It is the canker and ruin of many inons* estates, 
which, in process of time, breeds a public poverty. 


There be of flies, eaterpillers, canker flies, and bear 
flies. Walton' t Angler. 

As the Jesscan hero did appease 
Saul's stormy rage aud stopped his black disease. 




So the learn'J bard with artful song suppressed 

The swelling passion of his canker'd breast ; 

And in his heart kind influences shed 

(if country's love, by truth and justice bred. Marvell. 

Draw a cherry with the leaf, the shaft of a steeple, 
single or canker rose. Peacham. 

A huffing, shining, nattering, cringing coward, 
A canker worm of peace, was raised above him. 


To some new clime, or to thy native sky, 
Oh friendless and forsaken virtue ! fly : 
The Indian air is deadly to thee grown ; 
Deceit and cankered malice rule thy throne. Dryden. 

That eating canker, grief, and wasteful spite, 
Preys on the rosy bloom of youth and beauty. Rowe. 

An honest man will enjoy himself better in a 
moderate fortune, that is gained with honour and 
reputation, than in an overgrown estate, that is can- 
kered with the acquisitions of rapine and exaction. 

A ddison. 

No longer live the cankers of my court ; 
All to your several states with speed resort ; 
Waste in wild riot what your land allows, 
There ply the early feast and late carouse. Pope. 

Thus, when a villain crams his chest. 
Gold is the canker of the breast : 
'Tis avarice, insolence, and pride. 
And every shocking vice beside. Gay. 

Beyond the lowly vale of shepherd's life 

They never roam'd : secure beneath the storm 
Which in ambition's lofty land is rife ; 

Where peace and love are canker'd by the worm 
Of pride, each bud of joy industrious to deform. 


How hideous and forlorn ! where ruthless Care, 
With cankering tooth osrrodes the seeds of life ; 

And deaf with passions' storms when pines Despair, 
And howling furies rouse the eternal strife. Id. 

CANKER, in farriery, a disease incident to 
horses, consisting of a kind of fungous excres- 
cence in their feet, which sometimes destroys, the 
whole hoo , and so the horse. See FARRIERY. 

CANKER, in gardening, a disease incident to 
trees, proceeding chiefly from the nature of the 
soil, which makes the bark rot and fall. If the 
canker be in a bough, cut it off; in a large 
bough, at some distance from the stem ; in a small 
one, close to it ; but, for over-hot strong ground, 
the ground is to be cooled about the roots with 
pond mud and cow dung. 

CANNA, in botany, Indian flowering reed ; a 
genus of the monogynia order, and monandria 
class of plants, natural order eighth, scitaminsg : 
CAL.triphyllous : COR. erect, divided into six parts, 
with a distinct lip, bipartite and rolled back ; the 
style lanceolate, and growing to the corolla : CAPS. 
crowned with the calyx. There are five species, 
viz. 1. C. coccinea, hath larger leaves than any 
of the other four species, and the stalks rise much 
higher. The flowers are produced in large spikes ; 
and are of a bright crimson, or rather scarlet 
color. 2. C. glauca, with a very large yellow 
flower, is a native of South America. 3. C. In- 
dica, or common broad-leaved flowering cane, 
is a native of both Indies; the inhabitants of the 
British islands in America call it Indian shot, 
from the roundness and hardness of the seeds. 
It has a thick fleshy tuberous root: which di- 
Voi, V. 

vides into many irregular knobs; it sends out 
many large oval leaves, without order. 4. C. 
angustifolia, a plant common to the tropical parts 
of America. 5. C. juncea, a Chinese plant, 
with a small rufous flower and grassy leaves. 

CANNA likewise denotes a sort of long mea- 
sure, otherwise called by modern authors a cane, 
by the Latins calamus, and in scripture a reed. 

CAN'NABINE,a$. Lat. cannobinus. Hempen. 

CANN ABIS, in botany, hemp ; a genus of the 
pentandria order, and dioecia class, natural order 
fifty-third, scabridae : CAL. of the male quin- 
quepartite, of the female monophyllous, entire, 
and gaping at the side : COR. none, styles two : 
the fruit is a nut, bivalved, within the closed ca- 
lyx. Of this there is but one species, viz. C. 
saliva. It is propagated in the rich fenny parts 
of Lincolnshire in great quantities, for its bark, 
which is useful for cordage, cloth, &c. and the 
seeds abound with oil. Hemp is always sown 
on a deep, moist, rich, soil such as is found in 
Holland, Lincolnshire, and the fens of the island 
of Ely, where it is cultivated to great advantage 
as it might be in many other parts of England, 
where there is a soil of the same kind ; but it 
will not thrive on clayey or stiff cold land. The 
ground on which hemp is to be sown, should be 
well ploughed, and made very fine by harrowing. 
When the plants are come up, they should be 
hoed out as turnips are, leaving them two feet 
apart ; observe also to cut down all weeds, 
which, if well performed in dry weather, will 
destroy them. This crop, however, will require 
a second hoeing, in about six weeks after the 
first; and, if this is well performed, the crop 
will require no further care. The first season 
for pulling hemp is usually about the middle of 
August, when they begin to pull what they call 
the simble hemp, being that which is composed 
of the male plants ; but it would be much better 
to defer this for a fortnight or threeweeks longer, 
until those male plants have fully shed their fa- 
rina or dust, without which the seeds will prove 
only empty husks. These decay soon after they 
have shed their farina. The second pulling is a 
little after Michaelmas, when the seeds are ripe. 
This is usually called karle hemp, and consists of 
the female plants which were left. This karle 
hemp is bound in bundles of a yard compass, 
statute measure, which are laid in the sun for a 
few days to dry; and then it is stacked up, or 
housed, to keep it dry till the seed can be threshed 
out. An acre of hemp, on a rich soil, will produce 
nearly three quarters of seed, which, together with 
the unwrought hemp, is worth 6 to 8. Hemp 
is esteemed very effectual for destroying weeds ; 
but this it accomplishes by impoverishing the 
ground, and thus robbing them of their nou- 
rishment ; so that a crop of it must not be re- 
peated on the same spot. Some seeds of a large 
kind of hemp, growing in China, were some years 
ago sent by the East India Company to the So- 
ciety for the encouragement of Arts, Manufac- 
tures, and Commerce. From the leaves of hemp 
pounded and boiled in water, the natives of the 
East Indies prepare an intoxicating liquor, of 
which they are very fond. The plant when fresh, 
has a rank narcotic smell ; the water in which 
the stalks are soaked, in order to separate the 





tongh rind for mechanic uses, is said to be vio- 
lently poisonous, and to produce its effects almost 
as soon as drank. The seeds also have some 
smell of the herb, and their taste is unctuous and 
sweetish : they are recommended, boiled in milk, 
or triturated with water into an emulsion, against 
coughs, heat of urine, and the like. 

CANR/E, in ancient geography, a town of 
Apulia, in the Adriatic, at the mouth of the river 
Aufidus, rendered famous by a terrible overthrow 
which the Romans received from the Carthaginians 
under Hannibal. The Roman consuls, ./Emilius 
Paulus and Terentius Varro, being authorised by 
the Senate to quit the defensive plan, and take the 
chance of a battle, inarched from Canusium, and 
eucamped a few miles east, in two unequal divi- 
sions, with the Aufidus between them. In this 
position they meant to wait for an opportunity of 
engaging to advantage; but Hannibal, whose 
critical situation, in a desolate country without 
refuge or allies, could admit of no delay, found 
means to inflame the vanity of Varro by some 
trivial advantages in skirmishes between the light 
horse. Varro, elated with this success, deter- 
mined to bring matters to a speedy conclusion. 
The Romans were more numerous than the Car- 
thaginians ; but the latter were superior in ca- 
valry. The army of the former consisted of 
87,000 men ; that of the latter of 40,000 foot 
and 1000 horse. Without entering into the par- 
ticulars of the battle, which is fully narrated by 
the Roman historians, it is sufficient to say that 
the most moderate computation makes the num- 
ber of Romans killed to amount to 45,000, 
among whom were TEmilius Paulus the consul, 
and the pro-consuls Servilius and Attilius. The 
scene of action is marked by the name of Pezzo di 
Sangue, the Field of Blood. In 1201 the arch- 
bishop of Palermo and his rebellious associates, 
who had taken advantage of the nonage of Fre- 
derick of Suabia, were cut to pieces at Cannae 
by Walter de Brienne, sent by the pope to defend 
the young king's dominions. The traces of this 
town are very faint, consisting of fragments of 
altars, cornices, gates, walls, vaults, and under- 
ground granaries. It was destroyed the year 
before the battle ; but, being rebuilt, became an 
episcopal see in the infancy of Christianity. It 
was again ruined in the sixth century, but seems 
to have subsisted many ages later ; for we read 
of its contending witli Barletta for the territory, 
which till then had been enjoyed in common 
by them ; and in 1284 Charles I. issued an edict 
for dividing the lands, to prevent future litiga- 
tion. The prosperity of the towns along the 
coast, which increased in wealth and population 
by embarkations for the crusades and by traffic, 
proved the annihilation of the great inland cities; 
and Cannae was probably abandoned entirely be- 
fore the end of the thirteenth century. 

CANNAY, one of the Western Isles of Scot- 
land, south-west of Sky. It is fertile and verdant, 
and has vast ranges of basaltic pillars, rising 
above each other, from the sea, somewhat resem- 
bling the Giant's Causeway in Ireland. See 


CANNEQUINS, in commerce, white cotton 
cloths brought from the East Indies. They are 

much used in trading on the coast of Guinea, 
particularly about the rivers Senegal and Gambia. 
They are folded square, and are about eight ells 

CANNES, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of the Var, and ci-devant province of Pro- 
vence, on the coast of the Mediterranean, with a 
harbour and a castle. There is an excellent fishery 
for pilchards, and good fruit is grown in the 
environs. Napoleon Buonaparte landed here on 
his return from Elba, 1st March, 1815. 

CAN'NIBAL, n. i An anthropophagite, 
CAN'NIBALLY, adj. ^a man-eater. ' In the 
CAN'NIBALISM, * manner of a cannibal. 
The practice of man-eating. 

CANNING (George), was born in London, 
April 11, 1770. His father, a man of consider- 
able abilities and literary cultivation, had of- 
fended his family by marrying a lady without 
fortune, and died in 1771, leaving his widow 
destitute. She had recourse to the stage for 
support, but was not very successful, and was 
afterwards twice married. She lived to see the 
success of her son, from whom she ever received 
the tenderest marks of filial love. Mr. Canning 
inherited a small estate in Ireland, was educated 
at Eton, where he was distinguished for industry, 
vigour of mind, and elegance of taste, and, at the 
age of fifteen, formed the plan of a periodical 
called the Microcosm, of which he was the 
editor. In 1787 he was entered at Oxford. His 
vacations were passed with Sheridan, by whom he 
was introduced to Burke, Fox, and other distin- 
guished whigs. Although Sheridan announced 
him as the future ornament of his party, yet he 
was brought into parliament in 1793 by Mr. 
Pitt. During the first session he remained 
silent. His maiden effort was made in 1794, on 
the Sardinian treaty, and rather disappointed 
expectation. In 1796, he was under-secretary of 
state. In 1797, he projected, with some of his 
friends, the Anti-Jacobin, or Weekly Examiner, 
of which Gifford was appointed editor, and to 
which he contributed. In 1798, he supported 
Wilberforce's motion foi the abolition of the 
slave-trade. In July, 1800, he married Joanna, 
daughter of general Scott, a lady with a fortune 
of 100,000. The administration being dis- 
solved in 1801, lie became a member of the op- 
position, until the restoration of Pitt in 1804. In 
1807, he was appointed secretary of state for 
foreign affairs in the Portland administration. A 
political misunderstanding with lord Castlereagh 
led to a duel between him and that minister, in 
which he was slightly wounded. This dispute 
occasioned the dissolution of the ministry. He 
invariably supported the admission of the Catho- 
lics into power, purely as a matter of expediency. 
To Mr. Canning was principally owing the first 
blow which shook the throne of Napoleon ; the 
British policy in Spain was directed and ani- 
mated by him. " If there was any part of his 
political life," he declared, " in which he gloried, 
it was that, in the face of every difficulty, discou- 
ragement, and prophecy of failure, his had been 
the hand which had committed England to an 
alliance with Spain." In 1812 he was elected 
member of Parliament for Liverpool ; from 


which he was also returned in 1814, 1818, 1820. 
In 1814, he was appointed minister to Portugal, 
a'nd remained absent about two years. In 1819, 
he declared his hostility to parliamentary reform 
in any shape ; and his speech on lord John 
Russell's motion for reform, in 1822, is among 
the most finished specimens of his eloquence. 
On the impeachment of the queen, he declared, 
that " towards the object of that investigation, he 
felt an unaltered regard and affection ;" and soon 
after resigned the presidency of the board of 
control, and went abroad. Having been nomi- 
nated governor-general of India, he was on the 
point of embarking, when the death of the mar- 
quis of Londonderry called him to the cabinet as 
secretary for foreign affairs (Sept. 16, 1822). 
One of his earliest acts, in this situation, was to 
check the French influence in Spain. In 1825, 
he communicated to foreign ministers the deter- 
mination of his majesty to appoint charges 
d'affaires to Colombia, Mexico, and Buenos 
Ayres. In answer to the charge of having en- 
couraged the attack upon Portugal, by having 
permitted the occupation of Spain by France, he 
uttered the memorable words : " Was it neces- 
sary that we should blockade Cadiz? No. -I 
looked another way ; I resolved that if France 
had Spain, it should not be Spain with the 
Indies. I called the new world into existence, 
to redress the balance of the old." April 12, 
1827, his appointment to be prime minister was 
announced. His administration was terminated 
by his death, the 8th of August following ; but 
not until it had been crowned by the treaty of 
London (July 6), for the settlement of the affairs 
of Greece. As a statesman, he was liberal, pro- 
found, consistent, and independent. His elo- 
quence was persuasive and impassioned ; his 
reasoning clear and logical ; his manner grace- 
ful ; his expression winning ; and his whole ap- 
pearance prepossessing. His wit was brilliant, 
and his satire was extremely caustic. He died 
poor. His remains were deposited in West- 
minster Abbey. 

CAN'NIPPERS, n. s. corrupted from CALLI- 
PERS ; which' see. 

CAN'NON, M. "! Ital. cannone; Fr. 

CAN'NONADE, v. \ cannon, from cane, a 
CANNON-BALL, n. vpipe, meaning a large 
CAN'XON-BULLET, n. ftube. A great gun for 
CAN'KON-SHOT, . | battery. A gun larger 
CAN'NONIER. ) than can be managed 

by the hand. They are of so many sizes that 
they decrease in the bore from a ball of forty- 
eight pounds to a ball of five ounces. To can- 
nonade : to play the great guns ; to batter or 
attack with great guns. A cannonier is the en- 
gineer that manages the cannon. 

CANNON. These destructive missile engines 
have long been of considerable importance in 
miliiary tactics. Their invention must obviously 
have been subsequent to the discovery of gun- 
powder. Mezeray states that King Edward 
struck terror into the French army, by five or six 
pieces of cannon ; it being the first time they 
had encountered such thundering machines. In 
the list of aids raised for the redemption of king 
John of France, in 1368, mention is made of an 
officer in the French army, called the master of 

the king's cannon, and of his providing four 
large cannon for the garrison of Harfleur. But 
father Daniel, in his life of Philip of Valois, 
produces a proof from the records of the chamber 
of accounts at Paris, that cannon and gunpowder 
were used in the year 1338. The Germans carry 
the invention of cannon farther back, and ascribe 
it to Albertus Magnus, a Dominican monk, about 
the year 1250. But Isaac Vossius assures us that 
they were known in China upwards of 1900 
years ago ; being employed by the Emperoi 
Kitey, in the year of Christ 85. 

Cannon were originally made of bars of iron 
fitted together lengthways, or of sheets of iron 
rolled up arid fastened together, and hooped 
with iron rings, and sometimes of wood. They 
were ponderous, clumsy, cumbrous, in a great 
measure unmanageable, and could not be trans- 
ported from one place to another, but with great 
difficulty and labor. They were chiefly employed 
for throwing large stones like the machines of the 
ancients, which they succeeded. These were 
gradually supplanted by brass cannon, which 
had much smaller calibers, and threw iron bul- 
lets instead of stones, but prodnced in a few 
hours greater effects than the others could in 
many days. These guns were first cast of a 
mixture of copper and tin, called gun-metal 
from that circumstance, which continued to be 
employed for the same purpose for a long time 
before cast iron was made use of. As the use 
of artillery, however, became more general, and 
the number of cannon greatly increased, iron 
guns were invented by way of lessening the ex- 
pense. An idea, however, that prevailed of their 
being very liable to burst when much heated by 
firing, retarded the general introduction of them 
into military service, and was the cause of their 
being made much heavier than brass guns of the 
same caliber. And this apprehension was 
strengthened by some accidents that took place, 
either through improper management, or the 
carelessness and unskilfulness of the early foun- 
ders ; this has militated against the general use o! 
them even down to the present time. When cast, 
however, with iron obtained from good ore, they 
resist bursting as much as brass cannon, and 
possess great advantages over them. , 

At present, cannon take their names from the 
weights of the balls, which they respectively dis- 
charge. Thus a piece that discharges a ball of 
twenty-four pounds, is called a twenty-four 
pounder ; one that takes a ball of twelve pounds 
is called a twelve pounder ; and so of the rest, 
divided into the following sorts. 

Ship-guns, consisting of forty-two, thirty-six, 
twenty-four, eighteen, twelve, nine, six and three 

Garrison guns, consisting of forty-two, thirty- 
two, twenty-four, eighteen, twelve, nine and six 

Battering guns, consisting of twenty-four, 
eighteen, and" twelve pounders, and sometimes, 
though but seldom, of forty-two pounders. 

Field pieces, consisting of twelve, nine, six, 
three, two, one and a half, one, and half- 

The different parts of a gun will be best un- 
derstood by a reference to platell. MISCELLANY, 
3 11 2 



fig. 6, in which a 6 is the length of the gun ; 
ne the first reinforce; e f the second reinforce; 
fb the chase; A 6 the muzzle; ah the cascable; 
a c the breech ; c d the vent field ; fi the chace 
girdle; rs the base ring and ogee; t the vent 
astragal and fillets ; p q the first reinforce ring 
and ogee ; v w the second reinforce ring and 
ogee ; x the chace astragal and fillets ; z the 
muzzle astragal and fillets ; n the muzzle mould- 
ings ; m the swelling of the muzzle ; a i the 
breech mouldings. 

The vacant cylinder, wherein the powder and 
ball are lodged, is called the bore, and the en- 
trance of the bore the mouth of the gun. The 
cylindric parts t, by which the gun is fixed upon 
its carriage, are called trunnions; and the handles 
on brass pieces are called dolphins, from the fish 
whose form they represent. The diameter of the 
bore is called the caliber of the piece. Lastly, 
the difference between the diameters of the shot 
and the bore, is called the windage of the gun. 

The mode of casting cannon is too important 
to be passed unnoticed in this article. This 
process was, until about half a century ago, 
considered an arduous undertaking ; and so little 
were the fundamental principles of the art under- 
stood, that we are assured that not one in three 
of the shells cast for the mortar service could be 
admitted into the stores. Such have been the 
improvements made, that thousands of articles 
which used to be from necessity made of 
wrought iron, are now to be had from the 
foundries at less than one-fifth of their former 
prices; while the material itself has been so 
highly perfected, that instances have been known 
of cast-iron being sufficiently "soft to bear the 
file, and sufficiently ductile to undergo the ham- 
mer. Such, indeed, could not be done but at a 
considerable expense ; nor does it appear that 
much good could result in general. With respect 
to military apparatus, it is found expedient to have 
the whole of our cannon, mortars, carronades, 
shot, shells, and garrison gun-carriages, cast at the 
several foundries established in the vicinity of 
coal and iron mines, whereby the work is done 
at a comparatively low expense, and the articles 
can be conveyed by water to the warren at Wool- 
wich, much under the prices at which they could 
be cast at the place, to which both the iron and 
the coals must be transported. 

Guns are usually cast from metal brought into 
the fluid state in a reverberatory furnace, and 
the moulds are formed of loam or dry sand. 
Guns cast in loam do not come from the mould 
with a surface so correctly resembling that of 
the model as those cast in dry sand, and in order 
to render the surface correct, and to remedy 
defects, it was always necessary to subject 
them to the process of turning. In guns 
carefully cast in dry sand, the process of turning 
might be dispensed with, the gun would then 
be strengthened by the outer skin of metal, 
which, having cooled more rapidly than the 
other parts, is the hardest : this outer skin is 
also less liable to rust than the surface laid bare 
by turning, The mould of a gun in dry sand, 

at the same time that it is more accurate, is also 
sooner made and dried than a loam mould. 

It may be proper to state that some experi- 
ments are at present being made at Douay, in 
cannon founding, under the direction of Messrs. 
Gay Lussac and D'Arcet, which tend to show 
that the addition of a small proportion of iron 
into the alloy of brass nearly doubles the force 
of resistance. 

Brass guns are subject to melt at the interior 
extremity of the touch-hole, by the heat of quick 
firing; and the melted parts are driven out by the 
explosion, so as to render the touch-hole too 
wide. To prevent this, there is sometimes a 
bush of copper inserted, and in this bush the 
touch-hole is drilled. The copper, being less 
fusible than the brass, is not melted by the heat 
of firing the piece. To form the bush, a cy- 
lindrical piece of copper is hammered cold, and 
made into the form of a male screw. A hole is then 
bored, reaching from the surface of the gun into 
its bore ; the diameter of this cylindrical hole is 
equal to the diameter of the cylinder of copper 
measured from the bottom of the threads of the 
screw. The piece of copper is then screwed into 
the cylindrical hole, and the touch-hole is drilled 
in it. 

Cannon were formerly made of a very great 
length, which rendered them exceedingly heavy, 
and the use of them very limited and trouble- 
some. There were some of them employed by 
the Turks, in 1394, at the siege of Constantinople, 
then in possession of the Christians, and also in 
1452, which threw a weight of 100 Ibs. ; but they 
could not stand repeated firing. Louis XII. had 
one cast at Tours of the same size, that threw a 
ball from the bastile to Charenton. One of these 
extraordinary cannon was taken at the siege of 
Diu in 1546, by Don John de Castro, and is 
now in the castle of St. Julian de Barra, ten 
miles from Lisbon. The length of it is twenty 
feet seven inches ; its diameter at the middle is 
six feet three inches ; and it threw 100 Ibs. weight. 
It has neither dolphins, rings, nor a button ; is of 
an unusual kind of metal, and has an inscription 
on it, which says that it was cast in 1400. For- 
merly strange and uncommon names were given 
to cannon. Thus Louis XII., in 1503, had 
twelve brass cannon, cast of an extraordinary 
size, called after the twelve peers of France. 
The Spaniards and Portuguese named theirs after 
their saints. The emperor Charles V., when he 
went against Tunis, had twelve cannon founded, 
which he called the Twelve Apostles. At Milan 
there is a seventy-pounder called the Pimontelli; 
and there is one at Bois-le-duc called the Devil. 
At Dover castle there is a sixty-pounder called 
Queen Elizabeth's pocket-pistol. There is an 
eighty-pounder in the Tower of London, brought 
thither from Edinburgh castle, called Mounts- 
meff, and another in the royal arsenal at Berlin, 
called the Thunderer. The large gunsemploved 
by the French at the siege of Cadi? threw shells 
more than four miles. 

A brief tabular view of the dimensions and 
weight of iron and brass guns may now be given. 


Table of the Length, Weight, Caliber, and Charges, of British Government Iron Guns. 



Diameter of 
the Bore. 

Diameter of 
the Shot. 

Diameter of 
the Shot 

- - 

Ft. In. 

Curt. Ib. oz. 






42-Pounder gun 








32-Pounder gun 








24-Pounder gun 








18-Pounder gun 

9 6 







12-Pounder gun 

9 6 







9-Pounder gun 

9 6 

30 1 






6-Pounder gun 








4-Pounder gun 


12 1 


3-053 ' 




3-Pounder gun 

4 6 







2-Pounder gun 

3 9 







1-Pounder gun 





, 1-955 



A-Pounder gun 













of the 

ter of 
the shot 

ft. in. 

cwt. qr. Ib. 

in. hunt! 




9 6 





9 6 
























11 2 










3 * 


6 6 

42 1 21 
21 14 
10 1 





5 6 

16 1 12 





4 6 

8 3 18 
4 3 14 





3 6 








3-Pounder . . . 

ft. in. 
3 6 

cwt. qr. Ib. 
5 1 17 

6-Pounder . . . 

4 4 

6 2 14 

9-Pounder . . . 



12-Pounder. . . 

5 6 

13 1 3 

18-Pounder . . . 

6 4 


24-Pounder . . . 


26 2 7 

32-Pounder . . . 

7 6 

35 1 17 

36-Founder . . . 

7 10 


42-Pounder . . . 

8 4 

46 2 

48-Pounder . 

8 6 

53 14 

VV e have now to notice a new description of 
missile weapon, which may properly find a place 
in this article; we allude to the steam-cannon, 
suggested by Mr. Perkins. This ingenious 
American has proposed to employ the elastic 
force of water converted into steam for the pur- 
pose of propelling bullets ; and the power of the 
apparatus must of necessity depend on the in- 
tensity of the heat which is employed. A small 

cannon has already been constructed, which, 
when connected with the generator or boiler, 
has been found to discharge ordinary musket- 
bullets at the rate of 240 in the minute, and with 
such tremendous force, that, after passing through 
an inch deal, the ball, in striking against an iron- 
target, became flattened on one side and squeezed 
out; The original size of the bullets was 0-65 of 
an inch ; but, after striking the target, they were 
plano-convex, and their diameter 1-070 inches, 
and 0'29 of an inch thick. 

CAN'NOT. A word compounded of can and 
not : noting inability. 

Sir ! seyd the burgeyse, no mevelle it is to me, 
For many a time and oft, I cannot sey how lome, 
He hath be in your marches ; and as I trow in Room 
Also he was ybore, yf I ne ly shall. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 
And you, most noble Lord : that can and dare 
Redresse the wrong of miserable wight, 
Cannot employ your most victorious speare 
In better quariell than defence of right, 
And for a lady 'gainst a faithlesse knight. Spenser. 

Thus though we cannot make our sun 
Stand still, yet we v.-ill make him run. Marvell. 
I cannot but believe many a child can tell twenty, 
long before he has any idea of infinity at all. Locke. 

To cities and the court repair, 
A fortune cannot fail thee there. 


Base envy withers at another's joy, 
And hates that excellence it cannot reach. 


There is a spur in its half movements, to become 
All that the others cannot, in such things 
As still are free to both, to compensate 
For stepdame Nature's avarice at first. Byron. 

CANNULA, or CANULA, in surgery, a tube. 
They are introduced into hollow ulcers, in order 
to facilitate a discharge of pus or any other sub- 
stance ; or into wounds either accidental or arti- 
ficial, of the large cavities, as the thorax or ab- 
domen ; they are used in the operation of bron- 
chotomy ; and, by some, after cutting for the 
stone, as a drain for urine. Other cannulae are 
used for introducing cauteries, either actual or po- 
tential, in order to guard the parts adjacent from 



to be cauterised, from that injury. They are of 
various figures ; oval, round,and crooked. 

CANO (Alonzo), a statuary, who has been called 
the Michael Angelo of Spain, was born at Grenada, 
in 1 600. He studied architecture and sculpture 
from his youth, first under his father, and then at 
Seville; his first instructions in painting were 
received from Juan dell Castillo. He was after 
this made royal architect, king's painter, and in- 
structor to the prince, Don Balthazar Carlos. 
While enjoying the great celebrity which his ta- 
lents and attainments deserved, he one evening 
found his house robbed, and his wife murdered in 
his absence ; an Italian servant having fled. The 
magistrates, because Cano was of a jealous disposi- 
tion, seemed now determined to sacrifice him, and 
he fled to Valencia, but afterwards returned to Ma- 
drid ; where he endured torture, without criminat- 
ing himself, and the king restored him to favor. 
He afterwards embraced an ecclesiastical life, as 
a protection from prosecution. When the priest, 
at the hour of his death, held to him a crucifix, 
he told him to take it away, for it was so badly 
done he could not bear the sight of such a per- 
formance. He died in 1676. See Cumberland's 
Anecdotes of Eminent Spanish Painters. 

CANO'A, n. s. > Sp. canoa. But the word 

CANOE'. 1 is said to be originally West 

Indian ; Columbus having found it in use at San 
Salvador, on his arrival thete. A boat made by 
cutting the trunk of a tree into a hollow vessel. 

Others made rafts of wood ; others devised the boat 
of one tree, called the canoa, which the Gauls upon 
the Rhone used in assisting the transportation of 
Hannibal's army. Ruleiyh. 

In a war against Semiramis, they had four thou- 
sand monoxyla, or canoes of one piece of timber. 

Arbuthnot on Coins, 

CANOES are Indian boats, sometimes formed 
of several pieces of bark put together, but more 
frequently by the hollowing out the trunk of 
some tree. The largest are made of the cotton 
tree ; some of them will carry between twenty 
and thirty hogsheads of sugar or molasses. Some 
are made to carry sail ; and for this purpose are 
steeped in water till they become pliant ; after 
which their sides are extended, and strong beams 
placedjbetween them, on which a deck is after- 
wards laid that serves to support their sides. 
The other sorts very rarely carry sail, unless when 
going before the wind ; their sails are made of 
short silk grass or rushes. They are commonly 
rowed with paddles, which are pieces of light 
wood somewhat resembling a com-shovel ; and, 
instead of rowing wkh it horizontally like an 
oar, they manage it perpendicularly. The small 
canoes are very narrow, having only room for one 
person in breadth, and seven or eight lengthwise. 
The American Indians, when they are under the 
necessity of landing to avoid a water-fall, or of 
crossing the land from one river to another, carry 
their canoes on their heads, till they arrive at a 
place where they can launch them again. Some 
nations have vessels under this name, which dif- 
fer from these, as the inhabitants of Greenland, 
&c. The Esquimaux canoe is, however, the 
only one essentially different ; this is formed of 
ribs of whalebone, from end to end, sewed to- 

Kavuv. A rule; a 
law. The laws made 
by ecclesiastical coun- 
cils. The books of 
Holy Scripture : or the 
f great rule. A dignitary 
' in cathedral churches. 
Canons Regular. Such 
as are placed in monas- 
teries. Canons Secular. 

gether with strong muscles, and covered with 
seal-skins. It is very small and light, and gene- 
rally contains but one person, who, by fastening 
his large skin cloak to the sides of the canoe, 
renders the whole water-tight, so that if overset, 
he can recover himself with his paddle, without 
injury. The paddle is ten feet long, and flat at 
each end ; and so expert are the natives in the 
use of it, that they can keep up with any English 
ten-oared boat. 

CAN'ON, n. 







CAN'ON IZE, fl. a. 

CAN'ON RY, n. 

Lay canons, who have been, as a mark of honor, 
admitted into some chapters. Canonical signi- 
fies according to the canon, constituting the 
canon; regular, stated, fixed by ecclesiastical 
laws. Spiritual, relating to the church. A ca- 
nonist is a man versed in the ecclesiastical laws ; 
a professor of the canon law. Canonisation is 
the act of declaring saintship : to canonise is to 
put into the canon, or rule, for observing festi- 
vals ; to declare any man a saint. 

In poyse and philosophie also he can endite ; 
Cevile an canounc, and al maner lawes, 
Seneca and Sydrak, and Salamony's sawys, 
And the seven sciences and eke law of armys. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tale*. 

His books are almost the very canon to judge both 
doctrine and discipline by. Hooker. 

Public readings there are of books and writings, 
not canonical, whereby the church doth also preach, or 
openly make known, the doctrine of virtuous conver- 
sation. Id. 

The king, desirous to bring into the house of Lan- 
caster celestial honour, became suitor to pope Julius, 
to canonize king Henry VI. for a saint. Bacon. 

For deans and canons, or prebends of cathedral 
churches, they were of great use in the church ; they 
were to be of counsel with the bishop for his revenue, 
and for his government, in causes ecclesiastical. Id. 

By those hymns all shall approve 
Us canonised for love. Donne. 

Religious canons, civil laws, are cruel ; 

Then what should war be ? Shaktpeare. 

Seven times in a day do I praise thee, said David : 

from this definite number some ages of the church 

took their pattern for their canonical hours. Taylor < 

It is a known story of the friar, who on a fasting 

day, bid his capon be carp, and then very canonically 

eat it. Government of the Tongue. 

A canon', that's a place too mean 
No, doctor, you shall be a dean ; 
Two dozen eanons round your stall, 
And you the tyrant o'er them all. Swift. 

Canon law, is that law, which is made and ordained 
in a general council, or provincial synod, of the 
church. Ayliffe. 

York anciently had a metropolitan jurisdiction over 
all the bishops of Scotland, from whom they had their 
consecration, and to whom they swore canonical obe- 
dience. Id. 



Canon alao denotes those books of Scripture, which allotted for the performance of divine service, in 

a cathedral, or collegiate church. Canons are of 
no great antiquity ; Pasquier observes that the 
name was not known before Charlemagne; at 
least the first we hear of are in Gregory de Tours, 
who mentions a college of canons instituted by 

are received as inspired and canonical, to distinguish 
them from either profane, apocryphal, or disputed 
books. Thus we say, that Genesis is part of the 
sacred canon of the Scripture. Id, 

There are, in popish countries, women they call 

. f m ' 1 f 1 ** 11V UltllLlULliS V*Vll\^-V* -/. *,.**** ...w.w~*vu J 

secular eanonexes, living after the example of secular Baldwin XVI archbisho p of that city, in the time 
Th n e S s'e were looked on as lapsed persons, and greai of Clotharius I. The common .opinion attributes 
severities of penance were prescribed them by the the institution of this order to Chrodegangus 
canon, of Ancyra. Stillingfleet. bishop of Metz, about the middle of the eighth 

It is very suspicious, that the interests of particular Century. Originally canons were only priests or 
families, or churches, have too great a sway in canon- inferior ecclesiastics, who lived in community, 
Nations Addison residing by the cathedral church, to assist the 

~ John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, when the king bishop; depending entirely on his will; sup- 
would have translated him from that poor bishoprick, ported by the revenues of the bishopric, and liv- 
he refused, saying, he would not forsake his poor ing in the same house, as his domestics or coun- 
little old wife ; thinking of the fifteenth canon of the sellers, &C. They even inherited his moveables, 
Nicene council, and that of the canonists, Matrimo- till A.D. 817, when this was prohibited by the 
nium inter episcopum et ecclesiam esse contraction, Sfc. council of Aix-la-Chapelle, and a new rule sub- 

Camden's Remains, stituted in the place of that which had been ap- 

Of whose strange crimes no canonist can tell pointed by Chrodegangus, and which was 

In what commandment's large contents they dwell. observed for the most part in the west till the 

Pope, twelfth century. By degrees these communities 

Canons, in logick, are such as these : every part of a of priests, shaking off their dependence, formed 

division, singly taken, must contain less than the separate bodies, whereof the bishops, however, 

whole ; and a definition must be peculiar and proper were still the heads. In the tenth century there 

to the thing defined. Watts, were communities of the same kind, established 

He [Edward I.] seems to have been the first chris- even in cities where there were no bishops ; 

tian prince that passed a statute of mortmain ; and these were called collegiates, as they used the 

prevented by law the clergy from making new acqui- terms congregation and college indifferently ; the 

sitions of lands, which, by the ecclesiastical canons, name chapter now given to these bodies being 

they were for ever prohibited from alienating. much more modern. Under the second race of 

Hume's History of England. the F renc h k ingS) t h e canonical life had spread 

The canon law is a body of Roman ecclesiastical a ll over the country ; and each cathedral had its 
law, relative to such matters as that church either chapter distinct from the rest of the clergy, 
has, or pretends to have, the proper jurisdiction over. They ha( j tne name canon f rO m the Greek xaviav, 
Blackttone's Commentaries. wh i c h signifies three different things : a rule, a 
pension, or fixed revenue to live on, and a cata- 
logue of matricula, all which are applicable to 
them. In time the canons freed themselves from 
their rules ; and at length they ceased to live in 
community: yet they still formed bodies; pre- 
CANON, in an ecclesiastical sense, is a rule, tending to other functions besides the celebra- 
either of doctrine or discipline, enacted espe- tion of the common office in the church, yet 
cially by a council, and confirmed by the so- assuming the rights of the rest of the clergy, 
vereign. Canons are properly decisions of making themselves a necessary council of the 
matters of religion, or regulations of the policy bishop ; taking upon them the administration of 
and discipline of a church, made by councils, a see during a vacancy, and the election of a 
either general, national, or provincial. Such bishop to supply it. There are even some chap- 
are the canons of the council of Nice, or Trent, ters exempt from the jurisdiction of the bishop, 
&c. There have been various collections of the and owning no head but their dean. After the 
canons of the Eastern councils ; but four prin- example of cathedral chapters, collegiate ones 
cipal ones, each ampler than the preceding. The also continued to form bodies, after they had 
first, according to Usher, A. D. 380, contained abandoned living in community. Canons are of 
only those of the first ecumenical council, and various kinds, particularly in the Romish church : 
the first provincial ones : they were but 164 in as: 1. Canons, cardinal. 2. Canons, domicil- 
number. To these, Dionysius Exiguus, in 520, lary. 3. Canons expectative, &c. 4. Canons, 
added the fifty canons of the apostles, and those lay or honorary, are such among the laity as have 
of the other general councils. The Greek can- been admitted, out of honor and respect, into 
ons in this second collection end with those of some chapter of canons. Dr. Johnson confounds 
the council of Chalcedon ; to which are sub- these with the secular canons. 5. Canons, regu- 
joined those of the council of Sardica, and the lar, are those who still live in community, and 
African councils. The fourth and last collection who have, to the practice of their rules, added 
comes down as low as the second council of the solemn profession of vows. They are called 
Nice; and it is on this that Balsamon and Zo- regulars, to distinguish them from those secular 
naras have commented. canons who abandon living in community, and 

CANON OF SCRIPTURE. See BIBLE. observing the canons made for the maintenance 

CANON, in a modern ecclesiastical sense, is a of the ancient discipline, 
person who possesses a prebend, or revenue CANON is also used in the Romish church : 

But a word or two : 
His stature is twelve cubits : would you so far 
Outstep these times, and be a Titan ? or 
(To talk canonicatty} wax a Son 
Of Anak ? 



1. By way of excellence for the secret words of 
the mass, from the preface to the pater, in the 
middle of which the priest consecrates the host. 

2. For the catalogue of saints acknowledged and 
canonised in the church of Rome. 3. In mo- 
nastic orders, for a book wherein the religious of 
every convent have a fair transcript of the rules 
of their order frequently read among them as 
their local statutes. Canons is also applied to 
other compositions : as 

1. CANON, PASCHAL, a table of the moveable 
feasts, showing the day of Easter, and the other 
feasts depending on it, for a cycle of nineteen 
years. The paschal canon is supposed to be the 
calculation of Eusebius of Csesarea, and to have 
been done by the order of the council of Nice. 

2. CANONS, APOSTOLICAL, those which have 
been usually ascribed to St. Clement. Bellar- 
min, Baronius, &c. will have them to be ge- 
nuine canons of the apostlas. Cotelerius ob- 
serves that they cannot be ascribed to the apostles 
or Clement, because they are not received with 
other books of Scripture, are not quoted by the 
writers of the first ages, and contain many things 
not agreeable to the apostolical times. Hinc- 
mar, De Marca, Beveridge, &c. take them to be 
framed by the bishops who were the apostles' 
disciples in the second or third century ; but 
Daille, 8cc. maintain them to have been forged 
by some heretic in the sixth century ; and S. 
Basnage conjectures that though some of them are 
ancient, and collected in the fifth century, others 
are not older than the seventh. The Greek 
church allow only eighty-five of them, and the 
Latins only fifty, though there are eighty-four in 
the edition given of them in the Corpus Juris 

CANON, in geometry and algebra, a general 
rule for the solution of all cases of a like nature 
with the present enquiry. Thus every last step 
of an equation is a canon; and, if turned into 
words, becomes a rule to solve all questions of 
the same nature with that proposed. 

CANON, in ancient music, is a method of de- 
termining the intervals of notes. Ptolemy, re- 
jecting the Aristoxenian way of measuring the 
intervals in music, by the magnitude of a tone, 
(which was supposed to be formed by the diffe- 
rence between a diaperite and a diatessaron), 
thought that musical intervals should be distin- 
guished according to the proportions which the 
sounds terminating those intervals bear to one 
another, when considered according to their de- 
gree of acuteness or gravity ; which, before 
Aristoxenus, was the old Pythagorean way. He 
therefore made the diapason consist in a double 
ratio ; the diapente in a sesquialterate ; the dia- 
tessaron in a sesquitertian ; and the tone itself 
in a sesquioctave ; and all the other intervals ac- 
cording to the proportion of the sounds that 
terminate them ; wherefore taking the cauon for 
a determinate line of any length, he shows how 
this canon is to be cut accordingly, so that it may 
represent the respective intervals ; and this me- 
thod answers exactly to experiment in the dif- 
ferent lengths of musical chords. From this 
canon Ptolemy and his followers have been called 
Canonica ; as those of Aristoxenus were called 

CANON, in music, is a short modern composi- 
tion of two or more parts, in which one leads 
and the other follows ; and is a fugue so bound 
up or restrained, that the following part or parts 
must precisely repeat the same notes, with the 
same degrees, rising or falling, which were ex- 
pressed by the leading part. It is therefore tied 
to so strict a rule that it is called canon. 

CANON LAW is a collection of ecclesiastical 
laws, serving as the rule of church government. 
The power of making laws was exercised by the 
church before the Roman empire became Chris- 
tian. The canon law that obtained throughout 
the west till the twelfth century, was the collec- 
tion of canons made by Dionysius Exiguus in 
520, the capitularies of Charlemagne, and the 
decrees of the popes from Syricius to Anastasius 
III. The canon law, even when papal authority 
was at its height in England, was of no force 
when it contradicted the prerogative of the king, 
the laws, statutes, and customs of the realm, or 
the doctrine of the established church. The ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction of the see of Rome in 
England was founded on the canon law; and 
this created quarrels between kings and several 
archbishops and prelates who adhered to the 
papal usurpation. Besides the foreign canons, 
there were several laws and constitutions made 
here for the government of the church, but all 
these received their force from the royal assent, 
and if, at any lime, the ecclesiastical courts did, 
by their sentence, endeavour to enforce obedience 
to such canons, the courts at common law, upon 
complaints made, would grant prohibition. The 
authority vested in the church of England of 
making canons was ascertained by a statute of 
Henry VIII. commonly called the act of the 
clergy's submission, by which they acknowledged 
that the convocation had always been assembled 
by the king's writ ; so that though the power of 
making canons resided in the clergy met in con- 
vocation, their force was derived from the autho- 
rity of the king's assenting to and confirming 
them. The old canons continued in full force 
till the reign of James I. when the clergy being 
assembled in convocation, the king gave them 
leave to treat and consult upon canons, which 
they did, and presented them to the king, who 
gave them the royal assent : these were a collec- 
tion out of the several preceding canons and in- 
junctions. Some of these canons are now obso- 
lete. In the reign of Charles I. several canons 
were passed by the clergy in convocation. 

CAN'ON, among chirurgeons, an instrument 
used in sewing up wounds. A large sort of 
printing letter, probably so called from being 
first used in printing a book of canons ; or per- 
haps from its size, and therefore properly written 

CAN'ON-BIT, n. s. That part of the bit let into 
the horse's mouth. 

A goodly person, and could manage fair 
His stubborn steed with canon-bit, 
Who under him did trample as the air. Spenser. 

CAtfONARCHA, or CANON ARCHUS, tin office 
in the Greek church, answering to the precentor 
in the Latin, or chanter in the English church. 

CANONESS, in the Romish church, is a woman 
who enjoys a prebend, affixed by the foundation 




to maids, without their being obliged to renounce 
the world, or make any vows. 

CANONGATE, a burgh adjacent and under 
vassalage to Edinburgh, of which it is one of the 
suburbs. See EDINBURGH. It is governed by 
a baron bailie and two resident magistrates, ap- 
pointed by the Town Council of Edinburgh. 
Their jurisdiction extends to the east side of the 
Pleasance, and to the populous town of North 

CANONICA, in philosophical history, an 
appellation given by Epicurus to his doctrine of 
logic, as consisting of a few rules for directing 
the understanding in the pursuit of truth. The 
great principle of Epicurus's canonica is, that the 
senses are never deceived; and therefore that 
every sensation of an appearance is true. 

CANONICAL HOURS are certain stated times of 
the day, consigned, more especially by the Ro- 
mish church, to the offices of prayer and devo- 
tion. Such are matins, lauds, sixth, ninth, 
vespers. In England the canonical hours are 
from eight to twelve in the forenoon, before or 
after which, marriage cannot be legally per- 
formed in any parish church. 

CANONICAL LIFE is the rule of living pre- 
scribed by the ancient clergy who lived in 
community. The canonical life was a kind of 
medium between the monastic and clerical lives. 
Originally the orders of monks and clerks were 
entirely distinct ; but pious persons afterwards 
instituted colleges of priests and canons, where 
clerks brought up for the ministry, as well as 
others already engaged therein, might live under 
a fixed rule, which, though somewhat more easy 
than the monastic, was more restrained than the 
secular. Authors are divided about the founder 
of the canonical life. Some will have it to be 
founded by the apostles, others ascribe it to 
pope Urban I. about A-D. 1230, who is said to 
have ordered bishops to provide such of their 
clergy as were willing to live in community, with 
necessaries out of the revenues of their churches. 
The generality attribute ft to St. Augustin, who, 
having gathered a number of clerks to devote 
themselves to religion, instituted a monastery 
within his episcopal palace, where he lived in 
community with them. Onuphrius Panvinius 
says that pope Gelasius I. about A. D. 495, 
placed the first regular canons of St. Augustin in 
the Lateran church. 

CANONICAL OBEDIENCE is that submission 
which, by the ecclesiastical laws, the inferior 
clergy are to pay to their bishops, and the reli- 
gious to their superiors. 

CANONICAL PORTION, so much of the effects 
of a person deceased, as the canons allow to his 
parish church. 

CANONICAL PUNISHMENTS are those which the 
church may inflict, such as excommunication, 
degradation, and penance, in Roman Catholic 
countries ; also fasting, alms, whipping, &c. 

CANONICAL SINS, in the ancient church, those 
which were capital or mortal, such as idolatry, 
murder, adultery, heresy, and schism. 

CANONISATION, in the Romish church, suc- 
ceeds beatification. Before a beatified person is 
canonised, the qualifications of the candidate are 
strictly examined into, in some consistories held 

for that purpose ; after which, one of the consis- 
torial advocates, in the presence of the pope and 
cardinals, makes the panegyric of the person who 
is to be proclaimed a saint, and gives a particular 
detail of his life and miracles: which done, the 
holy father decrees his canonisation, and appoints 
the day. On the day of canonisation the pope 
officiates in white, and the cardinals are dressed 
in the same color. St. Peter's church is hung 
with rich tapestry, upon which the arms of the 
pope, and of the prince or state requiring the 
canonisation, are embroidered in gold and silver. 
The following rule is now observed, though it 
has not been in force above a century, viz. not 
to enter into the enquiries prior to canonisation 
till fifty years, at least, after the death of the 
person to be canonised. This rite of the mo- 
dern Romans resembles the deification of the 
ancient Romans, and, in all probability, takes its 
rise from it. 

CANOPUS, in astronomy, a star of the first 
magnitude in the rudder of Argo. 

CANOPUS, in Pagan mythology, one of the 
deities of the ancient Egyptians, and the god of 
water. It is said, that the Chaldeans, who wor- 
shipped fire, carried their deity through other 
countries to try its power, in order that, if it ob- 
tained the victory over the other gods, it might 
be acknowledged as the tme object of worship ; 
and it having easily subdued the gods of wood, 
stone, brass, silver, and gold, its priests declared 
that all gods did it homage. This the priests of 
Canopus hearing, and finding that the Chaldeans 
had brought their gods to contend with Canopus, 
they took a large earthen vessel, in which they 
bored several holes, which they afterwards stop- 
ped with wax, and having filled the vessel with 
water, painted it of several colors, and fitting 
the head of their idol to it, brought it out, in or- 
der to contend with the Chaldean deity. The 
Chaldeans accordingly kindled their fire all around 
it; but the heat having melted the wax, the wa- 
ter gushed out through the holes and extinguished 
the fire ; and thus Canopus conquered the god 
of the Chaldeans. Canopus, according to Stra- 
bo, was a native of Amycla, had been Menelaus's 
pilot, and had a temple erected to him in the 
town of Canopus. It is mentioned by Diony- 
sius. Vossius remarks the vanity of the Greeks, 
who, as he conjectures, hearing of the Egyptian 
deity, took an opportunity of deifying the pilot 
of Menelaus, and giving out that the Egyptian 
god Canopus had been a Greek. 

CANOPUS, in ancient geography, a city of 
Lower Egypt, on the Mediterranean, near one 
of the mouths of the Nile, 120 stadia or thirteen 
miles east of Alexandria : as old as the war of 
Troy, Canopus being there buried. See ABOU- 

CAN'OPY, v. a.&n.-i The noun is from 

CAN'OPIED. J luavuTrtiov barbarous; 

Lat. canopium ; Fr. canopee ; a covering of state 
over a throne, or bed ; anything spread above 
the head. The Canopy of Heaven is the con- 
cave limit of our vision, beyond which the eye 
cannot penetrate : when studded with stars at 
night, it is like a dark mantle bespangled with 
gems, and is the canopy under which we walk, 
or repose. 


C A N O V A. 

She is there brought unto a paled green, 
And placed under a stately canopy, 
The warlike feats of both those knights to *ee. 

Faerie Qtieene. 

I have of late (but wherefore I know not) lost all 
my mirth Indeed it goes so heavily with my dispo- 
sition, that this goodly frame, the earth, seems to me 
a steril promontory ; this most excellent canopy, the 
air look you, this brave o'erhanging firmament, this 
majestic roof, fretted with golden fires, why it appears 
no other to me than a foul and pestilent congregation 
of vapours. Shakspcare. 

I sat me down to watch upon a bank 
With ivy canopied, and interwove 
With flaunting honeysuckle, and began, 
Wrapt in a pleasing fit of melancholy, 
To meditate my rural minstrelsy, 
Till fancy had her fill. Milton's Comua. 

"Now spread the night her spangled canopy, 
And summoned every restless eye to sleep. Fairfax. 
The birch, the myrtle, and the bay, 

Like friends did all embrace ; 
And their large branches did display 

To canopy the place. Dryden. 

CANOPY formed from icwywTmov, a mosquito 
net, of rwvwi//, a gnat. Canopies are also borne 
over the head in processions of state, after the 
manner of umbrellas, The canopy of an altar 
is called Ciborium. The Roman grandees had 
their canopies, or spread veils, called thensae, 
over their chairs ; and in temples over the statues 
of the gods. The modern cardinals still retain 
the use of canopies. 

CAN'OROUS, adj. Lat. canons. Musical ; 

Birds that are most canorous, and whose notes we 
most commend, are of little throats, and short. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

CANOSA, a town of Puglia, Naples, occupy- 
ing part of the site of the ancient Canusium. 
The old city was one of the most considerable in 
this part of Italy, for extent, population, and 
magnificent buildings. The aera of Trajan seems 
to have been that of its greatest splendor ; but 
this pomp only served to mark it as a capital ob- 
ject for the avarice and fury of the Barbarians. 
Genseric, Totila, and Autharis, treated it with 
extreme cruelty. The deplorable state to which 
this province was reduced in 590 is concisely but 
strongly painted by Gregory the Great. ' On 
every side,' said he, ' we hear groans ! On every 
side we behold crowds of mourners, cities burnt, 
castles rased to the ground, countries laid waste, 
provinces become deserts, some citizens led 
away captives, and others inhumanly massacred.' 
No town in Puglia suffered more from the Sara- 
cens ; and the contests between the Greeks and 
Normans increased the measure of its woes, 
which was completed by a conflagration when it 
was stormed by Duke Robert. In 1090 it was 
assigned to Bohemund, prince of Antioch, who 
died here in 1111. Under the reign of Ferdi- 
nand III. it belonged to the Grimaldis. On their 
forfeiture, the Assaititi acquired it. The ancient 
city stood in a plain between the hills and the 
river Ofanto. 

CANOVA (Antonio), one of the greatest, per- 
haps the greatest, of modern scujptors, was born 
in 1757, at Passagno, a small village of the 
Trevisan, in the Venetian states. The first indi- 

cation of his talent he is said to have given when 
he was twelve years old, by modelling a lion in 
butter, to be sent up to the table of Falieri, the 
seigneur of the village. Struck with the genius 
which was displayed in this fragile performance, 
Falieri took him under his protection, and com- 
mitted him to the tuition of Torretti, who was 
considered the most eminent sculptor of that 
period. His powers were now rapidly deve- 
loped : he was admitted a member of the Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts at Venice, and gained several 
prizes. At the age of seventeen he produced his 
statue of Eurydice. Shortly after the death of 
Torretti, his youthful pupil commenced busi- 
ness on his own account, in the cloisters of San 
Stefano at Venice. His reputation increased 
daily ; and Venice soon became too narrow a 
sphere for his exertions. In 1779 Girolamo 
Zuliano, the Venetian ambassador at Rome, in- 
vited him to that capital. Canova accepted the 
invitation ; and, previous to his departure, was 
gratified by a pension of three hundred ducats 
from the Academy of Fine Arts, as a reward for 
his groupe of Dedalus and Icarus. At Rome he 
became acquainted with Sir William Hamilton, 
who introduced him to all his friends ; and no 
long time elapsed before he was patronised by all 
the Englishmen of taste who visited the ' eternal 
city.' The various Roman pontiffs and nobility 
also vied in finding occupation for his creative 
chisel. So fully was he employed, that it was 
not until the year 1798 he could indulge his de- 
sire of travelling. In that and the following 
year he travelled through Germany and Prussia, 
in company with Prince Rezzonico. On his re- 
turn to Rome, Pius VII. appointed him in- 
spector general of the fine arts, and conferred on 
him the honor of knighthood. In 1802 the 
first-consul of France desired to see him at Paris ; 
the pontiff permitted his absence ; he was re- 
ceived in the French capital with the respect 
due to his genius ; and was chosen one of the 
foreign associates of the Institute. When, how- 
ever, he next visited Paris, which was in 1815, 
his presence excited no feelings but those of 
anger and hatred. On that occasion he appeared 
in the character of ambassador from the pope, 
to claim, and superintend the sending back, the 
numerous works of art of which Italy, had been 
deprived by the victorious arms of Buonaparte. 
Sarcasms and witticisms were lavished on him ; 
and it was said, that instead of being called the 
pope's ambassador, he ought to have been denomi- 
nated the pope's packer. For these splenetic effu- 
sions, however, he was fully indemnified by his re- 
ception in England, where he was treated as a 
brother by all who were connected with the arts, 
and was presented with a brilliant snuff-box by the 
prince regent. Still more gratifying honors awaited 
him on his return to Rome. The Academy of 
St. Luke went in a body to meet him ; and the 
pope not only granted him a pension of three 
thousand crowns, and created him marquis of 
Ischia, but also, at an audience which he gave to 
him on the 5th of January, 1816, put into his 
hands a billet, announcing that the artist's name 
was inscribed on 'The Book of the Capitol.' 
The pension Canova resolved to dedicate en- 
tirely to the benefit of the artr, and of those 




who professed them. Nor was he a scanty dis- 
penser of the fortune which he had gained by 
the exercise of his talents. He established prizes, 
endowed academies, and diffused his bounty 
among the aged and unfortunate. A favorite 
occupation of his latter years was the erection 
of a magnificent church, at Possagno, to con- 
tain his statue of Religion. This building was 
not completed at the period of his decease. 
His death took place at Venice on the 22d of 
October, 1822, and he was buried in the ca- 
thedral of St. Mark, his funeral being attended 
by all the public authorities of the city. 

Among the numerous works of Canova may 
be mentioned his Love and Psyche, reposing; 
Psyche, standing; Love and Psyche, standing; 
Venus and Adonis ; a repentant Mary Magda- 
len ; Perseus, holding the head of Medusa; 
Ferdinand IV. of Naples ; the athletes Krengan 
and Damoxenes ; Hebe, pouring out nectar ; 
Hercules, dashing Lycus against a rock; Na- 
poleon, as Mars the pacificator ; the mother of 
Napoleon ; Venus, resting, for which Paulina 
Buonaparte sat ; Venus, quitting the bath ; The- 
seus, vanquishing the centaur; the Three Graces; 
Religion, crowned ; Mars and Venus ; Peace 
and the Graces ; a winged Peace ; a statue of 
Washington ; and several mausoleums, among 
which are those of the popes Clement XIII. and 
XIV. and of Maria Christiana, archduchess of 
Austria. His Psyche, standing and holding a 
butterfly by the wings, is one of his early pro- 
ductions, but, though it has high merit, he was 
not satisfied with it. ' That,' said he, in a com- 
pany, ' is one of the sins of my youth.' ' Canova,' 
replied an accomplished and beautiful woman, 
' such sins are not mortal.' 

The works of Canova have been engraved by 
Vitali, Bertini, Marchetti, Raciani, Bertinelli, 
Cameroti, Bonato, Fontana, and Moses. The 
edition from the graver of Moses is, we believe, 
the only one which has appeared in this country. 

CANQUES, in commerce, a sort of cotton cloth 
made in China, with which the Chinese make the 
garments next their skin, which are properly their 

CANSIERA, in botany, a genus of plants of 
the class tetrandria, order digynia : CAL. ven- 
tricose, four-toothed: COR. none: nectary, four- 
leaved, surrounding the base of the germ: berry, 
one-celled ; seed, one, superior. One species 
only, an East Indian climbing plant, with small 
yellow flowers. 

CANSTRISIUS, an officer in the church of 
Constantinople, whose business it is to take care 
of the patriarch's pontifical vestments, assist in 
robing him, and during mass to hold the in- 
cense pot, and sprinkle holy water among the 
people, while the hymn of the Trinity is sing- 

CANT, s. & v. 1 Probably, says Johnson, 

CAN'TER, J from cantus. Thomson, 

thinks that it is fjom canto; adopted from the 
Latin into the Italian ; and, as canto in the one 
signified to repeat often the same thing, in the 
other it means to juggle, to deceive; whence, 
cantambanco, a mountebank ; egti canta, he fibs. 
In defining it, Johnson adds, that it implies the 
odd tone of voice used by vagrants; but imagin- 

ed by some to be corrupted from quaint. It is 
a verbal affectation, employed either to excite 
pity or command respect. It is peculiar to no 
class of society. There is the cant of criticism, 
the cant of religion, the cant of infidelity ; and the 
jargon talked by every particular profession, to 
mystify and obscure it, is entitled to the same 
denomination. It implies, in all cases, a degree 
of hypocrisy or an intention to deceive, by im- 
posing upon others jargon for wisdom; the 
appearance of goodness for goodness itself. It is 
one of the expedients by which fools attempt to 
raise themselves as objects of admiration ; and 
by which rogues attempt to mislead others for 
their own advantage, Swift uses the noun in 
the sense of an auction, and it is very expressive 
of the method by which goods are disposed of at 
such sales. Those who describe the imaginary 
qualities of horses, so as to obtain unwary pur- 
chasers, are now called chanters. May not auc- 
tioneers be so described for a similar reason ; 
a puffer is a chanter, a chanter is a canter, and 
to puff is the life and soul of an auctioneer. Thus 
an auction is a cant, from Lat. quanlo', Ital. in- 
canto ; Fr. encan. 

For knaves and fools being near of kin, 

As Dutch boors are t'a sooterkin, 

Both parties joined to do their best 

To damn the publick interest, 

And herded only in consults, 

To put by one another's bolts, 

T' out-cant the Babylonian labourers, 

And all their dialects of jabberers, 

And tug at both ends of the saw, 

To tear down government and law. 

Butler^s Hudibrag. 

Men cant about materia and forma ; hunt chimeras 
by rules of art, or dress up ignorance in words of 
bulk or sound which may stop up the mouth of en- 
quiry. Glanville. 

That uncouth affected garb of speech, or canting 
language rather, if I may so call it, which they have 
of late taken up, is the signal distinction and charac- 
teristical note of that, which, in that their new lan- 
guage, they call the godly party. Sanderson. 

The busy, subtle serpents of the law 
Did first my mind from true obedience draw; 
While I did limits to the king prescribe, 
And took for oracles that canting tribe. Roscommon. 

Of promise prodigal, while power you want, 
And preaching in the self-denying cant. 

Dry den's Attrengzebe. 

I write not always in the proper terms of naviga- 
tion, land service, or in the cant of any profession. 

Dry den. 

The affectation of some late authors, to introduce 
and multiply cant -words, is the most ruinous corrup- 
tion in any language. Swift. 

Numbers of these tenants, or their descendants, are 
now offering to sell their leases by cant, even those 
which were for lives. Id. 

Your tragic heroes shall not rant, 
Nor shepherds use poetic cant. Id. _ 

A few general rules, with a certain cant of words, 
has sometimes set up an illiterate heavy writer for a 
most judicious and formidable critick. Addison. 

When a pleasant thought plays in the features, 
before it discovers itself in words, it raises too great 
an expectation and loses the advantage of giving sur- 
prise. Wit and humour are no less poorly recom- 
mended by a levity of phrase and that kind of Ian- 




guage which may be distinguished by the name of 
cant. Spectator. 

Of all the cants which are canted in this canting 
world, though the cant of hypocrites may be the worst, 
the cant of criticism is the most tormenting. Sterne. 
I want a hero : an uncommon want, 

When every year and month sends forth a new one ; 
Till, after cloying the gazettes with cant, 
The age discovers he is not the true one. 

Byron. Don Juan. 

The primum mobile of England is cant. Id. 

CANT, s. \ A side, an edge ; Goth, and 
CAN'TER, s. } Swed. kant ; the gallop of an 
ambling horse, in which one side moves before 
the other ; called ludicrously, says Thomson, a 
Canterbury gallop; because Kent and Canterbury 
are also from cant, a side. Johnson gives another 
reason. The hand gallop of an ambling horse, 
commonly called a canter; said to be derived 
from the monks riding to Canterbury on easy 
ambling horses. 

CANT', n. ~\ From canto, which sig- 

CAN'TLE, n. & u. nines a piece, section, 
CANTI'LEVERS, > square, or angle. Fr. 
CAN'TICLE, j chantel, chanteau, a small 

CANT'LET. J piece, or fragment. To 

can tie, is to cut in pieces ; to project in small 
angles. Cantilevers are small pieces of wood 
to support the eaves of a house. A cantle is 
a piece with corners. Gantlet is the diminu- 
tive ; a small piece or fragment. Cant is sup- 
posed to mean a niche in the following passage 
of Ben Jonson : 

The first and principal person in the temple was 
Irene, or Peace j she was placed aloft in a cant. 

Ben Jonson. 

In this sense it is also used by Decker: 

Directly under her, in a cant by herself, was Areta 
enthroned. Decker. 

Canticle is a section, or a piece ; but usually 
applied to a song ; it is thus used in Scripture. 

For nature hath not taken his beginning 
Of no partie, ne cantel, of a thing, . 

But of a thing that parfit is and stable. 
Descending so till it be corrumpable. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

See how this river comes me crankling in, 
And cuts me from the best of all my land 
A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out. 

Shakspeare. Henry 7F 

Nor shield nor armour can their force oppose ; 
Huge tantlets of his buckler strew the ground, 
And no defence in his bored arms is found. Dryden. 

For four times talking, if one piece thou take, 
That must be cantled, and the judge go snack. 

Dry den' t Juvenal. 

CANTABRIA, a district of Tarraconensis, on 
the Oceanus Cantabricus, now called Biscay. 
Dr. Wallis makes the Cantabrian the ancient 
language of all Spain ; which, according to him, 
like the Gaulish, gave way to a kind of broken 
Latin, called romance or romanshe ; which by 
degrees was refined into the Castilian, or present 
Spanish. The Cantabrians were famous an- 
ciently for their warlike character. In con- 
junction with the Asturians, they carried on a long 
war with the Romans ; but were subdued by them 
about A. A. C. 25. Impatient, however, of a 
foreign yoke, they soon revolted. Most of their 

youth had been taken prisoners by the Romans, 
and sold for slaves to the neighbouring nations ; 
but, having found means to break their chains, 
they cut the throats of their masters ; and, re- 
turning to their own country, attacked the Roman 
garrisons with incredible fury. As the Canta- 
brians had waged war with the Romans for 
upwards of 200 years, they were well acquainted 
with their manner of fighting, no way inferior to 
them in courage, and were now become despe- 
rate ; knowing that if they were conquered, 
after having so often attempted to recover their 
liberty, they must expect the most severe usage. 
Animated with this reflection, they fell upon the 
Romans with a fury hardly to be imagined, 
routed them in several engagements, and de- 
fended themselves, when attacked, with such 
intrepidity, that Agrippa afterwards owned that 
he had never, either by sea or land, been engaged 
in a more dangerous enterprise. But, having at 
last prevailed upon his forces to try the chance 
of an engagement in the open field, he so ani- 
mated them by his example, that after a most 
obstinate dispute, he gained a complete victory, 
which put an end to that destructive war. All 
the Cantabrians fit to bear arms were cut in 
pieces; their castles and strong holds taken 
and rased ; and their women, children and old 
men (none else being left alive) were obliged to 
abandon the mountainous places, and settle in 
the plain. 

CANTABRICUS OCEANUS, the ancient name 
of the Bay of Biscay. 

CANTABRUM, in antiquity, a large flag used 
by the Romao emperors, distinguished by its pe- 
culiar color, and bearing some motto of good 
omen, to encourage the soldiers. 

CANTACUZENUS (Johannes), emperor of 
Constantinople, and an historian, was born in 
Constantinople, of a noble family. He was bred 
to letters and to arms, and admitted to the high- 
est offices of the state. The emperor Androni- 
cus loaded him with wealth and honors ; made 
him generalissimo of his forces ; and desired him 
to join him in the government, but this he refused. 
Andronicus dying in 1341, left to Cantacuzenus 
the care of the empire, till John Paleologus, 
then only nine years of age, should be fit to take 
it upon himself. This trust he faithfully dis- 
charged; till the empress dowager and her faction 
forming a party against him, declared him a 
traitor. On this, the principal nobility and the 
army besought him to ascend the throne ; and 
accordingly he was crowned, 21st May, 1342. 
This was followed by a civil war, which lasted 
five years : when he had John admitted a partner 
with him in the empire, and their union was 
confirmed by his giving him his daughter in 
marriage. Suspicions and enmities, however, 
soon arising, the war broke out again, and Can- 
tacuzenus, unwilling to continue the effusion of 
blood, abdicated his share of the empire; and, 
retiring to a monastery, took the habit of a monk 
and the name of Joasaphas. In this retirement, 
he lived till 1411, when he was upwards of 100 
years of age. Here he wrote a history of his own 
times, a Latin translation of which, from the 
Greek MS. was published by Pontanus at Ingol- 
stadt, in 1603; and a splendid edition was prin- 

CAN 109 

ted at Paris, in 1645, in three volumes folio, of 
the original Greek, and Pontanus's Latin version. 
lie also wrote an apology for theChristian religion 
against that of Mahomet, under the name of 

CANTA, a province and town of Peru, situ- 
ated in the Cordillera, and supporting immense 
herds of cattle, sheep, and wild goats. The 
sheep is of the cama species. The town of Canta 
stands in lat. 11 10' south. 

CANTAL, a chain of mountains in upper 
Auvergne, France, the highest peak in which 
(called the Plomb de Cantal) is said to be 5918 
feet above the level of the sea. They give name 
to the following department, through the centre 
of which they run. 

CANTAL, an interior department in the south 
of France, part of the late province of Auvergne ; 
it is now divided into four arrondissements, 
twenty-three cantons, and 272 communes; it is 
in the diocese of St. Flour, and royal jurisdiction 
of lliom, its area is 1,124,802 arpents. It is 
a hilly country producing some wine ; and 
is a grazing rather than an arable district. 
It has manufactures of linen, leather, and paper ; 
and contains some antimony and other minerals 
The river Dordogne rises in the north part of the 
department, and the Tuyere, a branch of the 
Lot in the south. Population in 1825, 552,100 ; 
Aurillac, the chief town, is 108 French leagues or 
258 English miles due south of Paris. Mauriac, 
Murat, and St. Flour, are the chief towns of the 
other three arrondissements. 

CANTARINI (Simon), a famous painter, 
ro, was the disciple of Guido ; and copied the 
manner of his master so exactly, that it is often 
difficult to distinguish their works. He died at 
Verona in 1648. 

CANTATA, in music, is a composition, first used 
in Italy, intermixed with recitatives, airs, and 
different movements, chiefly intended for a single 
voice, with a thorough bass, though sometimes for 
other instruments. 

CAPTATION, n. s. From Lat. canto. The 
act of singing. 

CANTEENS, in military language, tin vessels 
in the form of square bottles, used for carrying 
water to supply the soldiers in camp. Also a 
machine made of wood or leather, with compart- 
ments for several utensils, generally used by 

CANTEMIR (Demetrius), the son of a prince 
of Moldavia. Disappointed by not succeeding his 
father in that dignity, held under the Ottoman 
Porte, he went over with his army to the czar 
Peter the great, against whom he had been sent 
by the grand seignior, and signalised himself in 
the czar's service. He is the author of a Latin 
history of the origin and decline of the Ottoman 
empire. lie died at his estate in the Ukraine in 

CANTEMIR (Antiochus), esteemed the foun- 
der of the Russian poetry, was the youngest son 
of Demetrius. Under the professors, whom the 
rzar, Peter, had invited to Petersburgh, he 
learned mathematics, physic, history, moral 
philosophy, and polite literature ; when he had 
finished his academic course he printed a Con- 
cordance to the Psalms, in the Russian language, 


and was elected member of the Academy. When 
but twenty-three years of age, he was nominated 
minister at the court of Great Britain ; and his 
dexterity in the management of public affairs 
was as much admired as his taste for science. 
He had the same reputation in France, whither 
he went in 1738, in quality of minister plenipo- 
tentiary, and soon after was invested with the 
character of ambassador extraordinary. He died 
of a dropsy, at Paris, in 1744, aged forty-four 

CANTERBURY, a city of England, capital 
of the county of Kent. It is seated on the banks 
of the river Stour, fifty-five miles east by south 
of London, on the great high road to Dover, 
from which it is distant seventeen miles. Can- 
terbury is a place of great antiquity ; by the an- 
cient Britons it was dignified by the title of 
Caerkent, or the City of Kent; and its site was 
too favorable to escape the enlightened attention 
of the Romans, by whom it was called Duro- 
vernum. Ethelbert, the fifth king of Kent, who 
began his reign in 568, made it his residence ; 
after the Norman conquest, William Rufus made 
Canterbury the chief archiepiscopal see of Eng- 
land, and conferred it wholly upon the bishops ; 
but it owes its chief celebrity to the massacre of 
its bishop Thomas a Becket, on the 29th of 
December 1170. Some disputes having arisen 
between the bishop and the king, Henry II., 
four surveillants of the court, took upon them- 
selves to avenge what they considered an affront 
offered to the king; for which purpose they pro- 
ceeded secretly to Canterbury, and murdered 
the prelate by beating him with clubs, whilst en- 
gaged at vespers in the church of St. Benedict 
(now extinct). Becket was a very imperious 
man ; but there does not appear to have been 
any thing in his conduct to justify so revengeful 
an act ; and, to the credit of the king, he does not 
appear to have been a party to it. He dispatched 
a deputation to the pope to exonerate himself 
from having participated in so foul a deed, and 
the pope sent two legates to impose upon him a 
public penance, in expiation of the crime. The 
king accordingly proceeded to Canterbury, and 
when arrived within sight of the city he dismounted 
from his horse, and walked barefoot to the 
church, and prostrated himself for a whole day 
before the shrine of the murdered bishop, who 
had become canonised as a saint. On the 
following day he presented his back to the 
monks, and put scourges into their hands, with 
which they inflicted a punishment of eighty 
lashes, after which he received absolution. 
Henry has been accused of hypocrisy, in submit- 
ting to this ceremony. It possibly was so; but 
the page of history does not fully justify the 
conclusion. After this event, Canterbury became 
the grand resort of pilgrims from every part of 
England, as well as of numbers from various 
parts of Europe, who contributed to render the 
shrine of the martyr one of the richest in Chris- 
tendom ; it continued so until Henry VIII. 
seized all the offerings, which were exceedingly 
valuable, and appropriated them to his own use. 
It is still an archiepiscopal see, and its incum- 
bent is primate of all England, taking prece- 
dence of all the nobility and great otiicers of 




state, not of the royal blood ; at the coronation 
of the sovereigns of England, he places the 
crown on their head ; the king and queen, wher- 
ever they may be residing, are regarded as his 
domestic parishioners; his provincial and sub- 
dean, chancellor, and chaplain, are all bishops. 
The cathedral is a noble structure ; its building 
commenced in the reign of Henry II., four or 
five years after the murder of Becket, but was 
not finished till the reign of Henry V. It is 514 
feet in length from west to east within the walls ; 
the east transept is 154 feet, and the choir 180 
feet, the height of the vaulted roof is eighty feet, 
and of the tower 235 feet; several kings, princes, 
cardinals, and bishops have been interred here. 
It formerly contained thirty-eight altars : the 
shrine of Becket was placed in a chapel dedi- 
cated to the Holy Trinity, behind the great altar. 
This noble edifice suffered greatly during the fa- 
natical reign of Cromwell, who quartered his ca- 
valry within its walls. It was, however, thorough- 
ly repaired after the Restoration. In 1784 an 
elegant organ was introduced, and in 1788 the 
floor was new laid with stone; it has a most 
beautiful window of stained glass, and the whole 
is now in a fine state of preservation. In addi- 
tion to the cathedral, to which are attached, be- 
side the archbishop, dean, sub-dean, and chan- 
cellor, twelve prebends, six preachers, six minor 
canons, six substitutes, twelve lay clerks, ten 
choristers, two masters, fifty scholars, and twelve 
almsmen ; there are fifteen other churches ; and 
within the precincts of the cathedral is the ar- 
chiepiscopal palace, and a grammar school 
founded by Henry VIII. Canterbury contains 
several other public buildings, both ancient and 
modern ; among the former is the guildhall, 
Christ Church gate, &c. ; and among the latter, 
are a theatre and public assembly rooms ; a hill 
on the outskirts of the city being laid out with ter- 
raced walks, and tastefully planted, forming a 
delightful promenade. It had formerly a consi- 
derable manufacture of silk, which has materially 
declined of late years ; and its chief trading im- 
portance now consists in its extensive thorough- 
fare ; being the point of conveyance to London 
from Dover, Deal, Ramsgate, and Margate, tfie 
travelling intercourse is very great; it is also 
the chief place of fashionable resort in the coun- 
ty, and its annual races and periodical assemblies 
attract numerous visitors: The surrounding 
country is very fertile, producing great quan- 
tities of hops, wheat, and other grain, and its 
markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays are nu- 
merously attended. It has two springs of mine- 
ral water within the city, strongly impregnated 
with sulphur and steel. The corporation con- 
sists of a mayor, twelve aldermen, twenty-four 
common-council-men, four serjeants-at-mace, 
sheriff, coroner, &c. who hold a court in the 
guildhall to try civil and criminal cases every 
Monday, and on Tuesdays for city affairs. It 
returns two members to parliament. It some- 
what declined in population during the twenty 
years' war, which commenced in 1793, owing 
to the non-intercourse between London and 
Paris, between which it is the great thorough- 
fare. The number of inhabitants in 1801 was 
10,498; in 1811 only 10,200; but increased in 

1821 to 12,745. It is six miles distant from 
the south bank of the Thames. 

CANTERBURY, a town of the United States, 
in Connecticut, agreeably situated in VVindham 
county on the west side of the river Quim- 
aboug, over which there is a wooden bridge. 
It is nine miles east by south of Windham. 


CANTERUS (William), an eminent linguist 
and philologer, was born at Utrecht, in 1542. He 
studied at Louvaine and Paris ; and afterwards 
visited the universities of Germany and Italy. 
He died at Louvaine in 1575, aged thirty-three. 
He was master of six languages, besides that of 
his native country; and wrote several philolo- 
gical and critical works, among which are, Notse, 
Scholia, Emendationes, et Explicationes, in 
Euripidem, Sophoclem, ./Eschylum, Ciceronem, 
Propertium, Ausonium, &c. and many transla- 
tions of Greek authors. 

CANTHAR'IDES, n. s. Lat. Spanish flies, 
used to raise blisters. 

The flies cantharides, are bred of a worm, or cater 
pillar, but peculiar to certain fruit trees ; as are the 
fig-tree, the pine-tree, and the wild brier ; all which 
bear sweet fruit, and fruit that hath a kind of secret 
biting or sharpness ; for the fig hath a milk in it that 
is sweet and corrosive ; the pine apple hath a kernel 
that is strong and abstersive. Bacon's Natural Hist. 

CANTHARIDES, in medicine and zoology, 
a kind of poisonous insects, much used as an 
epispastic. The stimulating power of cantharides 
is caused by a very acrid resinous substance, 
contained in these insects, two scruples of which 
Neumann extracted from four ounces of cantha- 
rides by spirit of wine. Canlharides are very 
sharp and corrosive, abounding with a subtile, 
caustic, volatile salt ; whereby they become ex- 
ceedingly injurious to the bladder, so as to ulcerate 
it, even when applied externally, if suffered to 
lie on too long. They are much commended in 
fevers, &c. See MEDICINE. 

CANTHARIS, in zoology, a genus of insects 
of the order coleoptera. The feelers of this 
genus are setaceous ; the breast is marginated, 
and shorter than the head ; the elytra, or wing- 
cases, are flexile ; and the sides of the belly are 
plated and papillous. This is an extremely 
rapacious tribe, preying even on its own species, 
except the lymexylon of Linnaeus, which feed- 
on wood. This numerous and extensive genus 
has been well divided by Gmelin into the three 
following sections: 1. Those having four feelers 
of a hatchet shape. 2. Having filiform feelers, 
with the last joint cetaceous. These are the 
malachii of Fabricius. 3. Fore-feelers project- 
ing, the last joint but one with a large ovate, 
cleft appendage; the last joint ovate, acute. 
The lymexylon of Fabricius. The canthaiis is 
found scattered in all parts of the world, es 
pecially in Europe. 

CANTHIUM, in botany, a genus of plants 
of the tetrandria class and monogynia order : 
CAL. four-toothed, superior : COR. one-petalled, 
with a short inflated tube, and four-parted bor- 
der, the mouth downy ; drupe two-celled, with 
a one-celled nut in each. Species only one ; a 
Coromandel shrub, with small yellow flowers. 



CANTHUS, n. s. Latin, from KavOoe, the tire 
or iron binding of a cart wheel ; which induces 
Dr. Turton to suppose that it originally signified 
the circular extremity of the eye-lid. It now 
means, in anatomy, the angle or corner of the 
eye. The internal is called the greater, the ex- 
ternal the lesser canthus. 

A gentlewoman was seized with an inflammation 
and tumour in the great canthus, or angle of her eye. 


CANTHUS, in chemistry, the lip of a vessel, 
or that part of the mouth, which is a little hol- 
lowed, for the easy pouring off a liquor. Hence 
to decant, is to pour through that place. 

book of the Old Testament, is in the opinion of 
Dr. Lowth, an allegorical epithalamium or 
nuptial dialogue, in which" the principal charac- 
ters are Solomon, his bride, and a chorus of 
virgins. Some are of opinion that it is to be 
taken altogether in a literal sense ; but the gene- 
rality of Jews and Christians have esteemed it 
wholly allegorical, expressing the union of Jesus 
Christ and the church. Dr. Lowth has sup- 
ported this opinion, by showing that the sacred 
writers often apply to God and his people 
metaphors derived from the conjugal state. Our 
Saviour is styled a bridegroom by John the 
Baptist, John iii. and is represented in the same 
character in the parable of the ten virgins, and 
in the book of Revelation. Bishop Horsley 
says, ' In the prophetical book of the Song of 
Solomon, the union of Christ and his church is 
described in images taken entirely from the 
mutual passion and early love of Solomon and 
his bride. Read the Song of Solomon, you 
will find the Hebrew king, if you know any 
thing of his history, produced indeed as the 
emblem of a greater personage ; but you will 
find him in every page.' Sermons, vol. 1, p. 73, 
second edition. 

CANTII, an ancient people of Britain, who 
inhabited Cantium, now Kent. 

CANTILIVERS, pieces of wood framed into 
the front or other sides of a house, to sustain 
the moulding and eaves over it. 

of floats or rafts, used by the inhabitants of the 
coast of Coromandel to fish in, and to trade along 
the coast. They are made of three or four 
small canoes, or trunks of trees, dug hollow, and 
tied together with cacao ropes, with a triangular 
sail in the middle, made of mats. Those who 
manage them are almost half in the water, there 
being only a place in the middle a little raised to 
hold their merchandise. 

CANTIUM, in ancient geography, a pro- 
montory of Britain, now named North Foreland. 
CANTIUM, an ancient territory in South Bri- 
tain whence the English word Kent is derived ; 
supposed to have been the first district which 
received a colony from the continent. The si- 
tuation of Cantium occasioned its being much 
frequented by the Romans, who generally took 
their way through it, in their marches to and 
from the continent. Few places in Britain are 
more frequently mentioned by the Roman wri- 
ters than Portus Rutupensis. Portus Dubris, 
now Dover, Durobrivse and Durovernum, now 

Rochester and Canterbury, were also Roman 
towns and stations. Cantium, in the most per- 
fect state of the Roman government, made a 
part of the province called Flavia Caesariensis. 
See KENT. 

CANTO ; Arab, kata ; KCITOV, icavra, KOVTO , 
Lat. cento; Ital. canto; a section, a division, part, 
portion, piece. Thus a division or section of a 
poem, or a song. 

But evermore my shield did me defend 
Against the storme of every dreadfull stoure : 
Thus safely with my love I thence did wend. 
So ended he his tale, where I this canto end. Spenser. 
Why, what would you do ? 

Make a willow cabbin at your gate, 

And call upon my soul within the house ; 

Write loyal cantos of contemned love. 

Shakspeare. Twelfth Night. 
Then should thy shepherd (poorest shepherd) sing 

A thousand cantos in thy heavenly praise, 
And rouse his flagging muse, and fluttering wing, 

To chaunt thy wonders in immortal lays. 

Fletcher's Purple Island. 
But now the city and the train we leave, 

To seek the duke and make his fortune known ; 
And how the rest the dreadful news receive, 

Shall be in the succeeding cantos shown. day. 

CANTON, v. a. & n. } Fr. c.unton ; Lat. 

CAN'TONIZE, v. a. fcenlena. See CANTO. 

CAN'TONMENT. j A small parcel or di- 

vision of land. A small community, or clan. To 
divide into little parts. To parcel out into small 

The same is the case of rovers by land ; such as 
yet, are some cantons in Arabia, and some petty kings 
of the mountains adjacent to straits and ways. 

Bacon's Holy War 

Thus was all Ireland cantonized among ten persons 
of the English nation. Davies on Ireland. 

The whole forest was in a manner cantonized amongst 
a very few in number, of whom some had regal rights. 


Only that little canton of land, called the English 
pale, containing four small shires, did maintain a bor- 
dering war with the Irish, and retain the form of 
English government. Davies. 

Families shall quit all subjection to him, and can- 
ton his empire into less governments for themselves. 


It would certainly be for the good of mankind, to 
have all the mighty empires and monarchies of the 
world cantoned out into petty states and principalities. 

Addison on Italy. 

They canton out to themselves a little province in 
the intellectual world, where they fancy the light 
shines, and all the rest is in darkness. 

Watts on the Mind. 

CANTON, a city, sea-port, and capital of 
Quantong, the most southern province of China, 
and the only port in that vast empire with which 
Europeans are permitted to hold any intercourse. 
It is finely situated on the north bank of a noble 
river, which, by numerous collateral branches, 
intersects all the southern part of the empire; 
one branch is from the north, which, by a portage 
of only one day's journey, communicates with, 
the great chain of inland waters extending to 
Pekin, and intersecting every intermediate pro 
vince, thereby affording a facility of conveyance 
by water, which renders Canton peculiarly well 



adapted for the great outport of the empire. The 
harbour is very commodious, and, being sheltered 
by several small islands, it affords secure moor- 
ings for the innumerable barks and junks which 
navigate the inland waters ; all the foreign ships 
anchor several miles distant from the town, not 
on account of the incapacity of the harbour to 
accommodate them, but from the peculiarly 
jealous policy of the Chinese, which seems to 
dread nothing so much as sociality of intercourse. 
Canton consists of three towns, divided by high 
walls, but so conjoined as to form almost a regu- ' 
lar square. The streets are long and straight, 
paved with flag-stones, and adorned with trium- 
phal arches. The houses in general have only 
one floor, built of earth or brick, some of them 
fantastically colored, and covered with tiles. 
The better class of people are carried about in 
chairs ; but the common sort walk barefooted 
and bareheaded. At the end of every street is 
a barrier, which is shut every evening, as well as 
the gates of the city. The Europeans and Ameri- 
cans occupy a range of buildings termed the 
factories, fronting a spacious quay along the bank 
of the river, without the city, which no foreigner 
is permitted to enter without the special permis- 
sion of the viceroy, which is very seldom 
obtained. The foreign trade of Canton re- 
solves itself into a monopoly more peculiar 
and oppressive than anywhere else exists; it is 
vested in twelve persons, precisely on the same 
principle as the twelve Jews are permitted 
to act as brokers in the city of London ; each 
paying a large premium for the privilege of 
trading, or, in other words, as far as the princi- 
ple applies in China, for the privilege of extort- 
ing from, and oppressing the producers of the 
commodities in which they trade- There is, 
however, this difference in China : though the 
whole of the twelve individuals trade on separate 
accounts, they are collectively amenable, as well 
to foreigners as to the government, for any de- 
fault or mulct imposed upon any one or more of 
them individually ; whereas each of the Jew bro- 
kers of London is responsible only for his 
own acts. In addition to the external commerce 
of Canton, it also appears to be the seat of 
almost every branch of manufacture, more espe- 
cially of silks and household gods ; the manu- 
facture of the latter, in consequence of there 
being no public worship in China, and every house 
having its own collection of idols, forms one of 
the most important branches of occupation. The 
main article of export from Canton is Tea, which 
since 1798, to England alone, has averaged about 
25,000,000 of Ibs., whilst to America and other 
parts (since 1815 more especially) it has been 
gradually increasing, making an aggregate ave- 
rage quantity annually exported at the period of 
1826, of about 40,000,000 Ibs. The other 
principal articles exported to England are raw 
silk and nankeens, of the former about 250,000 
Ibs. weight, and of the latter, about 600,000 
pieces, of four and seven yards each, annually ; 
a few manufactured silks and crapes, porcelain 
vases, fans, ivory chess-men, fancy boxes, and 
other toys, soy, and ink, constitute the remaining 
exports to England, which employ about twenty- 
five sail of ships annually, .of about 1200 tons 

each ; the reimbursement by the English for the 
above productions is made in cotton wool, opium, 
and some other articles, from Bombay and Ben- 
gal, and in woollen cloths, lead, &c. from Eng- 
land, to the amount of about 700,000 annually. 
In addition to the trade direct to England, there 
is also an extensive traffic on English account 
between the different ports of India and Canton, 
which consists in a reciprocal interchange of the 
productions of the respective countries, and in 
which porcelain and paper form considerable 
articles of export from Canton. The intercourse 
of America with Canton, on the part of America, 
is maintained* with furs from the North-west 
coast, sandal-wood, and the edible birds' nests, 
collected among the eastern islands, and with 
dollars ; a considerable portion of the tea ex- 
ported in American ships, being on account and 
risk of the Chinese merchants, more especially 
the portion brought to Hamburgh, Antwerp, and 
other European ports, is wholly reimbursed in 
specie. The imposts of the government on its 
external commerce are levied on the length and 
breadth of the shipping entering and leaving the 
port. The following statement of the amount of 
duties returned to the Chinese treasury, for the 
year 1822, will best show the extent and pro- 
portion of the three great branches into which 
the external commerce of Canton resolves itself: 
viz. 1st, that with the English East India Com- 
pany; 2d, that with the different ports of British 
India ; 3d, that with America : 

On Import. On Export. 

Eng. East Ind. Comp. 395,112 460,042 

Country Trade . . . 118,533 80,623 

America 276,578 339,409 

Total Tale 


The tale being only equal to 6s. 8d. of English 
money, the whole impost will be seen to amount, 
according to the above statement, to only 
556,800, not equal to the amount levied on the 
single article of coals alone, at the port of Lon- 
don ; and yet such is the extent and insidious 
nature of the intermediate oppression of the Chi- 
nese hong (or council, which is the term by 
which the twelve privileged merchants of Can- 
ton are collectively called) on one side ; and the 
English East India Company on the other ; that 
whilst the 25,000,000 Ibs. of tea annually con- 
sumed in Great Britain and Ireland, costs the con- 
sumer, on an average, at least 7s. per lb., it does 
not yield to the producer, including the inland 
conveyance to Canton, an average of 3d. per lb. 

In 1823 several thousand houses in Can- 
ton were destroyed by fire, but the ground has 
since been rebuilt upon. The population has 
been estimated at about 1,500,000, but more 
recent accounts imply that the extent of popu- 
lation, not only of Canton, but of China gene- 
rally, has been greatly exaggerated. See on 
this head CHINA, and more particularly QUANG- 
TONG. It is in the lat. of 23 8' N., and 113 2' 
of E. long., being 16 47', or about 1190 British 
statute miles south by west of Pekin, the metro- 
polis of the empire. 

CANTON (John), an ingenious natural philo- 
sopher, born at Stroud, in Gloucestershire, in 



1718. lie was placed, when young, under the 
care of Mr. Davis, a very able mathematician, 
and had made some progress in algebra and 
astronomy, when his father took him from 
school, and put him to learn his own business, 
of a broad cloth weaver. This was not able to 
damp his zeal for knowledge. His leisure was 
devoted to the cultivation of astronomical 
science ; and, by the help of the Caroline tables 
annexed to Wing's Astronomy, he computed 
eclipses of the moon and other phenomena. 
lie also at this time computed and cut upon 
stone, with no better an instrument than a com- 
mon knife, the lines of a large upright sun-dial, 
on which, besides the hour of the day, was 
shown the rising of the sun, his place in the 
ecliptic, &c. When this was finished and made 
known to his father, he permitted it to be placed 
against the front of his house, where it excited 
the admiration of several gentlemen in the 
neighbourhood, which was followed by the offer 
to this youth of the use of their libraries. In 
one of these he found Martin's Philosophical 
Grammar, which was the first book that gave 
him a taste for natural philosophy. In the pos- 
session of another gentleman, a few miles from 
Stroud, he first saw a pair of globes ; an object 
that afforded him uncommon pleasure, from the 
great ease with which he could solve those pro- 
blems he had hitherto been accustomed to com- 
pute. Among other persons with whom he be- 
came acquainted in early life, was the ingenious 
Dr. Miles, of Tooting, who, perceiving that 
Canton possessed abilities too promising to be 
confined within the narrow limits of a country 
town, prevailed on his father to permit him to 
rome to London. After having served five 
years as clerk to Mr. Watkins, of the academy 
at Spital Square, he was taken into partnership, 
and succeeded him in the academy, where he 
continued during life. Towards the end of 1749, 
he undertook experiments to determine to what 
height rockets may be made to ascend, and at 
what distance their light may be seen. In 1750 
was read at the Royal Society, his method of 
making artificial magnets, without the use of, 
and yet far superior to, any natural ones. This 
paper procured him the honor of being elected 
a member of the Society, and the present of 
their gold medal. The same year he was com- 
plimented with the degree of 'M.A. by the uni- 
versity of Aberdeen ; and, in 1751, was chosen 
one of the council of the Royal Society. In 
1752 he was so fortunate as to be the first per- 
son in England, who, by attracting the electric 
fire from the clouds during a thunder-storm, 
verified Dr. Franklin's hypothesis of the simi- 
larity of lightning and electricity. Next year, 
his paper entitled, Electrical Experiments, with 
an attempt to account for their several Pheno- 
mena, was read to the Royal Society. In the 
same paper Mr. Canton mentioned his having 
discovered, by a great number of experiments, 
that some clouds were in a positive, and some in 
a negative state of electricity. In the Lady's 
Dairy for 1756 our author answered the prize 
question that had been proposed in the preced- 
ing year ; viz, ' How can what we call the shoot- 
ing of stars be best accounted for: what is the 
VOL. V. 

substince of this phenomenon ; and in what 
state of the atmosphere doth it most frequently 
show itself?' Our philosopher's next communi- 
cation to the public was a letter in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for September, 1759, on the 
electrical properties of the tourmalin, in which 
the laws of that wonderful stone are laid down 
in a very concise and elegant manner. On De- 
cember 13th, in the same year, was read at the 
Royal Society, An attempt to account for the 
regular diurnal variation of the Horizontal Mag- 
netic Needle ; and also for its irregular variation 
at the time of an Aurora Borealis. A complete 
year's observations of the diurnal variations of 
the needle are annexed to the paper. On Novem- 
ber 5th, 1761, he communicated to the Royal 
Society an account of the Transit of Venus, 
June 6th, 1761, observed in Spital Square. His 
next communication was a letter addressed to 
Dr. Benjamin Franklin, and read February 4th, 
1762, containing some remarks on Mr. Delaval's 
electrical experiments. On December 16th, 
1762, another curious addition was made by him 
to philosophical knowledge, in a paper, entitled, 
Experiments to Prove that Water is not Incom- 
pressible. These experiments are a complete 
refutation of the famous Florentine experiment, 
which so many philosophers have mentioned as 
a proof of the incompressibility of water. On 
St. Andrew's day, 1763, he was elected the third 
time one of the council of the Royal Society ; 
and on November 8th, in the following year, 
were read, before that learned body, his farther 
Experiments and Observations on the Compressi- 
bility of Water, and some other fluids. The 
establishment of this fact, in opposition to the 
received opinion, formed on the hasty decision 
of the Florentine Academy, was thought to be 
deserving of the Society's gold medal. It was 
accordingly moved for in the council of 1764; 
and after several invidious delays, which ter- 
minated much to the honor of Mr. Canton, 'it 
was presented to him November, 30th, 1765. 
His next communication to the Royal Society 
was on December 22nd, 1768, An easy Method 
of Making a Phosphorus, that will imbibe and 
emit light like the Bolognian Stone ; with Ex- 
periments and Observations. The dean and 
chapter of St. Paul's having in a letter to the 
president, dated March 6th, 1769, requested the 
opinion of the Royal Society relative to the best 
and most effectual method of fixing electrical 
conductors to preserve that cathedral from dam- 
age by lightning, Mr. Canton was one of the 
committee appointed to take the letter into con- 
sideration, and to report their opinion upon it. 
The other members were, Dr. Watson, Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Delaval, and Mr. Wilson. Their 
report was made on the 8th of June following ; 
and the mode recommended by them was 
carried' into execution. The last paper of our 
author's, which was read before the Royal So- 
ciety, was on December 21st, 1769; and con- 
tained Experiments to prove that the Luminous- 
ness of the Sea arises from the Putrefaction of 
its Animal Substances. Besides the above, he 
wrote a number of papers, which appeared in 
different publications, particularly the Gentle- 
man's Magazine. He fell into a dropsy, which 




carried him off, March 22nd, 1772, in tne fifty- 
fourth year of his age. 

CANTONING, in the military art, is the al- 
lotting distinct and separate quarters to eacli 
regiment ; the town where they are quartered 
being divided into as many cantons as there are 

CAN'TRED, n. s. The same in Wales as an 
hundred in England. For cantre, in the British 
language, signifieth an hundred. 

The king rogrants to him all that province, reserving 
only the city of Dublin, and the cantreds next adjoin- 
ing and the maritime towns. Dames on Ireland. 

CANT-TIMBERS, in ship-building, those 
timbers which are situated at the two ends of a 
ship. They derive their name from being canted, 
or raised obliquely from the keel ; in contra- 
distinction from those whose planes are per- 
pendicular to it. The upper ends of those on 
the bow, or fore part of the ship, are inclined to 
the stern; as those in the after, or hind part, 
incline to the stern-post above. See SIIIP- 

CANTUA, in botany, a genus of plants of the 
pentandria class, and monogynia order : CAL. 
five or three cleft : COR. funnel-shaped : STIG. 
three-cleft: CAPS, three-valved, three-celled, 
many-seeded : SEEDS winged. Species four; 
natives of South America. 

CANTY, adj. Goth, hat; kiat; Swed. katja; 
gay, joyful, wanton; whence, Fr. catin, a 
woman of pleasure. 

CANVAS, in commerce, a very clear un- 
bleached cloth of hemp or flax, woven regularly 
in little squares. It is used for working tapes- 
try with the needle, by passing the threads of 
gold, silver, silk, or wool, through the intervals 
of squares. Also a coarse cloth of hemp, un- 
bleached, somewhat clear, which serves to cover 
women's stays ; to stiffen men's clothes, and to 
make some other of their wearing apparel, &c. 

CANVAS, among painters, is the cloth on 
which they usually draw their pictures ; the can- 
vas being smoothed over with a slick-stone, 
then fixed, and afterwards whited over, makes 
what the painters call their primed cloth, on 
which they draw their first sketches with coal or 
chalk, and afterwards finish with colors. 

CANVAS is also used among the French for 
the model or first words whereon an air or piece 
of music is composed, and given to a poet to 
regulate and finish. The canvas of a song con- 
tains certain notes of the composer, which show 
the poet the measure of the verses he is to 

CAN'VASS, v. a. & n. I Per. kanu; Lat. 

CAN'VASSING, \ cannabis; Fr. cane- 

vas; Ital. canavaccio. Coarse hempen cloth, 
woven for several uses ; as sails, painting cloths, 
tents. It is also so constructed as to be a sifting 
cloth, through which the lighter particles pass ; 
but the grosser matter is retained. Thus it is 
metaphorically applied to sift, to examine; to 
sifting voices, or trying them, previously to the 
decisive act of voting : also to debate, to discuss ; 
to separate the truth from error, as the sieve or 
canvass separates, by the act of straining, the 
heterogeneous mixtures that may be put into it. 

The master commanded forthwith to set on all the 
canvats they could, and fly homeward. Sidney. 

And eke the pens that did his pinions bind, 
Were like main yards with flying canvass lin'd. 

Eftsoones her shallow ship away did slide, 

More swift than swallow shores the liquid sky, 
Withouten oare or pilot it to guide, 

Or winged canvas with the wind to fly ; 
Onely she turn'd a pin ; and by and by, 
It cut away upon the yielding wave. Spenser. 

There be that can pack cards, and yet cannot play 
well : so there are some that are good in canvasses 
and factions, that are otherwise weak men. Bacon. 

Elizabeth being to resolve upon an officer, and 
being, by some that canvassed for others, put in some 
doubt of that person she meant to advance, said, she 
was like one with a lanthorn seeking a man. Id. 

The curs discovered a raw hide in the bottom of a 
river, and laid their heads together how to come at it : 
they canvassed the matter one way and t'other, and 
concluded, that the way to get it, was to drink their 
way to it. L'Estrange. 

Their canvass castles up they quickly rear, 
And build a city in a hour's space. Fairfax. 

Where'er thy navy spreads her canvass wings, 
Homage to thee, and peace to all, she brings. Waller. 

Spread a large canvass, painter, to contain 
The great assembly and the numerous train. Marvell. 

This crime of canvassing, or soliciting, for church 
preferment, is, by the canon law, called simony. 

Ayliffe's Parergon, 
Thou, Kneller, long with noble pride, 

The foremost of thy art hast vied 

With nature in a generous strife, 

And touch'd the canvass into life. Addison. 

So when a general bids the martial train 
Spread their encampment o'er the spacious plain ; ' 
Thick rising tents a canvass city build, 
And the loud dice resound thro' all the field. Gay. 

Happy the maid, who, from green sickness free, 
In canvass or in Holland pocket bears 
A crooked sixpence. Bramston. 

Then towered the masts ; the canvass swelled on high j 
And waving streamers floated in the sky. 

Falconer's Shipwreck. 


CANUSIUM, in ancient geography, a town 
of Apulia, on the south side of the Aufidus, 
west of Cannae ; whither the Romans fled after 
the defeat sustained there. It was founded by 
Diomede, and afterwards became a Roman 
colony. It was famous for its red shining wool ; 
whence those who wore clothes made of it were 
called Canusinati. It is now called CANOSA ; 
which see. 

CANUTE, the first Danish king of England. 
He married Emma, widow of king Ethelred , 
and put to death several persons of quality who 
stood in his way to the crown. Having thus 
settled his power in England, he made a voyage 
to his kingdom of Denmark, in order to resist the 
attacks of the king of Sweden ; and carried along 
with him a great body of the English, under the 
command of Earl Godwin. This nobleman was 
stationed next the Swedish camp; and observing 
a favourable opportunity, he attacked the enemy 
in the night, drove them from their trenches, and 
obtained a decisive victory. In another voyage 
which he afterwards made to Denmark, Canute 
attacked Norway, and expelled the just but un- 
warlike Olaus from his kingdom, of which he 




kept possession till the deatli of that prince. By 
a spirit of devotion, no less than by his equitable 
administration, he gained in a great measure the 
affections of his subjects. Some of his flatterers 
breaking out one day in admiration of his gran- 
tleur, exclaimed, that every thing was possible 
for him : upon which the monarch, it is said, 
ordered a chair to be set on the sea shore 
while the tide was making ; and, as the waters 
approached, he commanded them to retire, and 
to obey the voice of him who was lord of the 
ocean. He feigned to sit some time in expecta- 
tion of their submission ; but when the sea still 
advanced towards him, and began to wash him 
with its billows, he turned to his courtiers, and 
remarked to them, that every creature in the 
universe was feeble and impotent, and that 
power resided with one Being alone, in whose 
hands were all the elements of nature, who 
could say to the ocean, ' thus far shall thou go, 
and no farther,' and who could level with his 
nod the most towering piles of human pride and 
ambition. From this time, it is said, he never 
would wear a crown. He died in the twentieth 
year of his reign ; andwas interred at Winchester. 

CANZONE, in music, signifies, in general, a 
song, where some little fugues are introduced : 
but it is sometimes used for a sort of Italian 
poem, usually long, to which music may be 
composed in the style of a cantata. If this term 
be added to a piece of instrumental music, it 
signifies much the same as cantata : if placed in 
any part of a sonata, it implies the same meaning 
as allegro, and only denotes that the part to 
which it is prefixed is to be played or sung in a 
brisk and lively manner. 

CAN'ZONET, n. s. Ital. canxonetta. A lit- 
tle song. 

Vecchi was most pleasing of all others, for his con- 
ceit and variety, as well his madrigals as canzonets. 


CAOUTCHOUC, or Indian rubber, an elastic 
gum, produced from the jatropha elastica and 
other plants of South America, and possessed of 
the most singular properties. No substance is 
yet known which is so pliable, and at the same 
time so elastic ; and it is capable of resisting the 
action of very powerful menstrua. The Indians 
make boots of it, which water cannot penetrate, 
and which, when smoked, have the appearance 
of real leather; bottles are also made of it. 
Flambeaux, an inch and a half in diameter, and 
two feet long, are likewise made of this resin, 
they give a beautiful light, have no bad smell, 
and bum twelve hours. A kind of cloth is also 
prepared from it, which the inhabitants of Quito 
apply to the same purposes as our oil-cloth and 
sail-cloth. It is formed by moulds into a variety 
of figures for use and ornament. The great 
Frederick king of Prussia had a pair of boots 
made of caoutchouc. A mould of wrought clay, 
the exact figure of his leg, was covered with 
ethereal solution of caoutchouc, laid on in alter- 
nate layers by a brush, until it acquired the 
proper thickness ; the whole was then held over 
a strong smoke of burning vegetables, to harden 
into the texture and appearance of leather. 
When the whole was thus prepared, the inside 

mould was broken and taken out. To form this 
resin into small tubes, M. Macquer prepared a 
solid cylindrical mould of wax, of the desired 
size and shape, and then, dipping a pencil into 
the ethereal solution of the resin, coated the 
mould over with it, till he had covered it with a 
coat of resin of a sufficient thickness. He then 
threw the whole piece into boiling water; by the 
heat of which the wax soon melted, and rising to 
the surface left the resinous tube completely 
formed. Mr. Macintosh has a patent for cloth 
rendered water-proof with a solution of caout- 
chouc. If linseed oil be rendered very drying by 
digesting it upon an oxide of lead, and afterwards 
applied with a small brush on any surface, and 
dried by the sun or in the smoke, it makes an ar- 
tificial caoutchouc, and it will afford a pellicle of 
considerable firmness, transparent, burning like 
caoutchouc, and wonderfully elastic. A pound 
of this oil, spread upon a stone, and exposed to 
the air for six or seven months, acquires almost 
aty the other properties of caoutchouc : it is used 
to make catheters and bougies, to varnish bal- 
loons, and for other purposes. It will also answer 
the same end in rubbing out pencil marks. 

CAP, n. & v. a. Welsh cap ; Sax. caeppe ; 
Germ, cappe ; Ft. cappe ; Ital. cuppa; Span, cap- 
pa.; Dan. and Dutch kappe; Lat. caput; a head. 
A covering for the head, that which is usually 
worn ; and a vessel, used by divers, to protect 
the head, and secure free respiration, when under 
water. Anything that covers the top, or that 
which is topmost and highest. It is technically 
applied to a piece of lead, laid over the touch- 
hole of a gun, to preserve the prime. The cap 
of maintenance is one of the regalia, carried be- 
fore the. king at his coronation. To cap, is to 
cover the head ; to make a reverence by uncover- 
ing it. To protect that by covering, which ex- 
posure would injure or weaken. It also signi- 
fies to contend, from Goth, and Swed. kapp ; 
Sax. camp, to contest ; see To COPE. Thus it has 
been applied to striving for the mastery, and to 
rival conflicts, whether personal, literary, or skil- 
ful, for superiority. To cap verses is to name, 
alternately, verses beginning with a particular 
letter ; to name in opposition to emulation ; to 
name, alternately, in contest. To cap, is likewise 
to deprive of the cap ; to take it by force or fraud. 
Shakspeare uses the noun in the same sense in 
which we now apply the term hat as the ensign 
of the cardinalate. 

For I wol tell a legend and a lif 
Both of a carpenter and of his wif, 
How that a clerk hath the wrighte's cappe. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. 

If one, by another occasion, take any thing from 
another, as boys sometimes use to cap one another, 
the same is straight felony. Spenser on Ireland. 

Here is the cap your worship did bespeak. 
Why, this was moulded on a poringer, 
A velvet dish. Shakspeare. Taming of the Shrew 

I have ever held rny cap off to thy fortune. 
Thou hast served me with much faith. Id. 

Three great ones of the city, 
In personal suit to make me his lieutenant, 
Oft capped to him : and by the faitli of man, 
I know my price, I "in worth no worse a place. 

S/iakitpeare. Othello. 
I 2 




They morfi and less came in with cap and knee, 
Met him m boroughs, cities, villages. Id. Henry IV. 

Thou art the cap of all the fools alive. Id. Timon. 

Enicus, king of Sweden, had an inchanted cap, by 
virtue of which, and some magical murmur or whis- 
pering terms, he could command spirits, trouble the 
ayre, and make the wind stand which way he would ; 
insomuch, that when there was any great wind or 
storm, the common people were wont to say the king 
now had on his conjuring cap. Burton. Anat. Mel. 

At the court gate met him four noblemen in cloth 
of gold, and rich fur caps, embroidered with pearl and 
stone. Milton. Hist. Moscovia, 

The bones next the joint are capped with a smooth 
cartilaginous substance, serving both to strength and 
motion. Derham. 

Where Henderson and the other masses, 
Were sent cap texts, and put cases. Hudibras. 

Sure it is a pitiful pretence to ingenuity that can 
be thus kept up, there being little need of any other 
faculty but memory, to cap texts. 

Government of the Tongue. 

There is an author of ours, whom I would desire 
him to read, before lie ventures at capping characters. 

A tier bury. 

First, lolling sloth, in woollen cap, 
Taking her after dinner nap. Swift. 

CAP, in ship-building, a strong, thick, block of 
wood, used to confine two masts together, when 
one is erected at the head of the other in order 
to lengthen it. It is furnished with two holes, 
perpendicular to its length and breadth, and 
parallel to its thickness : one of these is square 
and the other round ; the former being solidly 
fixed upon the upper end of the lower mast, 
whilst the latter receives the mast employed to 
lengthen it, and secures it in this position. The 
breadth of all caps is equal to twice the diameter 
of the top-mast, and the length to twice the 
breadth. The thickness of the main and fore- 
caps is half the diameter of their breadths ; the 
mizen-cap three-sevenths, and the top-mast caps 
two-fifths of their respective breadths. 

CAPS, ANCIENT. The Romans were many ages 
without any regular covering for the head : when 
either the rain or sun was troublesome, the lappet 
of the gown was thrown over the head ; and 
hence it. is that all the ancient statues appear 
bare-headed, excepting sometimes a wreath or 
the like. And the same usage obtained among 
the Greeks, where, at least during the heroic age, 
no caps were known. The sort of caps or covers 
of the head in use among the Romans on divers 
occasions, were the pitra, pileus, cucullus, galerus, 
and palliolum; the differences between which are 
often confounded by ancient as well as modern 

The general use of caps and hats is referred to 
the year 1449, the first seen in these parts of the 
world being at the entry of Charles VII. -into 
Rouen : from that time they began to take place 
of chaperoons, or hoods. When the cap was of 
velvet, they called it mortier; when of wool, 
simply bonnet. None but kings, princes, and 
knights, were allowed the use of the raortier. 
The cap was the head-dress of the clergy and 
graduates. Pasquier says, that it was anciently 
z. part of the hood worn by the people of the 
robe ; the skirts whereof being cut off as an in- 
cumbrance, left the round cap an easy commo- 

dious cover for the head ; which cap being 
afterwards assumed by the people, those of the 
gown changed it for a square one, first invented 
by a Frenchman, called Patrouillet : he adds, that 
the giving of the cap to the students in the uni- 
versities, was to denote, that they had acquired 
full liberty, and were no longer subject to the 
rod of their superiors ; in imitation of the ancient 
Romans, who gave a pileus, or cap, to their 
slaves, in the ceremony of making them free : 
whence the proverb, Vocare servos ad pileum. 
Hence, also, on medals, the cap is the symbol of 
liberty, whom they represent holding a cap in 
her right hand, by the point. 

The French clergy wear a shallow kind of 
cap, called calotte, which only covers the lop of 
the head, made of leather, satin, worsted, or 
other stuff. The red cap is a mark of dignity 
allowed only to those who are raised to the car- 
dinalate. During the first five years of the 
French revolution, the red cap was a mark of 
democracy. The secular clergy are distinguished 
by black leathern caps, the regulars by knit and 
worsted ones. Churchmen, and members of 
universities, students in law, physic, &c. as well 
as graduates, wear square caps. In most univer- 
sities, doctors are distinguished by peculiar caps, 
given them on assuming the doctorate. In that 
of Edinburgh, the principal only touches the 
young graduate's head with a velvet cap. Wick- 
liffe calls the canons of his time bifurcati, from 
their caps. Pasquier observes, that in his time, 
the caps worn by the churchmen, &c. were 
called square caps ; though, in effect, they were 
round yellow caps. The Chinese have not the 
use of the hat, like us ; but wear a cap of pe- 
culiar structure, which the laws of civility will 
not allow them to put off: it is different for the 
different seasons of the year : that used in sum- 
mer is in form of a cone, ending at top in a 
point. It is made of a very beautiful kind of 
mat, much valued in that country, and lined with 
satin ; to this is added, at top, a large lock of 
red silk, which falls all round as low as the 
bottom ; so that, in walking, the silk fluctuating 
regularly on all sides, makes a graceful appear- 
ance ; sometimes, instead of silk, they use a kind 
of bright red hair, the lustre of which no weather 
effaces. In winter they wear a plush cap, bor- 
dered with martlet's or fox's skin ; as to the rest, 
like those for the summer. These caps are fre- 
quently sold for eight or ten crowns. The cap is 
sometimes used as a mark of infamy ; in Italy 
the Jews are distinguished by a yellow cap ; at 
Lucca by an orange one. In France, by the old 
laws, those who had been bankrupts were ob- 
liged ever after to wear a green cap to prevent 
people from being imposed on in any future 
commerce. By several arrets, in 1584, 1622, 
1628, 1688, it was decreed, that if they were at 
any time found without their green cap, their 
protection should be null, and their creditors 
empowered to cast them into prison. 

CA'PABLE, adj. ~\ Fr. capuble ; It. capace ; 

CAPABILITY, n. >Span. capaz ; Lat. capax, 

CA'PABLENESS, n. j capio ; fit to receive, or 
do; power of receiving, or doing ; intelligent; 
able to understand ; intellectually capacious ; 
susceptible ; qualified for, without natural or 




legal impediment. Before a noun, capable has the 
particle of. In our old writers it bears the sense 
of capacious. Shakspeare, in a quotation below, 
uses it in the meaning of hollow, but this also is 
now obsolete. Capability was, some years ago, 
ludicrously converted into an epithet, and affixed 
to the name of Brown, the celebrated landscape 
gardener, in consequence of his perpetually using 
the phrase ' it has capabilities,' while he was 
viewing the scenery which the owner wished 
him to improve. 

Sure he that made us with such large discouse, 
Looking before and after, gave us not 
That capability and godlike reason 
To rust in us unused. Slutkspeare. Hamlet. 

Look you, how pale he glares ; 
His form and cause conjoined, preaching to stones, 
Would make them capable. Id. ib. 

Of my land, 

Loyal and natural boy, 111 work the means 
To make thr-e capable. Id. King Lear. 

Lean but upon a rush, 
The cicatrice and capable impressure 
Thy palm some moments keeps. 

Id. As You Like It. 

To say that the more capable, or the better deserver, 

hath such right to govern, as he may compulsorily 

bring under the less worthy, is idle. Bacon. 

I am much bound to God, that he hath endued you 

with one capable of the best instructions. Diyby. 

What secret springs their eager 'passions move, 
Hnw capable of death for injured love. 

Dryden's Virgil. 
Besides his picture 

I will send far and near, that all the kingdom 
May have due note of him ; and of my land, 
Loyal and natural boy, I'll work the means, 
To make thee capable. Shakspeare. Kiny Lear. 
There is no man that believes the goodness of God, 
but must be inclined to think, that he hath made 
some things for as long a duration as they are capable 
of. Tillotson. 

The soul, immortal substance, to remain, 
Conscious of joy, and capable of pain. Prior. 
When we consider so much of that space, as is equal 
to, or capable to receive a body of any assigned di- 
mensions. Locke. 
When you hear any person give his judgment, con- 
sider with yourself whether he be a capable judge. 


Fr. capacite ; Ital. cu- 
} pacita ; Span, capuci- 
dad; Lat. cupacitus. 
'To capacify and capa- 
citate signify to qualify ; 
to render capable. For 
the first of these verbs I remember but one au- 
thority, which is in South's Sermons. Capacious, 
in its primary sense, is wide, large, and ample ; 
but is applied only to that which is capable of 
containing ; and figuratively, it expresses equal to 
much knowledge, or great design. Capacity is 
the ability to contain ; space ; mental and physical 
power and state, condition and character. 

No intellectual creature is able, by capacity, to do that 
which Nature doth without capacity and knowledge. 


Notwithstanding thy capacity 
Receiveth as the sea, nought enters there, 
Of what validity and pitch soe'er, 
But falls into abatement and low price. 



Had our palace the capacity 
To camp this host, we would all sup together. 


For they that most and greatest things embrace, 
Enlarge thereby their mind's capacity, 
As streams enlarged, enlarge their channel's space. 


A concave measure of known and determined ca- 
pacity, serves to measure the capaciousness of any 
other vessel. In like manner to a given weight, the 
weight of all other bodies may be reduced and so 
found out. Holden on Time. 

In spiritual natures, so much as there is of desire, 
so much there is also of a capacity to receive. I do 
not say there is always a capacity to receive the very 
thing they desire, for that may be impossible. 


A miraculous revolution reducing many from the 
head of a triumphant rebellion to their old condition 
of masons, smiths, and carpenters ; that in this ca- 
pacity they might repair what, as colonels and captains, 
they had ruined and defaced. Id. 

An heroic poem requires the accomplishment of 
some extraordinary undertaking ; which requires the 
duty of a soldier, and the capacity and prudence of a 
general. Dryden. 

By this instruction we may be capacitated to ob- 
serve those errors. Id. 
There remained, in the capacity of the exhausted 
cylinder, store of little rooms, or spaces, empty or 
devoid of air. Boyle. 
Space, considered in length, breadth, and thickness, 
I think, may be called capacity. Locke. 

Since the world's wide frame does not include, 
A cause with such capacities endued, 
Some other cause o'er Nature must preside. 


These sort of men were sycophants only, and were 
endued with arts of life, to capacitate them for the 
conversation of the rich and great. Taller. 

The next upon the optic list is old Janus, who stood 
in a double sighted capacity, like a person placed be- 
twixt two opposite looking glasses, and so took a sort 
of retrospective cast at one view. Spectator. 

Van (for 'tis fit the reader know it) 
Is both a herald and a poet ; 
No wonder then if nicely skilled 
In both capacities to build. Staift. 

There are some person of a good genius, and a capa- 
cious mind, who write and speak very obscurely. Wattt 
Beneath the incessant weeping of those drains, 
I see the rocky siphons stretched immense, 
The mighty reservoirs of hardened chalk, 
Of stiff compacted clay, capacious found. 

Thomson's Seasons. 

CAPACITY, in geometry, the solid contents 
of any body. Our hollow measures for wine, 
beer, corn, salt, &c. are called measures of ca- 

CAPACITY, in law, the ability of a man, or 
body politic, to give or take lands, or other 
things, or sue actions. Our law allows the king 
two capacities ; a natural and a political : in 
the first, he may purchase lands to him and his 
heirs ; in the second, to him and his successors. 
The clergy of the church of England have the 

CAPANEUS, a noble Argive, son of Hippo- 
nous and Astinome, and husband to Evadne. 
He was so impious, that when he went to the 
Theban war, he declared that he would take 
Thebes even in spite of Jupiter. Such contempt 



provoked the god, n-ho struck him dead with a 
thunderbolt. His body was burnt separately 
from the others, and his wife threw herself on the 
burning pile to mingle her ashes with his. It is 
said that /Esculapius restored him to life. 

CAP-A'-PE', > Fr. cap-a-pie. From head 
CAP-A'-PIE'. j to foot; all over; completely 

A figure like your father, 
Armed at all points, exactly cap-a-pe, 
Appears before their., and, with solemn march, 
Goes slow and stately by them. 

V Shakspeare. Hamlet. 

There for the two contending knights he sent, 
Armed cap-a-pie, with reverence low they bent. 

Dryden. Fables. 
A woodlouse, 

That folds up itself in itself for a house, 
As round as a ball, without head, without tail, 
Inclosed cap-a-pe in a strong coat of mail. Swift. 
CAPAR'ISON, v. & n. Fr.caparaf ore /Span. 
caparazon ; from Lat. capio and paro. It was 
formerly spelt caparasson, and signifies, prima- 
rily, the bards or trappings of a horse, but is ap- 
plied ludicrously to any pompous dress. The 
homely definition given by the Farmer's Dic- 
tionary is, ' a horse cloth, or a sort of cover for 
a horse, which is spread over his furniture.' 

Don't you think, though I am caparisoned like a 
man, I have a doublet and hose in my disposition ? 

Shakspeare. As You Like It. 
Tilting furniture, emblazoned shields, 
Impresses quaint, caparisons, and steeds, 
Bases, and tinsel trappings, gorgeous knights 
At joust and tournament. Paradite Lout. 

Some wore a breast-plate, and alight juppon, 
Their horses clothed with rich caparison. 

Dryden's Fablet. 

The steeds caparisoned with purple stand, 
With golden trappings, glorious to behold, 
And champ betwixt their teeth the foaming gold. 


CAPE, n. Fr. cape ; Ital. capo ; Dan. kappe ; Lat. 
caput. A headland, a promontory ; also the neck 
piece of a cloak. Its application from the Latin 
is quite obvious in the first case, and not ob- 
scure in the second ; the cape being, as Minsheu 
observes, the superior part of the garment. In 
the northern languages, it is not from the whole 
head, but from the nose, that the designation of 
a promontory is derived ; and from them many 
headlands both on the French and English coasts 
received names, as in Dungeness, Cape Gris- 
nez, &c. 

What from the cape can you discern at sea ? 
Nothing at all ; it is n high wrought flood. 

Shakspeare. Othello. 
The parting sun, 

Beyond the earth's green cape and verdant isles, 
Hesperian sets ; my signal to depart. 

Paradise Lift. 

The Romans made war upon the Tarentines, and 
obliged them by treaty not to sail beyond the cape. 


But now Athenian mountains they descry, 
And o'er the surge Colonna frowns on high. 
Beside the cape's protecting verge is placed 
A range of columns, long by time defaced. 


He was cloathed in a robe of .fine black cloth, with 
v'idc sleeves and cape. Bacun. 

CAPE, in law, a judicial writ concerning plea 
of lands or tenements, and divided into cape 
magnum and cape parvum, both of wnich affect 
things immovable. 

Cape magnum is designed to lie where a 
person has brought a praecipe quod reddat of a 
thing that touches a plea of land, and the tenant 
makes default at the day given to him in the 
original writ; then this writ shall go for the 
king, to take the land into his hands : and if 
he comes not at the day given him, he loses his 
land, &c. 

Cape parvum, called petit-cape, is denned 
thus : when the tenant is summoned in plea of 
land, and cometh at the summons, and his ap- 
pearance is recorded ; and after he maketh default 
at the day that is given to him, then this writ 
shall go for the king. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. The colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope, stretches along the 
whole of the southern extremity of Africa from 
the cape of that name (originally called Cabo 
dos Tormentos, the Cape of Storms, by the 
Portuguese) to the Great Fish river, the Rio 
d* Infante of the Portuguese, or from 17 36' to 
28 17' E. long, and lies between 29 55' and 34 
17' S. lat. Its most western point is at the 
mouth of the Koussie river, which, with the 
Bosjesman's country, forms the northern boun- 
dary of the colony ; on the west and south it is 
bounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans ; 
and on the east by Kaffreland. Its length from 
west to east, from the point of the Cape Penin- 
sula to the mouth of Fish river, is 580 miles; 
from the river Koussie to the Snowy Mountains 
520 miles : giving a mean breadth of about 550 
miles. Its breadth from south to north, from the 
mouth of the Koussie to the Cape Point, is 315 
miles ; from the Nieuwveldt Mountains to Plet- 
tenberg's bay 160 miles : giving a mean breadth 
of 223 miles, and including an area of 128,150 
square miles, according to the chart constructed 
by order of lord Macartney, during the British 
possession of the colony, prior to the peace of 
Amiens. On the east, upon which the CafTre 
tribes are often making incursions, it is neces- 
sary to preserve the chain of posts particularly 
strong. Northward the boundary line is little 
more than imaginary, being formed by the com- 
mencement of arid sands, stretching into the in- 
terior of the continent, or the winding ranges 
of barren hills, where no settled tribes can exist. 
Over this district are scattered 61,947 inhabitants 
(exclusive of the British army and navy), accord- 
ing to the latest returns : of whom 10,983 are 
white males, 9,482 white females; 1,281 servants 
and people of color; 25,754 slaves; and 14,447 

The whole colony is intersected by chains of 
mountains crossing it from east to west, and ge- 
nerally barren ; some few ranges on the western 
coast run- from south to mrth, and one in parti- 
cular, which begins at False Bay opposite the 
Cape Point, stretches northward to Olifant river, 
i\n extent of about 210 miles. 

The most southern of the former chains leaves 



a belt of coast of irregular breadth, varying 
from 20 to 60 miles) which is well covered with 
soil, indented with bays, and watered by nume- 
rous streams. The second great chain, formed 
by the Zwarte Berg or Black Mountains, is of 
much greater elevation, and more rugged in ap- 
pearance than the former. It frequently breaks 
like the Andes of the New Contmen;, into dou- 
ble and treble ranges, and encloses with the first 
i series of elevated plains of about the general 
width of the coast lands from north to south, 
but very various in their character ; occasionally 
presenting nothing but a succession of clay flats, 
known by the name of Karroo. In other places 
small plantations and farms meet the eye, on the 
borders of feeble streams ; and are as extremely 
productive as the surrounding flats are barren. 
The whole of these lands are much higher than 
those to the south of the ranges, and the tempe- 
rature is as various as the aspect of the country. 
The third principal chain, of a still greater aver- 
age height, is denominated the Nieuwveldt's Ge- 
bergte, and forms the northern boundary of a 
vast uninhabited karroo, or desert, commencing 
at the foot of the second. Here severe frosts 
in the bad monsoons, and the vehement heats of 
the summer months, seem alike the enemies of 
all vegetation, and human habitations rarely re- 
lieve the waste. 

Of the various cays that indentthe long range 
of coast possessed by this colony, False Bay and 
Table Bay, the former on the southern, and the 
latter on the western shore of the Cape Peninsula, 
are the principal resort for shipping. From Sep- 
tember to May, usually reckoned as the summer 
months, Table Bay presents a secure shelter from 
the south-east winds ; and during the rest of the 
year False Bay, and its cove or adjunct, Simon's 
Bay, are preferred, as shielding vessels from the 
northern and north-west winds. Hout, or Wood 
Bay and Chapman's Bay, on the west coast, are 
also frequently entered The first of these, 
though small, is remarkably sheltered by the 
surrounding heights ; but the eddy winds, caused 
by that circumstance, render it difficult of egress 
and regress. Between Simon's Bay and Cape 
Town is a remarkable pass, which may be called 
the Thermopylae of the Cape, and to which, as 
well as indeed to all the principal bays and 
passes of the colony, the attention of govern- 
ment has of late been particularly directed. 
This pass is now supposed to be impregnable to 
any army that could be landed in the bay. 
Saldhana Bay, in lat. 33 S. is commodious and 
well sheltered, being about fifteen miles long 
from north to south, and from two to three miles 
broad, and running between lofty granite hills ; 
but wood and water are very scarce in the 
neighbourhood. The rivers on the western 
coast are Olifant or Elephant River, which empties 
itself into the Atlantic in S. lat. 31 30'. ; and 
the Berg, or Mountain River, which has its* 
source in the Roggeveldt Mountains, and after 
receiving several minor streams in its passage, 
falls into St. Helena bay. On the south are 
Gauritz River, the principal stream that waters 
the colony, and which, descending from the 
Black Mountains, becomes during the rains a 
very rapid torrent; Bror<) lliver, falling into 

Sebastian's Bay, and nearly a mile in width aV 
'the mouth ; Camtoos River, running into a bay 
of the same name, and deep enough within the 
bar to float a ship of the line ; Sondag, or Sun- 
day River, which rises in the Nieuwveldt or 
Snow Mountains, and after watering a conside- 
rable portion of the Graaff Reynet district, dis- 
charges itself in a south-east direction in Zwart 
Kops or Algoa Bay ; Zwart Kops River ; and the 
Great Fish River, which takes its rise in the Snow 
Mountains, at a distance of 200 miles from the 
sea. None of these streams are calculated for 
the navigation of vessels of burden, being almost 
uniformly blocked at the mouths by beds of 
sand or reefs of rock ; they are, however, well 
stored with fish, particularly with a small kind 
of turtle, perch, and eels ; and are exceedingly 
prized 'by the colonists for the fertility which 
crowns their banks. 

The climate of this colony is, on the whole, 
salubrious, but subject to very sudden changes 
of temperature. Duringwhat is called the gc nd 
monsoon, or the summer months, commencing 
in September, south-east winds are most fre- 
quent, and, springing up about noon, drive the 
whole atmosphere into circulation, and die away 
in the evening, which is delightfully cool and 
exhilarating. Sometimes, however, they assume 
a more violent and stormy character ; a dry and 
blasting heat attends them, and sweeps ove>> the 
land like a mildew ; relaxing the human frame, 
and spreading destruction among the luxuriant 
fruits of the district. In the bad monsoon, or 
winter months, north-east winds prevail. There 
seem to be few or no diseases peculiar to this 
spot; in Cape Town, however, the instances of 
longevity are rare, and bilious fevers are frequent 
everywhere among the slaves. The annual deaths 
in the town, taken on the average of eighty years, 
were about two and a-half per cent, among the 
white, and three per cent, among the slave popu- 

The territory of the cape was divided by the 
Dutch into four districts or drosdys, each of 
which was governed byalandrost, and a council 
of six hemraaden. These were, 1. The Cape. 
2. Stellenbosch and Drakenstein. 3. Zwellen- 
dam, and -4. Graaff Reynet. The Dutch system 
of government has been followed by the British, 
but subdivisions of the country districts have 
taken place. The northern part of what was 
once the united district of Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein, has been called the district of Tul- 
bagh, and a new drosdy and landrostship has 
been erected. District George has been formed 
out of the southern parts of Zwellendam, east 
of the river Gauritz ; and the southern part of 
Graaff Reynet has been called the district of 
Uitenhagen. That of the Cape is by far the 
most important of these governments, and reaches 
from St. Helena Bay, to the breadth of twenty- 
five miles from the shores of the ocean ; being 
about eighty miles in length ; twenty-five in 
breadth ; and containing an area of 2000 square 

Cape Town, the capital, is situated in the 
bosom of hills branching 0-ut from the Table 
Mountain, and is a neat and well built placo 
The streets throughout arc at ii<iht angles with 



each other, and composed of houses mostly built 
of stone. Many have canals running down them, 
shaded with avenues of oaks, and a fine stream 
from Table Mountain fertilises the neighbour- 
hood- There are several handsome squares 
devoted to the public markets and military pur- 
poses ; a Calvinist and Lutheran church, guard- 
house, justice court, and theatre. The govern- 
ment house is on the side of Table Mountain, 
surrounded by a fine public garden, and several 
handsome villas. Eastward of the town is a 
pentagon fort or castle, surrounded with a ditch 
and outworks, which enclose the bank, called 
the Lombard hank, the orphan chamber, and 
other public offices ; here also are a magazine 
for military stores, and barracks for 4,000 men. 
The town is further defended by several forts on 
the shores of Table Bay ; the principal of which 
are Fort Knokke, connected with the castle by 
the rampart called the Sea lines, and Craig's 
Tower, east; the Lion's Rump, Rogge Bay bat- 
tery, Amsterdam, and Chavenne battery, west ; 
and an important outwork, called the Mouille, 
at the entrance of the bay. The inhabitants are 
estimated at about 5,500 whites and people of 
color, and 10,000 blacks. 

The Table Mountain is too conspicuous a 
feature of this part of the colony to escape the 
attention of any stranger ; while it will reward 
the most scientific investigation of its natural 
history, and presents some very curious minera- 
logical facts. At a distance it assumes the ap- 
pearance of an immense battlement in ruins, 
crowned during the summer months with an ele- 
gant fleecy cloud, which, in allusion to the popular 
name of the central part of the mountain has 
been not unaptly called the Table Cloth. The 
north front, facing Cape Town, forms a horizontal 
line at top, of about two miles in length, the face 
of which is supported by a number of project- 
ing rocks that stand out upon the plain below 
like buttresses, and terminate in the mountain 
about midway towards the summit. Two great 
chasms divide the upper part of its face into 
three distinct eminences (the centre one falling 
back, and its wings or bastions projecting for- 
ward), which are named from east to west, the 
Devil's Head, Table Mount, and Lion's Head. 
Along the sea shore the west side is highly pic- 
turesque, presenting a vast number of pointed 
and time-worn masses, rising at last into a solid 
rounded block, resembling, according to some 
descriptions, the dome of St. Paul's cathedral 
placed upon a conical-shaped eminence. This 
part of the mountain is 3315 feet above the level 
of the sea ; the eastern wing (the Devil's Hill) 
is also remarkable for its craggy broken brow; 
it runs off at right angles to the front, and is the 
most elevated of the three summits, being 3582 
feet in altitude. The Table, properly so called, 
is only 2160 feet above the bay. Southward the 
mountain breaks away in steps or terraces into 
the chain that extends along the whole Cape 
Peninsula. A deep chasm, that divides the cur- 
tain from the left bastion of the mountain, leads 
the way from the town to the summit of this ro- 
mantic elevation. Its length is about three quar- 
ters of a mile, and the angle of ascent through 
it about forty-five degrees.' The entrance is parti- 

cularly imposing. Perpendicular walls of granite 
here rise on each side of the passenger, at the dis- 
tance of eighty yards from each other, to the height 
of 1000 feet, and gradually close towards the open- 
ing at the top, on which he in a moment finds 
himself commanding a boundless view. The 
pensa mucronata, a tall and elegant shrub, is 
peculiar to this spot ; as also a species of heath, 
called the physodes, which bears a beautiful 
cluster of white flowers. The air on the summit 
is in most parts of the year mild and pleasant; 
in winter it is about 15 of Fahrenheit lower than 
at Cape Town ; and in summer still more, through 
the density of the Table Cloud. 

Stellenbosch, and Drakenstein, are districts of 
the former Dutch division, which comprehended 
the present divisions of Stellenbosch and Tul- 
bagh. They were formerly governed by one 
landrost and two hemraaden, but are now entirely 
distinct governments, and extend together, from 
Cape 1'Aguillas south, to the river Koussie north- 
ward, and from the ocean and the Cape district 
west, to B.reede River and the Gamka, or Lion's 
River eastward ; having a mean length of 380 
miles, and a breadth of about 150 ; enclosing 
an area of 55,000 square miles. Scarcely a 
twentieth part of this area is in a state of culti- 
vation. The valley of Drakenstein, however, on 
the east of the Cape, is well inhabited, and the 
sections of these districts between False Bay and 
the long range of mountains that run northward 
to the Elephant River, are amongst the most 
fruitful parts of the colony. East Zwartland, and 
the neighbourhood of the twenty-four rivers, are 
valleys in this direction that are called the Gra- 
naries of the Cape ; and the Roggeveldt moun- 
tains and valleys yield a large and strong breed 
of horses, originally introduced from South 

The original district of Zwellendam compre- 
hended the most southern belt of land in the 
colony, lying between the Black Mountains and 
the ocean, north and south ; and the district of 
Stellenbosch, and that of Graaff Reynet, east 
and west. It was about 380 miles long, and 
sixty broad, containing an area of 19,000 square 
miles. District George now cuts off about one- 
half of the fruitful portion of this district towards 
the south. The mountains of the coast are 
clothed with forest trees, and the plains with 
shrubs. This part of the colony as a whole is 
more fruitful than any other ; and contains one 
subdivision out of which the Dutch government 
reserved 20,000 acres of land in its own hands 
for the growth of corn, of which it yielded 10,000 
muids annually, besides nourishment for 1000 
horses, and 1000 head of cattle. The village 
of Zwellendam is situated in a delightful valley, 
and the new rising town of the name of George, 
is in the immediate neighbourhood of the land 
just mentioned. 

Graaff Reynet district is bounded on the north 
by the Bosjesmans' country, or the limits of the 
colony in this direction ; on the south by the 
districts George, Uitenhagen, and the sea ; west 
by part of Zwellendam ; and east by Kaffreland. 
The eastern subdivisions (by far the most pro- 
ductive) are molested by the incursions of the 
Kaflres and Bosjesmans, who recently seized 



and murdered the landrost of the district, with 
all his family, at his own residence in the village 
of Graaff Key net. Very little grain is grown in 
this district, from the difficulty of its finding a 
market, and from the circumstance of the fre- 
quent descent of locusts from the mountains ; 
but cattle and sheep thrive well here. The Village 
at which the landrost resides scarcely boasts a 
dozen houses besides his own. In the Sneuwberg 
division of this district on the banks of the Fish 
River, are two mineral springs of great repute 
among the colonists, for the cure of rheumatic 
and cutaneous disorders ; the water is at the 
temperature of 88 Fahrenheit. South of these 
waters, and west of Sunday River, is a large salt 
water lake, which is an object of resort for the 
inhabitants of various neighbouring and remote 
regions, who obtain a valuable supply of that 
mineral from it annually. The salt is taken out 
in masses of from four to six inches thick, which 
are broken down on the banks of the lake, where 
a much finer salt accumulates after a dry wind ; 
the latter indeed is said to equal in its native 
state any of the refined salts of this country. 

The predominant soils of this colony are a 
stiff clay, into which no plough will enter until 
it is thoroughly soaked with rain, and a light 
red sand, capable of extreme fertility wherever 
it is sufficiently irrigated. The superinduced 
soil, which is furnished by the decomposition 
of vegetables, is of course rarely seen in a 
country everywhere penetrated by ranges of 
naked mountains, and three-fifths of whose sur- 
face wears not the least appearance of verdure 
during the greater part of the year. Sometimes, 
indeed, where these eminences form a channel 
for the floods of the rainy season, or natural 
springs are found, a singular luxuriance will 
appear in the valleys, and many farmers have 
cultivated these patches among the mountains 
on the southern coast ; but no part of the earth 
has hitherto seemed abandoned to more complete 
sterility than the greater portion of those vast 
karroo plains that occupy the interstices between 
the great mountain-ranges. Impenetrable clays, 
strewed with sand, stretch for miles under the 
aching eye ; and the larger and smaller hills that 
interrupt the surface are only diversified masses 
of sandstone, blue slate, felspar, and ironstone, 
in the midst of which a single blade of grass 
is rarely seen. 

The operations of nature are here, however, 
conducted in singular extremes. Where iron 
or its oxydes are liberally mixed with the clay, 
and the fertilising aid of the feeblest rill can be 
brought to bear upon the soil, astonishing fer- 
tility will occasionally ensue ; some of the best 
grapes and fruits of the colony are yielded on 
these spots, the influence of a few showers of 
rain in other places is equally remarkable ; 
parched as they will appear with the hot season, 
and utterly deserted by everything living, the 
rains of a few days will clothe whole acres with 
verdure ; the botanist is suddenly presented with 
the richest harvest of plants that is to be found 
in any country; and flocks of antelopes are 
quietly grazing. Of the capabilities of such a 
country, therefore, under the hand of British 
industry, it is quite impossible to form a. fair esti- 

mate at present. A deep and fertile soil appears 
to reward the long culture of some of the most 
unpromising spots. Such, at any rate, is the 
character of the land stretching from Cape Town 
to the east, or between the most southern moun- 
tains and the shore. 

Different portions of the colony are very differ- 
ently affected by the heats of summer ; and in 
the Table Valley an epitome of all the varieties 
may be said to be found. One of the British 
officers, who was stationed there during our for- 
mer possession of the Cape, ' declared,' says Mr. 
Barrow, ' that those who lived in it were either 
in an oven, or at the funnel of a pair of bellows, 
or under a water spout.' There is a difference 
in the summer months of from eight to ten 
degrees, of Fahrenheit's scale, between the tem- 
perature of Cape Town and Wynberg, at the 
distance only of about eight miles, from the cir- 
cumstance of the latter lying to the windward of 
the Table Mountain and the former to leeward 
of it. The summer is not oppressive to English- 
men in its general temperature at the Cape, and 
during the months of July, August, and Septem- 
ber^ answering, as we have seen, to our winter 
months), all the European settlers are glad, as a 
home, of a constant fire. The characteristic in- 
dications of the approach of winter at the Cape 
are the withdrawing of the silvery cloud from 
the head of the Table Mountain, and the gradual 
change of the winds from south-east to north-west. 
A raw and cold feel first accompanies the latter, 
which gradually heighten into perfect hurricanes, 
and storms of thunder and lightning, which con- 
tinue for several days. When the weather 
clears, the mountains east and north are seen to 
be covered with snow, and the head of the 
venerable Table to have exchanged its fleecy 
garb for a thin covering of snow or ice. The 
British soldiers were so remarkably healthy, 
during our first occupation of the place, that in 
the regimental hospitals of 5000 troops not more 
than 100 men were entered during several 
months (and with complaints brought on from 
the sort of excesses in which the natives indulge), 
while the general hospital had not one sick man. 
There is hardly a finer spot, indeed, in the domi- 
nions of Great Britain, as we shall see in the 
sequel of this account, for the seasoning of troops 
for a warm climate. Eastward of the colony, 
the Caffres, who are inured to exertion from 
their childhood, present as fine a race of men, 
generally reaching six feet high, robust and mus- 
cular, as are to be found on any portion of the 

In almost every part of the isthmus that con- 
nects the Cape Peninsula with the continent, 
fresh water rises at the depth of ten or twelve 
feet. At Wynberg, eight miles from Cape Town, 
a rill of water was recently discovered in boring 
at about twenty feet below the surface of the 
ground ; and when some workmen were pricking 
for coal in the Tiger Hills, at an elevation of 
twenty feet, a copious stream of water, according 
to the above author, was collected in the level in 
the month of February, the dryest season of 
the year. 

The profitable productions of the colony, 
taken as a whole, are wine, grain, all the Euro- 



pean and most of the tropical fruits, vegetables 
of every description, cattle and sheep. At the 
foot of the Table Mountain are considerable 
plantations of the protea argentea, or silver tree 
'a species of the protea peculiar to this spot), 
tie stone pine, and the white poplar. Avenues 
of oak adorn the country houses, and this tree 
grows rapidly throughout the colony, but rarely 
to any perfection as timber. It is constantly cut 
down, with the rest of the few forest trees of 
the Cape, for fuel, an article very scarce here, 
and which seems to have been very intemperately 
supplied from the plantations of late years, with- 
out any provision for a succession of trees. 
Another species of protea, the kreupel boom of 
the Dutch, is also planted extensively on the hills 
of the Cape district ; its bark is used in tanning, 
and the branches for fire-wood, a purpose to 
which are devoted various other species of this 
tree, which grow wild throughout the Peninsula, 
and many heath plants that grow on the smaller 
hills of that neighbourhood. Most families in 
decent circumstances are obliged to keep a slave 
employed entirely in the collection of this latter 

Lord Macartney directed various efforts to be 
made during the period of his government, in 
search for ' fossil coal ; and the operations in the 
neighbourhood of Table Bay were not wholly 
unsuccessful, when they were suspended by the 
discovery of a stratum of coally matter along 
the banks of a deep rivulet, flowing out of Tyger- 
berg Hill, on the east of the isthmus which joins 
the Cape Peninsula to the continent. It ran ho- 
rizontally, from ten inches to two feet in width 
over a bed of indurated clay, and was surrounded 
by strata of pipe-clay and white sandstone. 
The main bed does not appear to have been 
found ; but large ligneous blocks were dug out 
in some places ; in others the lithanthrax of 
naturalists, a turfy sort of coal, appeared, similar 
to the Bovey coal of England. The ligneous 
blocks burnt with a clear flame, leaving white 
ashes ; the more earthy and compact parts of the 
stratum not so clear, and leaving a sort of slaty 
caulk, with a brown crust. 

On the mountains of the southern coast as we 
have already stated, and particularly in the 
neighbourhood of Plettenberg's Bay, some lofty 
forests are found. The trees are of quick growth 
and considerable size, but generally hollow in 
the heart and much twisted in grain ; profitable 
timber is rarely procured from them. 

Wheat, barley, and pulse, are cultivated with 
success throughout the Cape district, and in the 
valleys of Drakenstein, East Zwartland, and the 
Twenty-four Rivers, which appear capable of any 
kind of agriculture. In fruits, flowers, and elegant 
shrubbery, no country exceeds the Cape. The 
apricots, oranges, peaches, prunes, and grapes, 
of Europe, flourish in the greatest perfection; 
pomegranates, melons, apples and pears, almonds, 
chestnuts, walnuts and mulberries, are also 
plentiful. The apples and pears are rather infe- 
rior ; but strawberries are found ripe all the year 
and a few raspberries of a superior quality. No 
grapes in Europe are thought superior to those 
of this colony. 

There are some good pasture farms on the 

eastern side of the mountains that run northward 
from the Cape, and at the southern foot of the 
Zwartzberg, or Black Mountains. In the same 
direction are found whole plains of the com - 
mon aloe, which forms a considerable article of 
traffic. Horses are the favorite speculation of 
the grazing farmers in this direction, however, 
and the rye-grass of the district appears to suit 
them well. 

The wild animals of the Cape are the lion, 
rhinoceros, elephant, hippopotamus, buffalo, 
wolf, panther, leopard, hyaena, jackal, zebra, 
tiger-cat, quacha, and various tribes of antelopes. 
Of these the gnoo, an elegant mixture of the 
horse and antelope, seems peculiar to this part of 
Africa. His body, shoulders, and mane, resemble 
those of the former animal, except that the mane 
is rather under than upon the neck, running 
from the breast between the fore legs ; his legs 
have the exquisite finish of those of the antelope ; 
while his head resembles that of a buffalo. The 
flocks of antelopes have greatly receded from 
the coast within these few years, and are now 
principally confined to the eastern, or Graaff 
Reyuet district. The lion is said to be peculiarly 
cowardly and treacherous here. The elephant is 
taken by the Hottentots by digging pits under his 
haunts; but the European settlers openly hunt 
him, as well as the rhinoceros, and kill them with 
fire arms. Here are also hares, and a rock-rabbit 
without a tail. 

Ostriches, eagles,vultures,kites,pelicans,cranes, 
ibises, flamingos, and spoon-bills, with wild 
ducks, geese, teal, snipes, and partridges, abound 
in the colony ; together with a vast variety of 
the smaller birds of most beautiful plumage. 
The markets are well supplied with fish, both 
from the open sea, the rivers, and the numerous 
inlets of the coast. Bream, perch, soles, mack- 
erel, skate, and rock-fish, are the most common ; 
and, of shell-fish, the oyster, crab, and muscle. 
Seals were once found in large quantities in the 
islets of False Bay, but are considerably dimi- 
nished of late years. The whale is taken in 
Table Bay : a company of merchants formerly 
associated in the town for the prosecution of a 
South Whale Fishery ; it was a speculation, 
however, that did not succeed ; the fish are cer- 
tainly inferior to the whale of the northern seas, 
though Mr. Barrow is still sanguine in his expec- 
tations from a similar undertaking. 

The horses most in request here are the black 
and grizzled breed of South America, which art 
elegant in appearance, and though small are very 
strong. Large numbers of oxen are raised in 
the eastern division, and the animal is much 
used in draught work throughout the colony. In 
his make he runs to waste, (as the English farmtr 
would say) the shoulders are high, his legs unu- 
sually long, and his horns large. Mr. Barrow 
saw many of them with long scars in their sides, 
arising from the practice of cutting them with 
knives, as a method of urging them forward over 
a difficult pass; and mentions a wealthy inhabi- 
tant of the Cape whg boasted that he could at 
any time start his team on a full gallop by only 
whetting his knife on the side of the waggon ! 
' In exhibiting this masterly experiment,' he adds, 
' the effect of a constant and long perseverance 



in brutality, to some of his friends, the waggon was 
overturned, and one of the company, unluckily 
not the proprietor, had his leg broken. Hotten- 
tot's Holland Kloof, a steep pass over the first 
range of mountains beyond the promontory of 
the (Jape, has been the scene of many an instance 
of this sort of cruelty. I have heard a fellow 
boast that after cutting and slashing one of his 
oxen in the kloof till an entire piece of a foot 
square did not remain in his whole hide, he 
stabbed him to the heart ; and the same person 
is said, at another time, to have kindled a fire 
under the belly of an ox, because it could not 
draw the waggon up the same kloof.' Goats 
are numerous in some parts ; hogs are badly 
fed, and never eaten at a respectable table ; and 
poultry is very rarely seen. 

At Cape Town, is the seat of government, 
and a court of justice, to which the provincial 
courts appeal ; the landrosts, or resident magis- 
trates of the other districts, exercising a feeble 
authority. The Dutch system of governing this 
colony was found, indeed, on its conquest by 
our arms, to be exceedingly ill-contrived, and 
badly executed ; but quite impossible to be sud- 
denly changed amongst an obstinate and igno- 
rant race of colonists. The landrosts were 
originally appointed for the purpose of settling 
disputes between the farmer and the oppressed 
natives ; he was impowered to levy fines to a 
certain amount, and to collect the government 
and parochial imposts. His assistant council, 
called the hemraaden, comprised a few of the 
principal settlers of the neighbourhood, gene- 
rally about six ; and under them were placed an 
indefinite number of feldtwagtmeesteers, or su- 
perintendents of subdivisions of the district, who 
were to settle the watercourses, rights to springs, 
&c. The boors, as they call themselves, who 
were the principal agents of this administration, 
of course, always favored their brother boors; 
crimes of every kind were committed with impu- 
nity, within a few miles of the Cape ; and the 
mere inconvenience of discontinuing his personal 
visits to the markets of the capital was the sole 
punishment of the murderer, and men under 
sentence of outlawry for contempt of the pro- 
vincial courts. Public justice, however, has of 
late been gradually assuming its firm British cha- 

About midway between False Bay and Table 
Bay, are the two farms mentioned by Dr. Sparr- 
man, as producing the genuine Constantia wine, 
of which they yield from fifty to a hundred 
leaguers of 154 gallons, annually. They lie di- 
rectly under the mountains, a circumstance to 
which the richness of the soil is, no doubt, in 
part to be attributed ; the grapes are the mtisca- 
tel ; and particular care is taken in the whole 
process of the vineyard, to sustain the reputation 
of the spot, and in particular to reject all stalks 
and unripe fruit from the press. The whole of 
the farms on this part of the Peninsula yield to- 
gether about 700 leaguers of wine ; and green 
and ripe grapes, and prepared raisins, are sent in 
abundance from them to Cape Town. A distinct 
and laborious collection of the bulbous roots of 
he Peninsula has been thought worthy of a place 

in the botanic garden at Kew ; but many of it > 
elegant varieties are still said to be wanting 

The shrubs and heath plants that diversify the 
hills of the Cape district, the chasms of the 
mountains, and every spot where a root will 
strike, are also almost endless in their variety ; 
Doctor Roxburgh enumerated 1 30 species of the 
latter between the Cape, and the first range of 
mountains. The wax plant also grows abun- 
dantly on the sandy parts of the isthmus. In 
the clefts of kloofs of the mountains in this dis- 
trict are found the few remaining holds of the hy- 
aenas and wolves, which formerly infested even 
the streets of the capital, and still approach its 
outskirts in the night, in scent of the offal and 
dead cattle which are suffered to be thrown down 
on the public roads. The das, called by Pennant 
the Cape cavy, is a curious little animal, which 
also abounds in these caverns. Its size is about 
that of a rabbit ; its color a light dusk ; its ears 
are short, and it has no tail ; the flesh is eaten at 
table. The steenbok, the Guinea antelope of 
Pennant, and once the most numerous of the an- 
telope tribe in this district, is now nearly exter- 

The inlets of South Africa abound with whales 
which run from fifty to sixty feet in length, and 
yield from six to ten tons of oil. They appear to 
make these bays a shelter for their young, and it 
is remarkable that none but females have been 
caught for years together. They are easier taken 
than in the northern seas, but, from their inferior 
size, the bone is not valuable. The penguin now 
supplies the place of the seal on the islands of 
False Bay. Scolopendras,scorpions, and immense 
black spiders, infest the Cape ; but the mosqui- 
toes are not so annoying as in most warm cli- 
mates. A particular species of garden locust is, 
perhaps, the most formidable insect of the coun- 
try : and the bite of the small sand-fly is very 
troublesome. Small land turtles are found in all 
the open parts of the peninsula; the camel ion is 
also frequently seen, and various species of 
lizards. The most formidable of the snake tribe 
(which every where abounds, and most of which 
are venomous) is the cobra capella, as it is called, 
or hooded snake, of which the Hottentots are 
particularly afraid, and for which they, as well 
as the Dutch settlers, use a ridiculous remedy, 
called the slange steen, or snake stone. It is de- 
clared by those who deal in it to be a stone taken 
out of the head of a particular kind of serpent, 
and the criterion of its virtue is that, when 
plunged into water, it should produce bubbles 
on the surface. The fact is, it is a piece of ivory 
or firm bone, burnt round the edges into an oval 
shape, and the porosity of the bone constitutes 
its virtues, such as they are. The fascinating 
power of serpents over birds is uniformly asser- 
ted in this country, but their influence is not 
supposed to be extended to the human species. 

All marriages in the colony must be performed 
at Cape Town ; the following table contains a 
list of them for eight years, and the christenings 
and burials of the capital during the same period ; 
giving an increase of christenings above burials 
of 1,4 16 in that time. 







































In eight years. 




To the north-east of Stellenbosch are the val- 
leys of Great and Little Drakenstein, sheltered 
by lofty mountains, and well watered throughout 
by the river Berg and its minor streams, which 
unite in about the centre of them. The subdi- 
vision of Little Drakenstein is enclosed, as it 
were, by the larger valleys, and the two together 
supply full two-thirds of the wine of the Cape 
market. On the west of this valley is the village 
of Paarl, surrounded by a very fine tract of land, 
and distinguished by a curious mass of granite, 
surmounted with a number of large round stones, 
like the pearls of a necklace, to which it owes 
its name. The pearl is inaccessible on three 
sides, and rises about 400 feet from its base on 
the summit of the mountain, where it measures 
in circumference, according to this writer, a full 
mile. The sloping northern side by which it 
is ascended, is upwards of 1000 feet in length, 
and nearly covered with a species of green lichen. 
Towards the summit it is split by two deep clefts 
crossing at right angles, in which grow a number 
of beautiful aloes, and several cryptogamous 
plants. The whole side of the mountain is a 
perfect garden of various and beautiful plants. 

In the autumn the exquisite scenery of this 
spot is further heightened by the presence of 
large numbers of a beautiful little bird called the 
creeper, some species of which unite the most 
enchanting powers of voice with their elegant 
attractions for the eye, and occasionally call off 
the attention of the traveller from every other 
part of the scene. 

The mountains to the east of this valley are 
the barrier wall between the Cape, or western 
coast, and the interior ; and there are but three 
passes, or kloofs, that are ever crossed by wheels. 
Eland's Kloof to the north, which opens into 
plains almost entirely uninhabited. Roode Sand 
Kloof opposite to Sandhana Bay, which com- 
municates with Graaf Reynet and the north-east 
of the colony ; and Hottentot's Holland Kloof, in 
the neighbourhood of False Bay, which leads 
from the Cape into the district of Zwellendam. 

Tranche Hoeck, the French Corner, occupies 
the south-east angle of this beautiful valley, and 
is not the less interesting from the recollection 
of the causes that brought its first settlers here, 
the persecutions that ensued on the revocation of 
the edict of Nantz. To these injured confessors 
of Protestantism the whole colony is indebted 
for the cultivation of the vine, here first intro- 
duced by them. 

The division of East Zvvartland and the 

twenty-four rivers, ' the Granaries of the Cape,' 
deserve particular notice. They lie to the north- 
west of the valley of Drakenstein, or between 
the Berg river west, and the great northern chain 
of mountains east. The wheat crops are very 
fine and full, and the land rich to perfect lux- 
uriance. Rice also nourishes in the marshy 
grounds, and abundance of fruit ; but wine is 
only made for domestic use. The Berg river, 
whose numerous streams give name to it, is an 
invaluable acquisition to the valley of the twenty- 
four rivers ; and being capable, at a compara- 
tively small expense, of a communication with 
Saldhana Bay, bids fair, in some future time, to 
open an important avenue of supplies to ship- 

Sing. ' Should the bay of Saldiif na,' says Mr. 
arrow, ' at any future period, become the 
general rendezvous for shipping, these two di- 
visions will be more valuable than all the rest of 
the colony.' The crops in the Zwartland dis- 
trict are more precarious, having a greater de- 
pendence on the quantity of rain that falls. 

Nortn of the plain of the twenty-four rivers 
is the Picquet Berg, which grows tobacco in 
large quantities, and of the best description in 
the colony, Here also horses, cattle, and sheep, 
are more cultivated than to the south, while the 
grain and fruit is not inferior. 

The division of Olifant's or Elephant's River 
terminates this fruitful series of plains. This 
stream is navigable for small craft full twenty 
miles up the country ; but its banks are uninha- 
bited until it reaches this valley, which is situated 
between a double ridge of the mountains that run 
northward from the Cape. 

Crossing the great chain of mountains to the 
east, we now have a succession of grazing farms, 
scattered over vast karroo plains, and producing 
some of the finest horses and horned cattle of 
the colony. 

To the "north-west, at the distance of five days' 
journey over an absolute desert, is the rch gra- 
zing country formerly inhabited by the Namaaqua 
Hottentots. It consists of a series of plains at 
the foot of the Khamies Berg mountains, which 
form the northern extremity of the colony, and 
unite with the Copper Mountains, which run ?n 
unknown course into the interior of the con- 

Among the Roggeveldt Mountains in thi? 
neighbourhood, and a little to the south, is the 
division of Roode Sand, or Waveren, about 
thirty miles in length, and seventy miles from 
Cape Town ; on the road to which is the kloof 
of Roode Sand, a much frequented pass through 
the great chain of mountains. Here is a small 
rising village, with a church and comfortable 
parsonage. The valley is abundantly watered 
by streams connected with the Berg and Breed 
rivers, and is fruitful both in grain and wine. 
The Chinese bamboo flourishes in great beauty ; 
rice, tfie Cape olive, and the palma Christi. 

Further south, on the border of the Hex and 
Breede rivers, are some excellent meadows, well 
adapted for the growth of corn ; no part of the 
colony is better watered. South of this is Zoek 
Milk, or Sweet Milk's Valley, containing the 
meritorious establishment of the Moravians, or 
Hem liiiters as they were originally called, whose 



kind offices towards the poor oppressed aborigines 
of the country were never duly appreciated by 
the Dutch. During both the periods in which 
tlve colony has been in British possession, their 
influence has been much encouraged and in- 
creased. These appear, indeed, missionaries 
well adapted to obtain a permanent triumph in 
their benevolent designs. They have devoted 
themselves to the civilisation of the Hottentot, 
as the best mode of reaching both his un- 
derstanding and his heart. Mr. Barrow, in 
his first journey, found three of their venerable 
ministers surrounded by 600 Hottentots, and an 
establishment that breathed the simplicity and 
meek effective zeal of their system. Their 
church, at the upper end of the valley, was a 
plain but neat edifice ; their corn mill the best 
in the colony ; and the garden of their village in 
the highest state of cultivation. One ' adorned' 
his Christianity, thus circumstanced, by acting as 
the smith of the establishment; another as a 
shoemaker, and a third as a tailor. ' They were 
men of the middle age,' savs Mr. B., ' plain and 
decent in their dress ; cleanly in their persons ; 
of modest manners ; meek and humble in their 
deportment, but intelligent and lively in con- 
versation ; zealous in the cause of the mission, 
but free from bigotry or enthusiasm.' . It is their 
habit to teach every one of their converts some 
useful trade. The place is now called Gnaden- 
thal, and contains about 1300 inhabitants. There 
is a similar establishment at Groenekloof. 

The Kamnasie mountain on the east is sur- 
rounded with a few grazing lands and woody 
hills, that lead down to the Lange Kloof, or 
Long Pass, a delightful valley between the moun- 
tains, along which runs one of the best roads in 
the colony. A series of rich pastures here sud- 
denly burst upon the traveller, bordered by a 
profusion of heath plants, and studded with farm- 
houses, to the length of 150 miles; each farm 
being, by a regulation of the Dutch government, 
three miles distant from the other. At every 
house is a vineyard and fruitery, yielding the 
Persian or Muscatel grape, which is generally 
dried in a summary way for the Cape market ; 
and remarkably fine oranges. The inferior and 
bruised grapes are thrown with the under- 
growings, and with the lees or dregs of new 
wine, into large vessels to ferment, and from this 
is procured the brandewyn, an execrable cheap 
spirit, of the Cape. Here are also extensive 
plantations of tobacco. 

There is but one road leading to the south of 
the valley called the Duyvil's Kop, or Devil's 
Head, which is esteemed one of the most for- 
midable passes of the country. Sixteen oxen 
were yoked to each waggon of Mr. Barrow's 
party in passing this place, which toward the top 
is a complete set of stairs, or steps from stratum 
to stratum of the rock, some of them from three 
to four feet high, while the width of the road is 
not more than fifteen paces. Over these it was 
necessary to lift the waggons by main strength ; 
and just as our traveller reached the summit, one 
of those remarkable changes in the weather took 
place which will strikingly illustrate the character 
of this climate. The day had been remarkably 
pleasant, the thermometer standing at 74, when 

the whole hemisphere was sudden .y overcast, 
and an immense sheet of black vapor ap- 
proached from the south-east. Rolling up the 
mountain in distinct volumes, rapidly succeeding 
each other, it completely immersed the party at 
the top, and the temperature sunk to 39. Snow 
had fallen on the same day (the longest in the 
year) near Zwellendam, and laid for some time 
on the mountains, unmelted. The descent on 
the south side is by no means difficult. 

The most eastern division of this portion of the 
colony comprehends all the country between Plet- 
tenberg's and Camtoos Bay, and is penetrated by 
a range of forests running parallel with the sea 
coast for 150 miles, where the stately elephant, 
the rhinoceros, the buffalo, and the antelope, are 
found in their primitive herds. There is no re- 
gular road through these thickets, but many 
large and well watered plains have been cleared 
in the midst of them. We count no less than 
nine minor rivers in the official chart. There 
are also several lakes abounding with fish. Cattle 
and sheep are the principal productions, but 
there is no part of the colony more evidently 
capable of improvement, or indeed of any kind 
of agriculture. The wood of this district has 
never been fairly cultivated ; such of it as is 
only fit for fuel can hardly be got to market, 
through the badness of the roads from the prin- 
cipal forests to the Cape. Were these once 
equal to what the demands of the Cape for fuel, 
and the abundance of the supplies in this neigh- 
bourhood alike seem to dictate, an unfailing 
source of emolument would be opened to the 
colonist, and a capital supplied for the working 
of the iron ores, and the rearing of profitable 
timber, to an almost indefinite quantity. 

The settlement of the town of George, in this 
neighbourhood, is one of those circumstances that 
must tend to the development of these resources ; 
it was a measure of Sir J. Cradock's government. 
This and the Graaff lleynet district furnish the 
principal and best trees of the colony. 

Of these the cyperus or cedar-hout has the 
recommendation of a strong turpentine smell, 
which preserves furniture from insects ; the 
geel-houts run occasionally much larger, and 
would make an excellent substitute for fir on a 
variety of occasions ; the hassagai-hout is an 
elegant wood for domestic purposes ; the koeha 
might be recommended for superior household 
furniture ; and the planks of the wit Essenhout 
for flooring of all sorts, and boat planks in par- 

Graaff Reynet District, as originally laid down, 
was the termination of the colony eastward ; di- 
vided between about 700 families. The whole 
of the south of this division up to Albany has 
been recently called the district of Uitenhagen. 
It is generally speaking, a grazing district, but 
grows upwards of 10,000 muids of good corn 
annually ; and about half the quantity of barley. 
See ALBANY. The inhabitants of this colony 
may be considered as divided into six very dis- 
tinct classes of human beings; including, per- 
haps, as great a variety of human character as 
could be found upon any equul space of the 
earth's surface. 1. The native, or Hottento 
tribes. See HOTTENTOTS. 2. The slave popula- 



tion. 3. The vine growers. 4. The grain far- 
mers. 5. The graziers ; and 6. The town's peo- 
ple of the cape. 

The slave population Mr. Barrow describes as 
better fed and clothed than any of the peasantry 
of Europe : the domestic slaves at Cape Town 
live a wretchedly idle life. Every child amongst 
the richer inhabitants has its attendant of this 
description ; and to humor its caprices is amongst 
their most important employments. Twenty or 
thirty of them, in other establishments, will be 
engaged to do the work of six good English ser- 
vants. The education of children is also, in 
many cases, wholly left to the most clever of 
them. The aspiring temper of this part of the 
population was decidedly indicated at that period 
of the French revolution which was fatal to the 
independence of Holland. Just at the crisis of 
the arrival of the British forces in 1 795, the slaves 
had their regular meetings, and discussions upon 
the prevailing doctrines of the day, and were 
even becoming bold enough to hint to their mis- 
tresses, ' We carry you now ; but by-and-by it will 
be our turn.' The whole system, in fact, is a 
disgrace and an incumbrance to the colony. 

The vine growers, or wine boors as they are 
called at the Cape, are the most opulent culti- 
vators of the soil of this colony. Their lands are 
chiefly freehold, exempt from almost all taxes, 
and capable of any sort of cultivation. The size 
of their farms is about 120 acres, English, and 
the culture of the grape, with an elegant garden, 
generally occupies the whole. Descended from 
the old. French families who first introduced the 
vine into the colony, they retain much of the 
suavity and communicativeness of their ancestors, 
and in this respect, as well as in the numerous 
comforts of their establishments, impress the 
stranger with a feeling of their respectability and 
of their decided superiority over their neigh- 
bours. But the French language is never heard 
amongst them, and a French book of any kind 
is rarely seen. 

The produce of their vineyards is brought to 
market from September to the period of the new 
vintage in February or March, but principally 
in the four last months of the year. Here it is 
subject to a rate of three rix-dollars per legger of 
wine or brandy, on passing the barrier ; but no 
duty is laid at the vineyard, or when sold 
in the country. The only taxes to which the 
grower is subject are a small capitation rate to- 
wards repairing the highways leading into Cape 
Town, and what is called the lion and tiger 
money, a district rate originally levied to defray 
the expenses of exterminating those animals, but 
now devoted to the general exigencies of each 
division. At his farms he will rear his sheep, 
and his corn, perhaps, or obtain them readily in 
exchange for wine. Milch cows for his family, 
and occasionally poukry, are also among the 
comforts of his establishment. 

The grain farmers, or corn boors, are also 
generally opulent, and assume the next rank in 
society to the wine boors. The most respectable 
of them live either in the Cape district, or the 
neighbouring parts of Stellenbosch and Draken- 
stein. They occupy loan farms, or such as are 
held by lease under government, and their paro- 

chial taxes are not more than those of the wine 
growers. They are a selfish and quarrelsome 
race. The eastern mode of treading out the corn 
by oxen is the substitute for threshing here. A 
great part of the straw is wasted ; the chaff only 
and short straw of barley being preserved as 
fodder for horses. The wheat in the Cape dis- 
trict is fine and full in the ear, weighing from 
sixty to sixty-five pounds a bushel ; a cargo sent 
to Mark-lane, on the capture of the Cape in 
1795, fetched the highest price of the day. 

The graziers are the lowest class of the colo- 
nists, and consist in many parts of the refuse of 
European society : of sailors who abandon their 
vessels, or deserters from the troops, who may 
have been stationed here, or have put in at the 
Cape. If they are fortunate enough to recom- 
mend themselves to a settled boor's family, and 
marry one of his daughters (which they frequently 
will), a few sheep and cattle are given them to 
begin the world with, and those who are steady 
sometimes attain considerable comforts. 

The inhabitants of Cape Town are a very 
distinct race from most of those which we have 
described, and yet are intimately connected with 
all their pursuits. In addition to its importance 
as a capital, and as the chief market of redun- 
dant produce, Cape Town stands at present be- 
tween the only two channels of exportation and 
importation, Table Bay and False Bay, and is 
the military key of the colony. Here, therefore, 
numerous agents of the boor's reside ; and the 
koopman, or merchant, is a man of importance. 
While the phlegm and apathy of the Dutch 
character seldom appear more conspicuously than 
at this place, and nowhere so devoid of common 
industry, men of undoubted talent, intelligence, 
and integrity, are found at the head of this class. 
The mercantile advantages of Cape Town have 
been latterly, however, in some degree diverted 
to Simon's Town, a rising place, containing the 
naval arsenal of the colony, and about 150 neat 
houses on the shore of Simon's bay. 

The established religion of the Cape colony 
is Calvinism or the reformed church ; the mi- 
nisters of which are a highly respected and 
respectable body of men, both in the town and 
country. All other sects are tolerated, but not 
directly countenanced or paid. The clergy are 
entitled in civil life to take place next to the pre- 
sident of the court of justice in town, and to the 
landrost in the country ; and their widows are 
provided for for life. Education we regret to add 
is at a very low ebb in this capital, and through- 
out the colony. 

The original discovery of the Cape of Good 
Hope is traced to Bartholomew Diaz, who with 
a small expedition fitted out by John II. of 
Portugal, five years before Columbus embarked 
on his first voyage, first discovered the Cape ; but 
the weather-beaten condition of his ships, and 
the violence of the winds, compelled him to steer 
homewards, after denominating this promontory 
Cabo Tormentos, the Cape of Storms, or, as 
other writers state, Cabo dos todos Tormentos, the 
Cape of all Plagues. His royal master, how- 
ever, directed it to be called The Cape of Good 
Hope ; and is said to have deprived himself of 
sleep, to form plans for availing himself of its 



advantages. A second expedition was despatched 
10 these regions in the year 1497, when, on the 
26th of November, Vasco de Gama successfully 
doubled the Cape, and coasted the eastern shores 
of Africa to Melinda, in Zanguebar. The fol- 
lowing year the Portuguese admiral, Rio D'ln- 
fante, landed in this neighbourhood on a voyage 
to India, and gave his own name to what is now 
called the Great Fish River ; where shortly after- 
wards the court of Portugal attempted to form 
a settlement. In 1509 the viceroy of Brasil, 
Francisco D'Almeyda, putting in here for provi- 
sions was repulsed ; and, on attempting to head 
a reinforcement, was mortally wounded by a 
poisoned arrow. The revenge taken by his coun- 
trymen three years aftei, began the series of inju- 
ries which the tribes of this country have received 
from Europeans. A large piece of brass ordnance, 
loaded with missiles, was landed as a present to the 
natives, who had shown themselves extremely 
fond of brass, and they were drawing it by ropes 
ashore, when it was barbarously fired amongst 
the crowd, and made a dreadful slaughter. After 
this we hear no more of the Portuguese at the 
Cape, except as visiting it, in common with other 
nations trading to the east. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
the Dutch East India Company turned their at- 
tention to the Cape as a permanent possession, 
and built a fort for their protection when there. 
Every ship bound to the east was provided with 
a stone on which her name and that of each of 
her principal officers were engraved ; to these 
they were to add the date at which she touched 
at the Cape ; and burying it in a particular spot 
with a tin box underneath, containing letters for 
Holland, the returning ships sought for it, and 
carried them home. The English afterwards 
adopted the same custom. 

In 1620 Andrew Shilling and Humphrey Fitz- 
herbert, commanders of vessels bound to the 
East Indies, hearing that the Dutch intended to 
establish a colony at the Cape in the following 
year, planted the British standard here, and took 
possession of it in the name of ' James, king of 
England,' because they ' thought it better that the 
Dutch or any other nation whatever should be 
his majesty's subjects in this place, than that his 
subjects should be subject to any other.' This 
sentiment seems to have been supported in no 
particular way by the government at home. In 
1650 Van Iliebeck, or Roebeck, a surgeon of a 
Dutch Indiaman, was equipped with every neces- 
sary for the settlement of himself and 100 fol- 
lowers, and appointed admiral and governor in 
chief at the Cape. He ordered the natives a 
quantity of brass beads, toys, brandy and tobac- 
co, worth 50,000 guilders, it is said, for the de- 
livery of a certain portion of land which has 
since become the site of Cape Town. Women 
and more cautious adventurers now joined them 
from home, and we soon find them penetrating 
to the Salt River. 

From 1659 to 1661 the new settlers were much 
annoyed by wars with the native tribes. At last, 
the native chiefs ag-eed to confirm to the Dutch 
three leagues of land, round the fort, on condition 
that they should claim no more. And this is the 
only public attempt that seems to have been made 

against this colony by the Hottentots, during the 
whole period of its history. 

Stellenbosch district was planted about the 
year 1609 by Governor Simon Vander Stel, who 
gave it his name, according to the authors of the 
Universal History ; i. e. Stel and Bosch or 
Bush, from the abundance of the shrubs in the 
neighbourhood. S"ome modern travellers suppose 
it to be derived from the stenbok, or antelope, 
which once abounded here. The same governor 
first organised a militia, and military board, for 
the defence of the colony. The vineyards of 
Constantia, also, were enclosed and settled by 
this spirited governor, and named after his wife, 
a lady who is honored by one remaining statue 
to her memory over the door of the mansion, 
and another over the cellar-door of the establish- 
ment. Simon's Bay and Valley appear likewise 
to owe their names to him. 

The colony was for a long time subject to the 
governor of Batavia, through whom all the or- 
ders of the home government were sent; and it 
was directed that no two farms in the country 
should be established at less than three miles' dis- 
tance from each other. No further events of im- 
portance occur in the history of the Cape, until 
the revolution of Holland at the close of the last 
century. This extended its influence to this re- 
mote settlement as early as 1795 ; and the Bri- 
tish government fortunately resolved to take pos- 
session of the colony for the prince of Orange, 
at the very period when a convention had 
already been established, and was about to de- 
clare it a free and independent republic. A 
French force had been confidently expected, and 
the first determination of the public authorities 
was to hold out against the British attack, and 
to call out the burgher cavalry, who were to per- 
form wonders against the enemy. Some few of 
them answered the summons. General Sir James 
Craig, at the head of about 1600 men, led on the 
attack, and brought his guns to bear, he quickly 
drove the Dutch within their lines, and a very 
few shots from our artillery decided the contest. 
In the middle of the night offers of capitulation 
were sent to the British commander, and the 
whole colony passed into our hands almost as 
easily as it had done into those of the Dutch. It 
was restored in full sovereignty to the Batavian 
republic, in March, 1803. 

On the renewal of the war with France, and 
its dependencies, Great Britain did not fail to 
consider the Cape as an important point of attack 
upon the enemy ; and seems to have awoke to 
the determination of holding it permanently. A 
well-appointed force of 5000 men, under Sir 
David Baird and Sir Home Popham, appeared 
before the town in January 1806, and were re- 
ceived by about equal numbers, under the conl- 
mand of the same governor to whom we had 
relinquished the colony. The two armies met 
in the plain at the foot of Table Mountain. The 
Highland brigade, under general Ferguson, led 
the attack, and the enemy retreated through a 
neighbouring defile to the mountains, when ho- 
norable terms were proposed, and agreed upon, 
for the cession of the place to the British troops. 
At the peace of Paris it was definitely recognised 
as a colony of Great Britain. See Barrow's 

CAP 128 

T^aoelsm Southern Africa; Vaillant, Lichtenstein, 
and Campbell's Travels ; and the Interesting Jour- 
nal of the Rev. Mr. Latrobe's Visit to South 
Africa i* 1815 and 1816. 

CAPEL (Arthur, lord), a devoted and truly 
noble adherent of Charles I. was the son of 
Sir Henry Capel, Knt. on whose death he suc- 
ceeded to the fortunes of his family. In 1640 
lie represented the county of Hertford in par- 
liament, and voted in the first instance against the 
king's measures, and for the attainder of Stafford. 
Finding, however, the extravagance of the views 
of his party, he had the intrepidity to abandon it, 
and was soon advanced by Charles to the peerage 
by the title of lord Capel, of Hadham. He 
defended Colchester in 1649, against the par- 
liamentary forces, but, being obliged to surrender 
to Fairfax, he was committed to the Tower, and, 
although at first he made his escape, being re- 
taken, he was beheaded March 9th, 1649. Cla- 
rendon says he was a man in whom the malice 
of his enemies could find no fault, and that his 
friends might be well content with Cromwell's 
character of him. 

CAPEL (Arthur), his son, was created earl of 
Essex at the Restoration, and employed as am- 
bassador to Denmark. In 1679 he became, for 
a few months, first lord of the treasury. But, 
being accused of being concerned in the rye- 
nouse plot, he was committed to the Tower in 
1683. He was found a few days afterwards 
with his throat cut. 

CAPELL (Edward), a celebrated dramatic 
critic, was born in Suffolk, and educated at Bury. 
The duke of Grafton bestowed on him the office 
of deputy inspector of plays, to which a salary 
is annexed of 200 a year. In 1745 he first 
projected an edition of Shakspeare, of the strictest 
accuracy, to be collated and published, in due 
time, ex fide codicum. He immediately pro- 
ceeded to collect and compare the oldest and 
scarcest copies ; noting the original excellencies 
and defects of the rarest quartos, and distin- 
guishing the improvements or variations of the 
first, second, and third folios; and, after many 
years' labor, produced a very beautiful small oc- 
tavo, in ten volumes, with an Introduction. In 
1763 he published three large volumes in quarto, 
entitled Notes and Various Readings of Shaks- 
peare ; together with the School of Shakspeare, 
or Extracts from divers English books, that were 
in print in the Author's tin? 3 ; evidently showing 
from whence his several Fables were taken, and 
some parcel of his Dialogue. Also farther Ex- 
tracts, which contribute to a due understanding 
of his Writings, or give a light to the History of 
his Life, or to the Dramatic History of his Time. 
Mr. Capell was also the editor of a volume 
of ancient poems, called Prolusions; and the 
Alteration of Antony and Cleopatra, as acted at 
Drury Lane, in 1758. He died January 24th, 

CAPELLA, in astronomy, a bright fixed star 
in the left shoulder of the constellation Auriga. 

CAPELLO ^Bianca), a Venetian lady, of 
respectable family, and duchess of Tuscany, in 
the sixteenth century. Her father, Bart. Capello, 
a patrician of Venice, discountenancing an in- 
trigue into which she fell in early life, she left 

her native city in company with her paramour. 
Bonaventure. She was pregnant, and the lovers 
married at Florence. Here the uncommon 
beauty of her person soon attracted the attentions 
of Francis, son of Cosmo de Medici, the reigning 
dull e of Tuscany ; the husband consenting to 
his own dishonor, was advanced; and he being 
assassinated in the course of a new intrigue, Bi- 
anca became the avowed mistress of Francis. 
She is said at this time to have feigned a second 
pregnancy, and to have imposed the purchased 
chi'd of some poor parents on her admirer as 
his own son. Ultimately, on the death of the 
wife of Francis, and his accession to the ducal 
throne, she induced the republic of Venice to 
acknowledge her as ' a daughter of the state,' and 
was publicly married, and installed duchess of 
Tuscany in 1579. This elevated station she oc- 
cupied nearly nine years, to the great disgust of 
the other members of the Medicean family, and 
died within two days of her husband (not without 
the suspicion of both being poisoned), in Oc- 
tober, 1587. His successor would not suffer her 
remains to be buried in the family vault, and 
procured the illegitimacy of her child to be pub- 
licly recorded. 

CAPELLUS (Lewis), an eminent French 
Protestant divine, born at Sedan about 1579. 
He was author of some learned works; but is 
chiefly known from the controversy he engaged 
in with the younger Buxtorf, concerning the an- 
tiquity of the Hebrew points, which Capellus 
undertook to disprove. His Critica Sacra was 
also an elaborate work, and excited some dis- 
putes. He died in 1658, having made an 
abridgement of his life in his work De gente 
Capellorum. He was also the author of Historia 
Illustrata; Templi Hierosolymetani Delineatio 
Triplex; De Critica Nuper se Edita; Ad Novem 
Davidis Lyram Animadversiones ; Cronologia 
Sacra ; Diatriba de Verio et Antiquis Ebraorum 
Literis ; Spicilegium Post Messem. 

CA'PER, v. &w. ~) Fr. capriole ; Ital. cu- 

CA'PERER, n. \priola; from the Lat. 

CA'PER-CUTTING, n. j caper, a goat. A leap ; 
a jump ; a skip. The verb is expressive of dan- 
cing sportively; skipping merrily; 'like die 
leaping and springing up of goates, when they 
leape and play,' says Minsheu. It is also used 
as a contemptuous designation of dancing ; as is 
the word caperer for a dancer. To cut a caper 
is to leap up with a dance-like motion. The 
Italians have an equivalent phrase, tagliar le ca- 
priole, which is translated by to caper, to prance. 
A caper, Fr. capre ; Dutch, kapre ; was once the 
designation cf a privateer, or pirate-ship ; per- 
haps from the quickness and desultoriness of iUs 

We, that are true lovers, run into strange capers , 
but as all is mortal in nature, so is all nature in love 
mortal in folly. Sliahspeare. As you like it, 

The truth is, I am old in judgment ; and he that 
will caper with me for a thousand marks, let him lend 
me the money, and have at him. Id. Henry IV. 

Our master 

Capering to eye her. Id. Tempest. 

His nimble hand's instinct then taught each string 

A cuperiny cheerfulness, and made them sing 

To their own dance. Crushnia, 

CAP / 

We that are true lovers, run into strange capers ; 
out as all is mortal in nature, so is all nature in love 
uxirtal in folly. 

Shaktpeare. As you like it. 

jie tumbler's gambols some delight afford j 
T?o less the nimble caperer on the cord : 
l!ut these are still insipid stuff to thee, 
Cooped in a ship, and tossed upon the sea. 

Dryden's Juvenal. 

Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed to cut a caper, 
on the strait rope, at least an inch higher than any 
other lord in the whole empire. Swift's Gulliver. 

The family tript it about, and capered like hail stones 
bounding from a marble floor. Artsuthnot's John Bull. 

The stage would need no force, nor song, nor dance, 
Nor capering monsieur from active France. Rowe. 

CA'PER, n. 1 Fr. capre, Lat. capparis ; 

CA'PER-BUSH, $ KaTTTropic. An acid pickle, 
made of the flower-buds of a shrub. The word 
is always used in the plural, except when it forms 
a compound with another word, as in caper- 
sauce. See CAPPARIS. 

We invent new sauces and pickles, which resemble 
the animal ferment in taste and virtue, as mangoes, 
olives, and capers. Flayer. 

CAPER, in shipping, a vessel used by the 
Dutch for cruising and taking vessels from the 
enemy ; in which sense, caper amounts to the 
same with privateer. Capers are commonly 
double officered, and crowded with hands even 
beyond the rates of ships of war, because the 
thing chiefly in view is boarding the enemies. 


CAPERNAUM, a city celebrated in the gos- 
pels, being the place where Jesus usually resided 
during the time of his ministry. This city is no 
where mentioned in the Old Testament under 
this or any other name ; and therefore it is pro- 
bable that it was built after the return from the 
Babylonish captivity. It stood on the coast of 
Galilee, in the borders of Zebulon and Nephtha- 
lim (Matt. iv. 15), and took its name from an 
adjacent spring, which probably was an induce- 
ment to build the town in the place where it 
stood. Capernaum was said by our Lord him- 
self to be exalted unto heaven ; but, because its 
inhabitants made no right use of the privileges 
they enjoyed, he denounced that it should be 
brought down to hell (Matt. xi. 23), which has 
certainly been verified : for, as Dr. Wells ob- 
serves, so far is it from being the metropolis of 
all Galilee, as it once was, that it consisted long 
ago of no more than six poor cottages. 

CAPEROLANS, a congregation of religious 
in Italy, so called from Peter Caperole, their 
founder, in the fifteenth century. The Milanese 
and Venetians being at war, the enmity occa- 
sioned thereby spread itself to the very cloisters. 
The superiors of minor brothers, of the province 
of Milan, which extended itself as far as the ter- 
ritories of the republic of Venice, carried it so 
haughtily over the Venetians, that those of the 
convent of Brescia resolved to shake off a yoke 
which was grown insupportable to them. The 
superiors, informed of this, expelled the principal 
authors of this design; viz. Peter Caperole, Mat- 
thew de Thareillo, and Bonaventure of Brescia. 
Peter Caperole, a man of an enterprising genius, 
VOL. V. 


found means to separate the convents of Brescia, 
Bergamo, and Cremona, from the province of 
Milan. This occasioned a law-suit between the 
vicar general and these convents, which was de- 
termined in favor of the latter; and in 1475, by 
the authority of Pope Sixtus IV. they were 
erected into a distinct vicariate, under the title ot 
that of Brescia. This not satisfying the ambition 
of Caperole, he obtained, by the interposition of 
the Doge of Venice, that this vicariate might be 
erected into a congregation; called from him 

CAPH, a Jewish measure of capacity for 
things, estimated by Kimchi at the thirtieth part 
of the log, by Arbuthnot at the sixteenth part of 
the hin, or thirty-second of the seah, amounting 
to f of an English pint. It does not occur in 
Scripture as the name of any measure. 

CAPHAR, a duty which the Turks exact from 
the Christians who carry or send merchandises 
from Aleppo to Jerusalem and other places in 
Syria. This duty was first imposed by the 
Christians themselves, when they were in pos- 
session of the Holy Land, for the maintenance of 
the troops which were planted in difficult passes, 
to observe the Arabs and prevent their incur- 
sions. It is still continued, and much increased 
by the Turks, under pretence of defending the 
Christians against the Arabs ; with whom, never- 
theless, they keep a secret intelligence, favoring 
their excursions and plunders. 

CAPI-AG A, or C A PI-AGASSI, a Turkish officer, 
governor of the gates of the seraglio, or grand 
master of the seraglio. He enjoys the first dig- 
nity among the white eunuchs : he is always 
near the person of the grand seignior : he intro- 
duces ambassadors to their audience : nobody 
enters or goes out of the grand seignior's apart- 
ment but by his means. He has the privilege of 
wearing the turban in the seraglio, and of going 
everywhere on horseback. He accompanies the 
grand seignior to the apartment of the sultanas, 
but stops at the door without entering. The 
grand seignior bears the expense of his table, and 
allows him at the rate of about fifty shillings per 
day : but his office brings him in abundance of 
presents ; no affair of consequence coming to the 
emperor's knowledge without passing through 
his hand. He cannot be bashaw when he quits 
his post. 

CAPIAS. A writ of two sorts, one before 
judgment, called capias ad respondendum, in an 
action personal, if the sheriff, upon the first writ 
of distress, return that he has no effects in his 
jurisdiction. The other is a writ of execution 
after judgment. 

CAPIAS AD RESPONDENDUM is where an ori- 
ginal is issued out, to take the defendant, and 
make him answer the plaintiff. 

CAPIAS, after judgment, is of divers kinds. 1 
such as, 

cution that issues on a judgment obtained, and 
lies where any person recovers in a persona 
action, as for debt, damages, &c. in which cases 
this writ issues to the sheriff, commanding hin* 
to take the body of him against whom the deJ 
is recovered, who is to be kept in prison till 
make satisfaction. 





CAPIAS IN WiTHtRNAM, a writ that lies for 
cattle in Withernam : that is, where a distress 
taken is driven out of the country, so that the 
sheriff cannot make deliverance upon a replevin ; 
then this writ issues, commanding the sheriff to 
take as many beasts of the 'distrainer, &c. 

CAPIAS PRO FINE is a writ lying^where a 
person is fined to the king, for some offence 
committed against a statute, and he does not 
discharge the fine according to the judgment; 
therefore his body shall be taken by this writ, 
and committed to gaol till the fine is paid. 

CAPIAS VT LEGATUM, a writ which lies against 
any one outlawed, upon any action personal or 
criminal, by which the sheriff is ordered to ap- 
prehend the party outlawed, for not appearing 
on the exigent, and keep him in safe custody till 
the day of his return, when he is to present him 
to the court, to be there farther ordered for his 

CAPJGI, Turk. i. e. gate, a door-keeper of 
the Turkish seraglio. There are about 500 ca- 
pigis in the seraglio, divided into two com- 
panies; one consisting of 300, under a chief 
called Capigi-bassa, who has a stipend of three 
ducats per day ; the other consists of 200, called 
Cuccicapigi, and their chief Cuccicapigi-bassa, 
who has two ducats. The capigis have from 
seven to fifteen aspers per day. Their business 
is to assist the janissaries in the guard of the 
first and second gates of the seraglio ; sometimes 
all together, as when the Turk holds a general 
council, receives an ambassador, or goes to the 
mosque; and sometimes only in part, being 
ranged on either side to prevent people entering 
with arms, tumults being made, &c. 

CAPILLA'CEOUS, adj.-\ .Lat. capillus, 
CAPIL'LAMENT, n. I quasi capitis pilus, 

CAPIL'LARY, n. & adj. VfromTriXoc. Hairy; 
CAPILLA'TION, n. I hair-like ; in deli- 

CAPIL'LATURE, n. J cate filaments. Ca- 

pillary is most commonly applied to the fibres of 
plants, and the minute vessels of bodies. Mine- 
ralogists also apply it to ores which shoot out 
thread-like branches. Capillaceous is the same 
with capillary, when the latter is used as an 
adjective. Capillation is obsolete. Capillature, 
Bailey defines to be, a bush of hair, a frizzling of 
the hair. This word also is disused. 

Our common hyssop is not the least of vegetables, 
nor observed to grow upon walls ; but rather, some 
kind of capillaries, which are very small plants, and 
on-.y grow upon walls and stony places. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Nor is the humour contained in smaller veins, or 
obscure tap illations, but in a vesicle. Id. 

Ten capillary arteries in some parts of the body, as 
in the brain, are not equal to one hair ; and the 
smallest lymphatic vessels are an hundred times 
smaller than the smallest capillary artery. 

Arbuthnot on Aliments. 

Capillary or capillaceous plants, are such as have no 
xntiin stalk or stem, but grow to the ground, as hairs 
on the head ; and which bear their seeds in little 
tufts or protuberances on the backside of their leaves. 


Those small threads, or hairs, which grow up in 
the middle of a flower, and adorned with little knobs 
at the top, are called capillaments. Id. 

CAP'ILLAIRE, n. Fr. Genuine yipillaire is 
a syrup of adiantum but in this country it is 
frequently made of water, orange flower water, 
eggs and sugar. A few spoonsful of it in water, 
either with or without the addition of orgeat, 
makes a pleasant beverage. 

CAPILLAMENTS in a general sense, signifies a 
hair; whence the word is applied to several 
things, which on account of their length or their 
fineness resemble hairs : as, 

the fine fibres or filaments whereof the nerves 
are composed. 

ancient tree at Rome, on which the vestal vir- 
gins, when shaven for their office, hung up their 
hair, and consecrated it to the gods. 



astical writers, denotes an officer in certain cathe- 
drals, who had the superintendency of the choir, 
or band of music, answering to what in other 
churches is called chanter or precentor. The 
word is also written cabiscolus, and caput-scholse, 
q. d. the head of the school, or band of music. 
The office is also called scolasticus, as having the 
instruction of the young clerks and choristers, 
how to perform their duty. 

CAPITA, DISTRIBUTION BY, in law, signifies 
the appointing to every man an equal share of a 
personal estate; when all the claimants claim in 
their own rights, as in equal degrees of kindred, 
and not jure representationis. 

CAPITA, SUCCESSION BY, where the claimants 
are next in degree to the ancestor, in their own 
right, and not by right of representation. 

CAP'ITAL, n. & adj.-\ Lat. capitalis, from 

CAPITALIST, n. I caput, the head. Ac- 

CAP'ITALLY, adv. V cordingly, capital uni- 

CAP'ITALNESS, ra. i formly implies pre- 

CAP'ITATION, n. _/ eminence, whether of 
place, action, possession, or crime. The capital 
of a pillar is that part which crowns the whole ; 
the capital of a country is its principal city ; a 
capital crime is one of such magnitude that it 
can be expiated only by death ; capital letters 
are the letters that head a sentence ; capital in a 
mercantile sense, is the money which is em- 
ployed to gain other sums ; and a capitalist is a 
person who trades with a large capital, and is 
commonly known by the denomination of a 
monied man ; capitation refers still more closely 
to caput, and means numeration or taxation by 
the head. Sherwood defines capitalness to be 
* a capital offence, cupitahte ;' but I know of no 
authority for the word. 

I will, out of that infinite number, reckon but some 
that are most capital, and commonly occurrent "both 
in the life and conditions of private men. 

Spenser on Ireland. 

As to swerve in the least points is errour ; so the 
capital enemies thereof God hateth, as his deadly 
foes, aliens, and without repentance, children of 
endless perdition. Hooker. 

Edmund, I arrest thee 
On capital treason. Shakspeare. King Lear. 




In capital causes, wherein but one man's life is in 
question, the evidence ought to be clear ; much more, 
in a judgment upon a war, which is capital to thou- 
sands. Bacun. 

This had been 

Perhaps thy capital seat from whence had spread 
All generations. Paradise Lost. 

Our most considerable actions arc always present 
like capital letters to an aged and dim eye. 

Taylor's Holy Living. 

They do, in themselves, tend to confirm the truth 

of a capital article in religion. Atterbury. 

Several cases deserve greater punishment than 

many crimes that are capital among us. Swift. 

You see the volute of the lonick, the foliage of the 

Corinthian, and the novali of the Dorick, mixed 

without any regularity on the same capital. 

Addison on Italy. 

I take the expenditure of the capitalist, not the 
value of the capital, as my standard ; because it is the 
standard upon which, among us, property, as an ob- 
ject of taxation, is rated. 

Burke. Letter III. on a Regicide Peace. 
He suffered for not performing the commandment 
of God concerning capitation ; that, when the people 
were numbered, for every head they should pay unto 
God a shekel. Browne. 

Either from design or from accident, the mode of 
assessment seemed to unite the substance of a land 
tax with the forms of a capitation. The returns which 
were sent, of every province or district, expressed the 
number of tributary subjects, and the amount of the 
public impositions. The latter of these sums was 
divided by the former ; and the estimate, that such a 
province contained so many capita, or heads of tri- 
bute ; and that each head was rated at such a price ; 
was universally received, not only in the popular, but 
even in the legal computation. Gibbon. 

or principal galley of a state, riot dignified with 
the title of a kingdom. It was anciently the de- 
nomination of the chief galley of France, which 
the commander went on board of. 

CAPITANATA, a province of the kingdom of 
Naples, bordering on the Adriatic, formed of what 
is commonly called the Spur of Italy ; a collate- 
ral ridge of the Appenines bounds it on the north, 
dividing it from Abruzzo Citra ; on the south it 
is bounded by Terra di Bari; the spur or pro- 
montory of mount Gargano, projecting into the 
Adriatic, is mountainous, the remaining part of 
the province is an arid plain, though not unpro- 
ductive either in grain or cattle ; it is intersected 
by several streams falling into the Adriatic. The 
slopes of mount Gargano are planted with orange 
groves, and its quarries furnish stone for nearly 
all the buildings of the province, the area of 
which is about 3500 square miles; population 
about 200,000. The principal sea-port is Manfre- 
donia, a little north of which is Monte St. Angelo. 
The principal towns in the interior are, St. Se- 
vero, Foggia, and Lucera. a general sense, the same 
with Capitania, the Brazilian governments. Capi- 
taneats, in Prussia, are a kind of estates, which, 
besides their revenue, raise their owners to the 
rank of nobility. They are also called Starosties. 
CAPITANEI, or CATANEI, in Italy, was a 
denomination given to all the dukes, marquisses, 
and counts, who were called capitanei regis. 

The same appellation was given to persons of 
inferior rank who were invested with fees, for- 
merly distinguished by the appellation of valva- 
sores majores. 

CAPITATION, a tax raised on each person, in 
proportion to his labor, industry, office, rank, 
&c. It is a very ancient kind of tribute. The 
Latins call it tributum, by which taxes on per- 
sons are distinguished from taxes on merchan- 
dise, which were called vectigalia. Capitations 
are never practised among us but in exigencies 
of state. In France the capitation was intro- 
duced by Louis XIV. in 1695 ; and was a tax 
very different from the taille, being levied from 
all persons except the clergy, even the princes of 
the blood not being exempted from it. 

CAP1TE, in law, is a species of ancient tenure 
of land. See TENURE. 

CAPITE CENSI, in antiquity, the lowest rank 
of Roman citizens, who in public taxes were 
rated the least of all, being such as never were 
worth above 365 asses. They were supposed to 
have been thus called, because they were rather 
counted and marshalled by their heads than by 
their estates. The capite censi made part of the 
sixth class of citizens, below the proletarii, who 
formed the other moiety of that class. They 
were not enrolled in the army, being judged not 
able to support the expense of war ; for in those 
days the soldiers maintained themselves. It does 
not appear, that before Caius Marius any of the 
Roman generals listed the capite censi in their 

CAPITO, in ichthyology. See ZERTA. 

CAPITOL, CAPITOLIUM, in antiquity, a cele- 
brated temple and citadel on the Mons Capito- 
linus at Rome, in which the senate anciently as- 
sembled ; and which still serves as the city-hall 
for the meeting of the conservators of the Roman 
people. It had its name capitol, from caput, a 
man's head, which was said to have been found 
fresh, and bleeding, upon digging the foundation 
of the temple built in honor of Jupiter. Arno- 
bius adds, that the man's name was Tolius, 
whence caputolinum. The first foundations of 
the capitol were laid by Tarquin I. A. U. C. 139. 
His successor Servius raised the walls ; and 
Tarquin Superbus finished it in the year 221. 
But it was not consecrated till the third year 
after the expulsion of the kings. The ceremony 
of the dedication of the temple was performed 
by the consul Horatius in 256. The capitol con- 
sisted of three parts ; a nave sacred to Jupiter ; 
and two wings consecrated to Juno and Minerva. 
It was ascended by 100 stairs ; the frontispiece 
and sides were surrounded with galleries, in 
which those who w,ere honored with triumphs 
entertained the senate at a magnificent banquet, 
after the sacrifices had been offered to the gods. 
Both the inside and outside were enriched with 
an infinity of ornaments, the most distinguished 
of which was the statue of Jupiter, with his gol- 
den thunderbolt, sceptre, and crown. All the 
consuls successively made donations to the capi- 
tol, and Augustus bestowed upon it at one time 
2000 pounds weight of gold. Its thresholds 
were made of brass, and its roof was gold. In 
the capitol also were a temple to Jupiter the 
guardian, and another to Juno, with the mint ; 

K2 ' 




and on the descent of the bill was the temple of 
Concord. This beautiful edifice contained the 
most sacred deposits, such as the ancylia, the 
books of the Sibyls, &c. The capitol was burnt 
during the civil war of Marius, and Sylla rebuilt 
it, but died before the dedication, which was 
performed by Q. Catulus. It was again burnt 
by Vitellius, and rebuilt by Vespasian. It was 
burnt a third time by lightning under Titus, and 
restored by Domitian, who spent 12,000 talents 
in the gilding only. 

CAPITOL was also a name anciently applied to 
all the principal temples, in most of the colonies 
throughout the Roman Empire ; as at Constan- 
tinople, Jerusalem, Carthage, Ravenna, Capua, 

CAPITOLINE GAMES, annual games insti- 
tuted by Camillus, in honor of Jupiter Capitoli- 
nus, and in commemoration of the capitol not 
being taken by the Gauls. Plutarch tells us, 
that a part of the ceremony consisted in the pub- 
lic crier putting up the Hetrurians to sale by 
auction ; they also took an old man, and, tying a 
golden bulla about his neck, exposed him to the 
public derision. Festus says they also dressed 
him in a pretexta. There was another kind of 
Capitoline games, instituted by Domitian, where- 
in there were rewards and crowns bestowed on 
the poets, champions, orators, historians and musi- 
cians. These last were celebrated every five 
years, and became so famous, that instead of cal- 
culating time by lustra, they began to count by 
Capitoline games, as the Greeks did by Olym- 
piads. However, this custom was riot of long 

CAPITOLINI, in Roman antiquity, a college 
of men residing in the capitol, to whom was 
committed the care of the Capitoline games. 

CAPITOLINUS (Mons), in the history of 
architecture, one of the seven hills of Rome, 
anciently called Saturnius as the residence of 
Saturn, and Tarpeius from the maid who betrayed 
it to the Sabines. It is believed to have been 
first enclosed when Romulus admitted Titus Ta- 
tius into the partnership of his throne ; and then 
to have been decorated with a temple of Jupiter 
Feretrius. The thatched cottage of their first 
king, which crowned the Capitoline Mount, was 
long an object of veneration to the Romans. It 
is mentioned by Vitruvius in the reign of Au- 
gustus, and still later by Lactantius and Macro- 
bius in the fourth century. 

CAPITOUL, or CAPITOL, an appellation 
given formerly to the chief magistrates of Tou- 
louse, -who had the administration of justice and 
policy in the city. They were much the same 
with the consuls, bailiffs, burgo-masters, mayors, 
nd aldermen, &c. in other cities. In ancient 
cts they were called consules capitularii, or ca- 
\pitolirri, and their body capitulum. They had 
fce custody of the town-house, which was anci- 
ently called capitol. The office only lasted one 
vear, ennobled the bearers, and entitled them to 
the jus imaginum, i. e. when their administration 
expired their pictures were hungup in the town- 

CAPITULAR, or CAPITULARY, denotes an act 
passed in a chapter, either of knights, canons, or 
religious. The capitular of Charlemagne, Charles 

the Bald, &c. are the laws, both ecclesiastical an 
civil, made by those emperors in the general as- 
semblies of the people ; which was the way in 
which the constitutions of most of the ancient 
princes were made : each person present, though 
a plebeian, setting his hand to them. They had 
their name from being divided into capitula, 
chapters, or sections. In these capitulars did 
jurisprudence anciently 


the whole 



These seem to be all 
derived from caput, the 
head; though some would 
^deduce thefirst three from 

CAPIT'ULARLY, adv. capio. To capitulate, is 

CAPIT'ULARY, adj. \ to surrender ; and, in 

CAPI'TILE, n. J the ordinary acceptation, 

a capitulation is the terms on which the surren- 
der is made. Of the latter word, however, there 
is another use, confined to the German empire ; and 
denoting the contract made by the emperor with 
the electors. In the quotation from Shakspeare, the 
word capitulate is defined by Johnson, ' drawing 
up anything in heads or articles ;' but Stevens, 
more probably interprets it as ' making head/ 
Capitular signifies both a member of a chapter 
and the body of the statutes of a chapter; and 
capitularly implies convened as an ecclesiastical 
chapter. Wicliffe, in his bible, uses capitile in 
the sense of the sum, the substance, the heads. 

The king took it as a great indignity, that thieves 
should offer to capitulate with him as enemies. 

Hay ward. 
Percy, Northumberland, 

The archbishop of York, Douglas, and Mortimer, 

Capitulate against us, and are up. 

Shakspeare. Henry IV. 

It was not a complete conquest, but rather a de- 
dition upon terms and capitulation*, agreed between 
the conqueror and the conquered ; wherein, usually, 
the yielding party secured to themselves their law 
and religion. Hale. 

I still pursued, and, about two o'clock this afternoon, 
she thought fit to capitulate. Spectator. 

The Nadhirites were more guilty, since they con- 
spired in a friendly interview to assassinate the pro- 
phet. He besieged their castle, three miles from 
Medina, but their resolute defence obtained an 
honorable capitulation, and the garrison, sounding 
their trumpets and beating their drums, was per- 
mitted to depart with the honors of war. Gibbon. 

That this practice continued till the time of Charle- 
main, appears by a constitution in his capitular. 


The nuns of St. Ursula acted the wisest; they 
never attempted to go to bed at all. The dean of 
Strasburg, the prebendaries, the capitulars and domi- 
ciliars (capitularly assembled in the morning to con- 
sider the case of buttered buns) all wished they had 
followed the nuns of St. Ursula's example. 

Sterne. Slawkenburgiui's Tale. 

Canonists do agree, that the chapter makes decrees 
and statutes, which shall bind the chapter itself, and 
all its members or capitulars. 


CAPITULATION, in military affairs has been 
used both in ancient and modern warfare, to 
signify a treaty made between the inhabitants of a 
place besieged and the besiegers, for the deliver- 
ing up the place on certain conditions. The 
most honorable terms of capitulation are, to 



march out at the breach with arms and baggage, 
drums beating, colors flying, a match lighted at 
both ends, and some pieces of cannon, waggons, 
and convoys for their baggage, and for their sick 
and wounded. 

CAPITULUM, in ecclesiastical writers, de- 
noted part of a chapter of the Bible read and ex- 
plained ; whence ire ad capitulum, to go to such 
a lecture. Afterwards the place where such 
exercises were performed was named domus 

CAPITULUM, in the ancient military art, was a 
transverse beam, wherein were holes through 
which passed the strings, whereby the arms of 
huge engines, as balistse, catapultae, and scor- 
pions, were played, or worked. 

CAPNICON, chimney money, a tax which 
the eastern emperors levied for smoke, and which 
of consequence was due from all, even the 
poorest, who kept a fire. It was first exacted by 

CAPNOMANCY ; from KCUTVOS, smoke, and 
HavTtia, divination ; a kind of divination by 
means of smoke, used by the ancients in their 
sacrifices. The general rule was, when the 
smoke was thin and light, and rose straight up, 
it was a good omen : if the contrary, it was an 
ill one. There was also a species of capnomancy, 
consisting in the observation of the smoke rising 
from poppy and jessamine seed, cast upon lighted 

CAPO D'ISTRIA, a town and fortress of 
Venetian Istria, on the east side of the gulf of 
Trieste. The town is seated on a small island, 
connected with the main land by a draw bridge 
and causeway, about half a mile in length. It 
is the see of a bishop, and has a cathedral and 
several other churches and religious houses ; the 
population is about 5000, and their chief support 
:B derived from salt and wine ; the former is ex- 
ported in large quantities. It is twelve miles 
due south of Trieste, in the latitude of 45 4' N. 
and 14 E. long. 

CAPOC, in commerce, a sort of cotton so fine 
and so short that it cannot be spun. It is used 
in the East Indies to line palanquins, to make 
beds, mattrasses, cushions, pillows, &c. 

CAPO'CHE, v. -\ Fr. capuce, capuchon ; 

CAPO'UCH, n. I Ital. cappuccio ; a monk's 

CAPU'CH, n. \ cowl or hood ; the cape 

CAPU'CHED, adj. I of a cloak ; capuchin is 

CAPUCHI'N, n. J a female garment, consist- 
ing of a hood, and takes its name from its re- 
semblance to the dress of the capuchin monks. 
Capuched signifies covered over as with a hood. 
Johnson declares himself unable to form a distinct 
idea of the meaning of the word capoched, but 
supposes that it may stand for stripped of the 
hood. May it not mean blinded them with their 
own hoods ? 

Capoched your rabbins of the synod, 
And snapped their canons with a Why not? 
Grave synod, men that were revered 
For solid face and length of beard. Hudibrta. 

They are differently cucullatcd and capuched upon 
the head and back j and, in the cicada, the eyes are 
more prominent. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

He wore a little brown capouch, girt very near to 
uis body with a white towel. 

Shelton. Translation of Don Quixote. 

CA'PON, v. & n. -\ Lat. capo ; Fr. chapon ; 
CA'PONET, n. f Ital. capone ; Swed. kapun ; 
CA'PONISE, v. i Dan. capun ; Ger. kapphan ; 
CA'PON-FASHION. .-/ Dut. kapoen. . A castrated 
cock. The term is also applied in ridicule to 
an effeminate fellow. Birch uses the verb to 
capon ; and Daines Barrington, in his paper on 
singing birds, has to caponise, which is, proba- 
bly of his own formation, as there appears no 
other authority. Capon-fashion was an expres- 
sion of archers, descriptive of the steel of an 
arrow, when it was short-breasted, and big to- 
wards the head. 

And eke there was a polkat in his hawe, 
That, as he sayd, his capons had yslawe ; 
And feyn he wolde him wreken, if he might, 
Of vermine that destroied hem by night. 

Cliaucer's Canterbury Tales. 
And then the justice, 
Its fair round belly, with good capon lined. 

Shakspeare. As You Like It. 
Yet must he hunt his greedy landlord's hall, 
With ofton presents at each festival : 
With crammed capont every new year's morne, 
Or with green rheeses when his shee" ar shorne. 


All come in, the farmer and the clown , 
And no one empty-hand, to salute 
Thy lord and lady, though they have no suit. 
Some bring a capon, some a rural cake, 
Some nuts, some apples. Ben Johnson. 

Muley Hamet, king of Fez and Morocco, spent 
three pounds on the sauce of a c ipon : it is nothing iu 
our times : we scorn all that is cheap. 

Burton. Anat. of Mel. 

In good roast beef my landlord sticks his knife ; 
The capon fat delights his dainty wife. 

Gay. Pastoral I. 

CAPOT, v. & n. Fr. To win all the tricks on 
the cards at the game of picquet. 

CAPPADINE, in commerce, a sort of silk 
flock, taken from the upper part of the silk worm 
pod, after the true silk has been wound off. 
Slight stuffs called lassis and carbass, are made 
of it. 

CAPPADOCIA, an ancient kingdom of Asia, 
comprehending all that country which lies be- 
tween Mount Taurus and the Euxine Sea. It 
was divided by the Persians into two satrapies 
or governments ; by the Macedonians into two 
kingdoms, viz. : 

1. CAPPADOCIA AD PONTUM, more commonly 
called Pontus. See PONTUS. 

MAGNA, or CAPPADQCIA. properly so called, in 
ancient geography, a country lying between 38 
and 41 N. latitude. It was bounded by Pontus 
on the north; Lycaonia and part of Armenia 
Major on the south ; Galatia on the west; and 
by Euphrates and part of Armenia Minor on the 
east. The first king of Cappadocia, of whom 
we read, was Pharnaces, raised to the crown by 
Cyrus, who gave him his sister, Atossa, in mar- 
riage. He was killed in a war with the Hyrca- 
nians. After him came a succession of eight 
kings, of whom we only know that they con- 
tinued faithful to the Persian interest. In the 
time of Alexander the Great, Cappadocia was 
governed by Ariarathes II. who, notwithstanding 
the vast conquests of the Macedonian monarch, 



also continued in alliance with Persia. Death 
prevented Alexander from invading his domi- 
nions; but Perdiccas,. marching against him with 
a powerful and well- disciplined army, dispersed 
his forces, and having taken Ariarathes himself 
prisoner, crucified ' him, with all those of the 
royal blood whom he could get into his power. 
Diodorus, however, says that he was killed in the 
battle. He is said to have reigned eighty-two 
years. His son Ariarathes III. having escaped 
the general slaughter, fled into Armenia, where 
he was concealed, till the dissensions among the 
Macedonians gave him an opportunity of recover- 
ing his kingdom. Amyntas, governor of Cappa- 
docia, opposed him ; but, being defeated in a 
pitched battle, the Macedonians were obliged to 
abandon all the strong holds. Ariarathes, after 
a long and peaceable reign, left his kingdom to 
his son Ariaramnes II. who applied himself more 
to the arts of peace than war, in consequence of 
which Cappadocia flourished greatly during his 
reign. He was succeeded by Ariarathes IV. his 
son, who proved a very warlike prince, and hav- 
ing overcome Arsaces, founder of the Parthian 
monarchy, considerably enlarged his dominions. 
His successor, Ariarathes V. married the daugh- 
ter of Antiochus the Great, and entered into an 
alliance with that prince against the Romans ; 
but Antiochus being defeated, Ariarathes was 
obliged to sue for peace, which he obtained, 
upon paying a fine of 2000 talents. He after- 
wards assisted the republic with men and money 
against Perseus, king of Macedon, on which ac- 
count he was by the senate honored with the 
title of the ' friend and ally of the Roman 
people.' He left the kingdom in a very flourish- 
ing condition to his son Mithridates, who, on 
his accession, took the name of Ariarathes VI. 
This prince (surnamed Philopater, from the 
filial respect and love he showed his father from 
his infancy), immediately renewed the alliance 
with Rome. He restored Mithrobarzanes, son 
to Ladriades, king of the Lesser Armenia, to his 
father's kingdom, though he foresaw that the 
Armenians would lay hold of that opportunity 
to join Artaxias, who was then on the point of 
invading Cappadocia, and presented the senate 
of Rome with a golden crown, in acknowledg- 
ment of their assistance at this time. The senate, 
in return, sent him a staff and chair of ivory, 
which were presents usually bestowed on those 
only whom they looked upon as attached to 
their interest. Not long before this, Demetrius 
Joter, king of Syria, unsuccessfully invaded his 
dominions, and set up a rival pretender to the 
throne, one Orophernes, a supposed son of the 
late king. The senate now decreed that Ariara- 
thes and he should reign as partners ; but next 
year his rival was driven out, and Ariarathes, be- 
ing restored, demanded of the Priennians 400 
talents of gold, which Orophernes had deposited 
with them. They replied, ' that, as they had 
been trusted with the money by Orophernes, 
they could deliver it to none but himself, or such 
as came in his name.' Upon this the king 
ravaged their territory with an army. The 
Priennians, however, though besieged by the 
united forces of Ariarathes and Attalus, not only 
made an obstinate defence, but found means to 

restore the money to Orophernes. At last tney 
applied to the Romans for assistance, who en- 
joined the two kings to raise the siege. Ariar- 
athes immediately obeyed, and marching his 
army into Assyria, joined Alexander Balas 
against Demetrius, who, in the very first engage- 
ment was slain, and his army entirely dispersed ; 
Ariarathes having on that occasion given un- 
common proofs of his courage and conduct. 
Scrme years after, a war breaking out between the 
Romans and Aristonicus, who claimed the king- 
dom of Pergamus in light of his father, Ariara- 
thes. joined the former, and was slain in the 
same battle in which P. Crassus, proconsul of 
Asia, was taken, and the Roman army cut in 
pieces. He left six sons by his wife, Laodice, 
on whom the Romans bestowed Lycaonia and 
Cilicia. But Laodice, fearing lest her children, 
when they came of age, should take the govern- 
ment out of her hands, poisoned five of them, 
the youngest only having escaped her cruelty 
by being conveyed out of the kingdom. The 
monster herself was soon after put to death by her 
subjects. She was succeeded by Ariarathes VII. 
who, soon after his accession, married another 
Laodice, daughter of Mithridates the Great, 
hoping to find in that prince a powerful friend 
to support him against Nicomedes, king of Bi- 
thynia, who laid claim to part of Cappadocia. 
But Mithridates, instead of assisting, procured 
one Gordius to poison his son-in-law ; and on 
his death seized the kingdom under pretence of 
maintaining the rights of the Cappadocians 
against Nicomedes, till the children of Ariarathes 
were in a condition to govern it. The Cappa- 
docians at first fancied themselves obliged to 
their new protector; but, finding him unwilling 
to resign the kingdom to the lawful heir, they 
rose up in arms, and driving out all his garri- 
sons, placed Ariarathes VIII. eldest son of their 
deceased king, on the throne. The new prince 
now found himself immediately engaged in war 
with Nicomedes ; but, being assisted by Mithri- 
dates, not only drove him out of Cappadocia, 
but stripped him of a great part of his hereditary 
dominions. On the conclusion of the peace, 
Mithridates seeking for some pretence to quarrel 
with Ariarathes, insisted upon his recalling Gor- 
dius, who had murdered his father ; which being 
rejected with abhorrence, a war ensued. Mithri- 
dates took the field first, in hopes of over-run- 
ning Cappadocia before Ariarathes could be in 
a condition to make head against him ; but, con- 
trary to his expectation, he was met on the fron- 
tiers by the king of Cappadocia, with an army 
no way inferior to his own. Hereupon he in- 
vited Ariarathes to a conference ; and in sight 
of both armies stabbed him with a dagger, 
which he had concealed under his garment. This 
struck such terror into the Cappadocians, that 
they immediately dispersed, and gave Mithri- 
dates an opportunity of possessing himself of 
the kingdom without the least opposition. The 
Cappadocians, however, not able to endure the 
tyranny of his prefects, soon shook off' the yoke ; 
and recalling the king's brother, who had fled 
into the province of Asia, proclaimed him king. 
He was scarcely seated on the throne, however, 
before Mithridates invaded the kingdom at the 

C A P R A. 


head of a very numerous army, and, having drawn 
Ariarathes to a battle, defeated his army with 
great slaughter, and obliged him to abandon the 
kingdom. The unhappy prince soon after died 
of grief, and Mithridates bestowed the kingdom 
on his own son, who was then only eight years 
old, giving him at the same time the name of 
Ariarathes X. Cappadocia passed through va- 
rious struggles for and with their Roman allies, 
till the reign of Ariobarzanes II. who proved no 
less faithful to the Romans than his predecessors. 
On the breaking out of the civil war between 
Ccesar and Pompey, he sided with the latter ; 
but after the death of Pompey, was received injo 
favor by Caesar, who bestowed upon him great 
part of Armenia. While Cassar was engaged in 
a war with the Egyptians, Pharnaces, king of 
Pontus, invaded Cappadocia, and stripped Ario- 
barzanes of all his dominions ; but Caesar, hav- 
ing defeated Pharnaces, restored the king of 
Cappadocia, and honored him with new titles 
of friendship. After the murder of Caesar, Ario- 
barzanes, having refused to join Brutus and 
Cassius, was by them declared an enemy to 
the republic, and soon after taken prisoner and 
put to death. He was succeeded by his brother, 
Ariobarzanes III. who was by Marc Antony de- 
prived both of his kingdom and life ; and in him 
ended the family of Ariobarzanes. Archelaus, 
the grandson of that general of the same name, 
who commanded against Sylla in the Mithridatic 
war, was by Marc Antony placed on the throne 
of Cappadocia, though nowise related either to 
the family of Pharnaces or Ariobarzanes. His 
preferment was entirely owing to his mother, 
Glaphyra, a woman of great beauty, but of 
loose behaviour, who, in return for her com- 
pliance with the desires of Antony, obtained the 
kingdom of Cappadocia for her son. In the war 
between Augustus and Antony, he joined the 
latter; but, at the intercession of the Cap pado- 
cians, was pardoned by the emperor. He after- 
wards received from him Armenia the Lesser, 
and Cilicia Trachfea, for having assisted the 
Romans in clearing the seas of pirates, who 
greatly infested the coasts of Asia. He con- 
tracted a strict friendship with Herod the Great," 
king of Judea, and married his daughter Glaphyra 
to Alexander, Herod's son. In the reign of 
Tiberius, Archelaus was summoned to appear 
before the se'nate, for he had always been hated 
by that emperor, because, in his retirement, at 
Rhodes, he had paid him no sort of respect. 
This had proceeded from no aversion in him to 
Tiberius, but from the warning given Archelaus 
by his friends at Rome. For Caius Ctesar, the 
presumptive heir to the empire, was then alive, 
and had been sent to compose the differences of 
the east, whence the friendship of Tiberius was 
then looked upon as dangerous. But when he 
came to the empire, Tiberius, remembering the 
disrespect shown him by Archelaus, enticed the 
litter to Rome by means of letters from Livia, 
. who promised him her son Tiberius's pardon, 
provided he came in person to implore it. Ar- 
chelaus obeyed the summons, and hastened to 
Rome, where he was received by the emperor 
with great wrath and contempt, and soon after 
accused as a criminal in the senate. The crimes 

of which lie was accused were mere fictions ; 
but his concern at seeing himself treated as a 
malefactor was so great, that he died soon after 
of grief, or, as others say, laid violent hands on 
himself. He is said to have reigned fifty years. 
On the death of Archelaus, Cappadocia was re- 
duced to a Roman province, and governed by 
those of the equestrian order. It continued sub- 
ject to the Romans till the invasion of the eastern 
empire by the Turks, to whom it is now subject. 
The Turks have four Beglerbeglics in it. 

CAPPANUS, a name given by some authors 
to a worm that adheres to and gnaws the bottoms 
of ships, to which it is extremely pernicious, 
especially in the East and West Indies ; to pre- 
vent this, ships are now sheathed with copper, 
the first trial of which was made on his majesty's 
frigate the Alarm. 

CAPPARIS, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order, and polyandria class of plants, na- 
tural order twenty-fifth, putamineae : CAL. tetra- 
phyllous and coriaceous ; the petals are four, the 
stamina are long ; the fruit is a berry, carnous, 
unilocular, and pedunculated. There are thirty 
species, of which the principal is C. spinosa, or 
common caper, a low shrub, generally growing 
out of the joints of old walls, the fissures of 
rocks, and among rubbish, in most of the warm 
parts of Europe. It has woody stalks, which 
send out many lateral slender branches. At the 
joints, between the branches, come out the flowers 
on long foot-stalks; before these expand, the 
bud, with the empalement, is gathered for pick- 
ling. Those which are left expand in form of a 
single rose, having five large white petals, which 
are roundish and concave ; in the middle are 
placed a great number of long stamina, surround- 
ing a style which rises above them, and crowned 
with an oval gerrnen, which afterwards becomes 
a capsule filled with kidney-shaped seeds. This 
plant is very difficult to preserve in Britain ; it 
delights to grow in crevices of rocks, old walls, 
&c. and always thrives best in an horizontal pos- 
ture ; so that, when planted either in pots or in 
the full ground, they seldom thrive, though they 
may be kept alive for some years. They are pro- 
pagated by seeds in the warm parts of Europe, 
but very seldom in Britain. The buds, pickled 
with vinegar, &c. are brought to Britain annually 
from Italy and the Mediterranean. They are 
supposed to excite appetite and assist digestion 5 
and to be particularly useful as detergents and 
aperients in obstructions of the liver and spleen. 

CAPPE (Newcome), a dissenting divine of 
the Unitarian persuasion, was born in 1732-3, 
at Leeds. He was placed at an early age with 
Dr. Aikin, at Kibworth, in Leicestershire, and 
afterwards with Dr. Doddridge. He went to 
Glasgow to complete his education in 175?, and 
settled ultimately as the pastor of a dissenting 
congregation at York. He died in 1800, having 
held this situation forty ye'ars. His works are : 
Discourses on the Providence and Government 
of God; Remarks in Vindication of Dr. Priest- 
ley ; a Selection of Psalms for Social Worship ; 
Critical Remarks on many important parts of 
Scripture, 2 vols. 8vo. &c. 

CAPRA, the goat, a genus of quadrupeds be- 
longing to the order pecora. The horns are 


C A P R A. 

persistent, hollow, turned upwards, erect, and 
scabrous. There are eight fore teeth in the 
under jaw, and none in the upper ; and they 
have no dog teeth. In describing the different 
species and varieties of this genus, we have 
again to complain of that confusion of names 
and descriptions, which we find among zoolo- 
gists, and which renders it extremely difficult to 
give a complete, and at the same time a distinct, 
arrangement of them all. Linnaeus and other 
naturalists reckon fourteen species of this genus, 
under one of which, viz. the dorcas, they include 
most of the varieties of the antelope. Ken- 
reckons only eleven, some of which are by others 
ranked only as varieties of the common species. 
But both Kerr and Pennant, as well as Gmelin, 
Erxleben, and Pallas, make the antelope a dis- 
tinct genus, forming a link between the goat 
(capra), and the deer (cervus), with the former 
of which the antelopes agree in the texture of 
their horns, which have a core, and in their never 
casting them; and with the latter, in their ele- 
gance of form. Of this genus Kerr enumerates 
twenty-nine species. Adhering, however, to 
Linnaeus's classification of the whole tribe under 
one genus (though we by no means dispute the 
propriety of dividing the goats from the ante- 
lopes), the following is the most complete ar- 
rangement we can make of these animals. 

I. CAPRA .&GAGRUS of Pallas and Gmelin ; 
the cervicapra of Kaempfer, and the Caucasan 
goat of Pennant and Zimmerman, has large 
smooth black horns, sharply ridged on their 
upper, and hollowed on their under surface. 
There are no vestiges of knots or rings, but on 
the upper surface are some wavy risings ; they 
bend much back, and are much hooked at the 
end, approaching a little at the points. On the 
chin is a great beard, dusky, mixed with chest- 
nut. The fore part of the head is black, the 
sides mixed with brown ; the rest of the animal 
gray, or gray mixed with rust color. Along the 
middle of the back, from the neck to the tail, is 
a black list; and the tail is black. The female 
is either destitute of horns, or has very short 
ones. In size it is superior to the largest he- 
goat, but in form and agility resembles a stag. 
They inhabit the lower mountains of Caucasus 
and Taurus, all Asia Minor, and perhaps the 
mountains of India, and abound on the inhos- 
pitable hills of Persia. It is an animal of great 

II. CAPRA AMMON has semicircular, plain, 
white horns, and no beard. It is about the size 
of a ram, and is a native of Siberia. This ani- 
mal is called the wild sheep by Mr. Pennant, 
and is accordingly ranked as a species of ovis 
by Kerr. 

III. CAPRA BEZOARTICA, the bezoar goat, is 
bearded, and has long, wrinkled, slender, up- 
right, tapering, sharp-pointed horns. It is a 
native of Persia. The bezoar is found in one of 
its stomachs, called abomasus. It has a red fur, 
with a white breast and belly ; and is classed 
among the antelopes by Gmelin, Pallas, Pen- 
nant, &c. 

IV. CAPRA CAUCASICA, the Caucasan goat, de- 
scribed by Kerr, as quite a different species from 
the Caucasan goat of Pennant. The horns, he 

says, are slightly triangular, knobbed on their 
anterior surface and arched backwards, consi- 
derably divaricating, with their extremities turned 
inwards. It inhabits the bare, schistic, rocky 
summits of mount Caucasus, near the origin of 
the Terek and Chouban rivers. The horns of 
the male are of a dirty blackish color, and much 
longer than those of the common goat ; those of 
the female are brownish, and much smaller. 
The upper parts of the body are a bright brown- 
ish gray, with a narrow dark brown line along 
the back; the under parts are whitish, and the 
limbs black. The hair is harsh, somewhat stiff, 
ash-colored at the roots, and mixed with an ash- 
colored wool. It is about the size of a common 
goat, with which, however, it will not breed ; 
and is rather shorter and broader in its general 

V. CAPRA CERVICAPRA, the lidmee, or In- 
dian antelope of Buffon, has long prominently 
annulated, tapering, plaited, cylindrical horns, 
and inhabits Barbary. The hair near the horns 
is longer than in any other part of the body. 
The females want horns. 

VI. CAPRA DEPRESS A, the African goat, has 
short, thick, triangular, depressed, horns, bent in- 
wards, lying on the head. It is about the size of 
a kid; and the hair is long and pendulous, 
rough in the male, but smooth in the female. 
The male has also two long hairy wattles be- 
low the chin. 

VII. CAPRA DORCAS, the antelope, has cylin- 
drical annulated horns, bent backward, con- 
torted, and arising from the front between the 
eyes. It is a native of Africa and Mexico. 
These animals are of a restless and timid dis- 
position; extremely watchful ; of great vivacity ; 
remarkably swift; exceedingly agile; and their 
boundings so light and elastic, as to strike the 
spectator with astonishment. What appears sin- 
gular, they will stop in the middle of their 
course, for a moment gaze at their pursuers, and 
then resume their flight. The chase of these 
animals is a favorite diversion in the east. The 
greyhound is unequal in the course; and the 
sportsman is obliged to call in the aid of the 
falcon, trained to the work, to seize on the ani- 
mal, and so to impede its motions as to give the 
dog time to overtake it. It is a common com- 
pliment in the east ; to say, ' Aine el czazel,' i. e. 
you have the eyes of an antelope. Some species 
form herds of 2000 or 3000, while others keep 
in small troops of five or six. They generally 
reside in hilly countries, and some browse like 
the goat. To the distinctive marks of the ante- 
lope we may add the following characteristics 
viz. that most of them have distinct lachrymA 
pits under the eyes ; that all have a plait of the 
skin subdivided into several cells in the groins ; 
brushes of hair on the knees, and beautiful black 
eyes: in general also their flesh is excellent. 
Kerr, who, as already observed, classes the an- 
telope as a distinct genus, enumerates twenty- 
nine species; among which he ranks the Bezoap 
tica, cervicapra, gazella, and tartarica of Lin- 

VIII. CAPRA GAZELLA, the goat antelope of 
Linnaeus, the antelope oryx, or Bezoartica of 
Pallas, the pasan of Buffon, or Egyptian ante- 

C A P R A. 


lope of Pennant, has straight, slender, distinctly 
annulatcd horns, three feet long, which taper to 
a point : the body and sides are of a reddish ash 
color, with a dusky line along the hack. It in- 
habits Syria, Arabia, Persia, India, Egypt, 
Ethiopia, and the Cape. It is about the size 
of a fallow deer. Gmelin takes this for the zebi 
of Scripture. 

IX. CAPRA GNOU, has scabrous horns, thick 
at the base, bending forward close to the head, 
then suddenly reverting upwards. The mouth is 
square; the nostrils covered with broad flaps. 
From the nose, half way up the front, is a thick 
oblong square brush of long stiff black hairs 
reflected upwards, on each side of which the 
other hairs are long, and point closely down the 
cheeks. Round the eyes are disposed in a ra- 
diated form several strong hairs. The neck is 
short, and a little arched. On the top is a strong 
and upright mane, reaching from the horns be- 
yond the shoulders. On the chin is a long white 
beard ; and on the gullet a very long pendulous 
bunch of hair. The legs are long, elegant, and 
slender, like those of a stag. On each foot is 
only a single spurious or hind hoof. It is a strange 
compound of animals ; having a vast head like 
that of an ox, body and tail like a horse, legs 
like a stag, and the sinus lacrymalis of an ante- 
lope. Its ordinary size is about that of a com- 
mon galloway; its length being. somewhat above 
five, and height rather more than four feet. 
These animals inhabit in great numbers the fine 
plains of the great Namaquas, far north of the 
Cape of Good Hope, extending from south lati- 
tude 25 to 28 42', where Africa seems at once 
to open its vast treasures of hoofed quadrupeds. 
The gnou is an excedingly fierce animal : on the 
sight of anybody it usually drops its head, and 
puts itself into an attitude of offence ; and will 
dart with its horns against the pales of the en- 
closure towards the persons on the outside ; yet 
it will afterwards take the bread which is offered. 
It will often go upon its knees, run swiftly in 
that singular posture, and furrow the ground 
with its horns and legs. The Hottentots call it 
gnou from its voice. It has two notes, one re- 
sembling the bellowing of an ox, the other more 
clear. It is called an ox by the Europeans, and 
is stiled accordingly bos gnou by Zimmerman. 

X. CAPRA HIRCUS, the common goat, with 
arched carinated horns, and a long beard. It is 
a native of the eastern mountains. Goats are 
animals of more sagacity than sheep. Instead of 
having an antipathy to mankind, they voluntarily 
mingle with them, and are easily tamed. Even 
in uninhabited countries, they betray no savage 
dispositions. They have a lively, capricious, and 
wandering disposition ; are fond of high and so- 
litary places, and frequently sleep upon the very 
points of rocks. They are more easily sup- 
ported than any other animal of the same size ; 
for there is hardly a herb, or the bark of a tree, 
which they will not eat. Neither are they liable 
to so many diseases as sheep, and can bear heat 
and cold with less inconvenience. Goats go 
with young four months and a half, and bring 
forth from the end of February to the end of 
April. They have only two teats, and generally 
bring forth but one or two young ; sometimes 

three, and in good warm pastures there have 
been instances, though rare, of their bringing 
forth four at a time. Both young and old are 
affected by the weather ; a rainy season makes 
them thin, a dry sunny one fat and blythe. In 
our climate they seldom live above eleven or 
twelve years. Though their food costs next to 
nothing, their produce is valuable. The whitest 
wigs are made of their hair; for which purpose 
that of the he- goat is most in request. The 
Welsh goats are far superior in size, and in 
length and fineness of hair, to those of other 
mountainous countries. Their usual color is 
white : those of France and the Alps are short- 
haired, reddish, and the horns small. Bolsters, 
made from the hair of a goat, were in use in the 
days of Saul, as appears from 1 Sam. xix. 13. 
The species very probably was the Angora goat, 
whose soft and silky hair supplied a most luxu- 
rious couch. ....The suet of the goat is in great 
esteem as well as the hair. The inhabitants of 
Caernarvonshire suffer these animals to run wild 
on the rocks in winter as well as in summer ; 
and kill them in October for the sake of their fat. 
The goats killed for this purpose are about four 
or five years old. Their suet makes candles far 
superior in whiteness and goodness to those made 
from that of the sheep or the ox, and accord- 
ingly brings a much greater price in the market; 
nor are the horns without their use, the country- 
people making of them excellent handles for 
tucks and penknives. The skin is peculiarly 
well adapted for the glove manufactory, espe- 
cially that of the kid : abroad it is dressed and 
made into stockings, bed-ticks, bed-hangings, 
sheets, and even shirts. In the army it covers 
the horseman's arms, and carries the foot-soldier's 
provisions. As it takes a dye better than any 
other skin, it was formerly much used for hang- 
ings in the houses of people of fortune, being 
susceptible of the richest colors, and when flow- 
ered and ornamented with gold and silver, be- 
came an elegant and superb furniture. The flesh 
is of great use to the inhabitants of those coun- 
tries which abound with goats ; and affords them 
a cheap and plentiful provision in winter. The 
haunches are frequently salted and dried, and 
supply all the uses of bacon : this by the Welsh 
is called coch yr wden, or hung venison. The 
meat of a spayed goat of six or seven years old, 
(which is called hyfr) is reckoned the best; 
being generally very fat and sweet. It makes 
an excellent pasty ; goes under the name of 
rock venison ; and is little inferior to that of 
the deer. The milk is sweet, nourishing, and 
medicinal. It is an excellent succedaneum foe 
ass's milk; and has, with a tea-spoonful oi 
hartshorn, drunk warm in bed in the morning 
and afternoon, and repeated for some time, 
proved a cure for phthisis when not too far gone. 
In some of the mountainous parts of Scotland and 
Ireland, the milk is made into whey, which has 
done wonders in this and similar cases ; and to 
many of those places there is as great a resort of 
patients of all ranks, as there is in England to the 
spas or baths. The milk of this animal must be 
salutary, as it browses only on the tops, tendrils 
and flowers, of the mountain shrubs, and medt 
dicinal herbs ; rejecting the grosser parts. Tbl 


C A P R A. 

blood of the he-goat, dried, was formerly reckon- 
ed a specific in pleurisies, and is even taken no- 
tice of by Dr. Mead for this purpose; but is now 
deservedly neglected. Cheese made of goat's 
milk is much valued in some of our mountainous 
countries, when kept to a proper age. It has a 
peculiar taste and flavor. There are several va- 
rieties of the common goat: such as, 1. C. 
hircus Angorensis, the Angora goat, a variety 
found only in the tract that surrounds Angora, 
Beibazar, and Cougna, in Asiatic Turkey, and 
about Gombron in Persia. 2. C. hircus capri- 
cornus, the capricorne of Buffon, has short horns, 
the ends turned forwards, their sides annulated, 
and the rings more prominent before than behind. 
Kerr says the place, history, and even figure, of 
this animal are uncertain. 3. C. hircus mutica, 
the cabonus goat of Pennant, is ranked by Kerr 
as a distinct species, although he styles it ' a va- 
riety resembling the common domestic goat in 
everything but the want of horns.' Perhaps this 
deficiency may be accidental, like that of many 
of the Scots oxen. 

XI. CAPRA IBEX, the wild goat, is sup- 
posed to be the stock whence the tame species 
sprung. It has large knotty horns reclined upou 
its back, is of a yellowish color, and its beard is 
black. The females are less and have smaller 
horns, more like those of a common she-goat, and 
with few knobs on the upper surface : they bring 
forth one kid, seldom two, at a birth. They in- 
habit the highest Alps of the Orisons country and 
the Valais ; they are also found in Crete, Italy, 
the Appenines, Germany, Siberia, and Kamtschat- 
ka. They are very wild, and difficult to be shot, 
as they always keep on the highest points. Their 
chase is exceedingly dangerous : being very strong, 
they often tumble the incautious huntsman down 
the precipices, unless he has time to lie down, 
and let the animals pass over him. They are 
said not to be long-lived. Their flesh is much 
esteemed, and their skins are very thin. 

Syrian goat, has short reclined horns, pendent 
ears, and a beard. It is a native of the east. 
Their ears are of vast length ; from one to two 
feet; and sometimes so troublesome, that the 
owners cut off one to enable the animal to feed 
with more ease. These animals supply Aleppo 
with milk. They are larger than the common 

XIII. 1. CAPRA REVERSA, the buck of Juda, 
has short, smooth, erect horns, curved a little 
forwards. It is about the size of a kid of a year 
old. It inhabits Juda, or Widaw, in Africa. 
Kerr describes another variety, viz. 2. C. 
reversa nana, styled by Buffon, the other buck of 
Juda. It inhabits the same country, is likewise 
of dwarfish size, and, though joined with the pre- 
ceding by Gmelin, is separated by Kerr, on ac- 
count of the different figure of the horns ; which 
he describes as ' very thick, rounded on the up- 
per surface, with two sharp edges below; and 
bent backwards with a slight spiral twist, down- 
wards, outwards, and upwards.' 

XIV. CAPRA RUPICAPRA, the chamois goat, 
has smooth, erect, and crooked horns. The body 
is of a dusky red color ; but the front, top of the 
bead, gullet, and inside of the ears are white; 

the under part of the tail is blackish ; and the up- 
per lip is a little divided. It inhabits the Alps of 
Switzerland, Italy, and the ci-devant province of 
Dauphine, the Pyrenean mountains, Greece, and 
Crete : does not dwell so high in the hills as the 
ibex, and is found in greater numbers. It is of 
the size of a domestic goat, and its hair is as short 
as that of a hind. Its vivacity is delightful, and 
its agility truly admirable. These animals are 
very social ; they go in little flocks of from three 
to twenty; sometimes from sixty to a hundred of 
them are seen dispersed along the declivity of the 
same mountain. The large males keep at a distance 
from the rest, except in the rutting season, when 
they join the females, and beat off all the young. 
At this period, their ardor is still longer than 
that of the wild bucks. They bleat often, and 
run from one mountain to another. Their season 
of love is in the months of October and November, 
and they bring forth in March and April. A 
young female takes the male at the age of eighteen 
months. The females bring forth one, but rarely 
two, at a time. The young follow their mothers 
till October, if not dispersed by the hunters or 
the wolves. They live between twenty and thirty 
years. Their flesh is very good. A fat chamois 
goat will yield from ten to twelve pounds of suet, 
which is harder and better than that of the goat. 
The blood of the chamois is extremely hot, and is 
said to have qualities and virtues nearly equal to 
those of the wild goat. The voice of the chamois 
is a very low and almost imperceptible kind of 
bleating, resembling that of a hoarse domestic 
goat. By this bleating they collect together. 
But, when alarmed, or when they perceive an 
enemy, they advertise one another by a kind of 
whistling noise. The sight of the chamois is 
very penetrating, and his sense of smelling is acute. 
When he sees a man distinctly, he stops for 
some time, and flies off when he makes a nearer 
approach. His sense of hearing is equally acute, 
for he hears the smallest noise. When the wind 
blows in the direction of a man, he will perceive 
the scent at the distance of more than half a league. 
Hence, when he smells or hears any thing which 
alarms him, he whistles with such force, that the 
rocks and forests re-echo the sound. All his 
brethren that are near take the alarm. This 
whistling is performed through the nostrils, and 
consists of a strong blowing, similar to the sound 
which a man may make by fixing his tongue to 
the palate, with his teeth nearly shut, his lips 
open, and somewhat extended, and blowing 
long and with great force. The chamois is very 
fond of the leaves and tender buds of shrubs, 
particularly of the meum athamanta. Kramer, 
in his Hist. Nat. Aust. supposes the balls called 
asgagropila, found in his stomach, to be occa- 
sioned by this food. See ^EGAGROPIL^. He 
ruminates like the common goat. His head is 
adorned with two small horns, from half a foot 
to nine inches in length. Their color is a, fine 
black, and they are placed on the front nearly 
between his eyes ; and, instead of being reflected 
backwards, like those of other animals, they ad- 
vance forward above the eyes, and bend back- 
ward at the points, which are extremely sharp. 
He adjusts his ears most beautifully to the points 
of his horns. Two tufts of black hair descend 

C A P R A. 


from his horns to the sides of his face. The rest 
of the head is of a yellowish white color, which 
never changes. The horns of the chamois are 
used for the heads of canes. Those of the female 
are smaller and less crooked. The skin of the cha- 
mois, when dressed, is very strong, nervous, and- 
supple, and makes excellent riding breeches, 
gloves and vests. Garments of this kind last long, 
and are of great use to manufacturers. The chamois 
goats are so impatient of heat, that, in summer, 
tliey are only to be found under the shades of 
caverns in the rocks, among masses of congealed 
snow and ice, or in elevated forests, on the 
northern declivities of the most scabrous moun- 
tains, where the rays of the sun seldom penetrate. 
They pasture in the mornings and evenings, and 
seldom during the day. Their mode of climb- 
ing or descending inaccessible rocks is admirable. 
They neither mount nor descend perpendicularly, 
but in an oblique line. When descending, par- 
ticularly , they throw themselves down across a rock 
which is nearly perpendicular, and of twenty or 
Jiirty feet in height, without having a single 
prop to support their feet. In doing this, they 
strike their feet three or four times against the 
rock, till they arrive at a proper resting place 
below. The spring of their tendons is so great, 
that, when leaping about among the precipices, 
one would imagine they had wings instead of 
limbs. The legs are long; those behind are some- 
what longer, and always crooked, which favors 
their springing to a great distance ; and, when 
they throw themselves from a height, the hind 
legs receive the shock, and perform the office of 
two springs in breaking the fall. During winter, 
they inhabit the lower forests, and live upon 
pine leaves, the buds of trees, bushes, and such 
green or dry herbs as they can find by scratching 
off the snow with their feet. The forests that 
delight them most, are those which are very full 
of rocks and precipices. The hunting of the 
chamois is very difficult and laborious. See 
HUNTING. This species is ranked among 
the antelopes by Messrs. Pennant, Kerr, Gme- 
lin, &c. 

XV. CAPRA TARTARICA, the saiga of Buffon, 
has cylindrical, straight, annulated horns ; the 
points inclining inward, the ends smooth ; the 
other part surrounded with very prominent annu- 
li; of a pale yellow color, and the greatest part 
semipellucid ; the cutting teeth are placed so 
loose in their sockets, as to move with the least 
touch. The male is covered with a rough hair 
like the he-goat, and has a very strong smell ; 
the female is smoother. The hair on the sides 
and throat is long, and resembles wool ; that on 
the neck and head is hoary ; the back and sides 
of a dirty white ; the breast, belly, and inside of 
the thighs, of a shining white. The females are 
destitute of horns. These animals inhabit all the 
deserts from the Danube and Dnieper to the 
River Irtish, but not beyond. Nor are they ever 
seen to the N. of 54 or 55 lat. They are found 
in Poland, Moldavia, about Mount Caucasus, the 
Caspian Sea, and Siberia, in the dreary open de- 
serts, where salt springs abound, feeding on the 
salt, acrid, and aromatic plants of those coun- 
tries, and grow in summer very fat : but their flesh 
acquires a taste disagreeable to many people, and 

is scarcely eatable, until it is suffered to grow cold 
after dressing. The females go with young the 
whole winter; and bring forth in the northern 
deserts in May. The young are covered with a 
soft fleece, like new dropped lambs, and curled 
and waved. They are regularly migratory. In 
the rutting season, late in autumn, they collect 
in flocks of thousands, and retire into the 
southern deserts. In the spring they divide 
into little flocks, and return northward. The 
male feeds promiscuously with the females and 
their young. They rarely lie down all at the 
same time ; but, by a provident instinct, some 
are always keeping watch ; and, when they are 
tired, they seemingly give notice to such as have 
t,aken their rest, who rise instantly, and relieve 
the sentinels. They thus often preserve them- 
selves from the attack of wolves, and the surprise 
of the huntsmen. They are excessively swift, and 
will outrun the fleetest horse or greyhound ; yet 
partly through fear (for they are 'the most timid 
of animals), and partly by the shortness of their 
breath, they are very soon taken. If they are bit 
by a dog they instantly fall down, nor will they 
even offer to rise. In running they seem to in- 
cline on one side. In a wild state they have no 
voice. When brought up tame, the young emit 
a short sort of bleating, like sheep. The males 
are very libidinous. When taken young they 
may easily be tamed ; but, if caught at full age, 
they are so wild and obstinate as to refuse all 
food. When they die, their noses are quite 
flaccid. They are hunted for the sake of their 
flesh, horns, and skins, which are excellent for 
gloves, belts, &c. See HUNTING. The fat re- 
sembles that of mutton; in taste, that of a 
buck : the head is reckoned the most delicate 

CAPR^E SALTANTES, Lat. i. e. dancing goats, 
in meteorology, fiery meteors or exhalations, 
sometimes seen in the atmosphere. They form 
inflected lines, resembling in some measure the 
caperings of a goat ; whence the name. 

CAPRARIA, in botany, goat-weed, a genus 
of the angiospermia order, and didynamia class 
of plants ; natural order fortieth, personatae : 
CAL. quinquepartite : COR. campanulated, quin- 
queh'd, with acute segments : CAPS, bivalved, 
bilocular, and polyspermous. Species, six ; the 
principal, C. biflora, is a native of the warm 
parts of America. 

CAPREA, orCAPRE.s, in ancient geography, 
an island in the Tuscan Sea, famous for the re- 
treat of the emperor Tiberius for seven years. 
See TIBERIUS. Before he came hither Capreae 
had attracted the notice of Augustus, as a most 
eligible retreat, though almost in the centre of the 
empire. His successor preferred it to every 
other residence; and in order to vary his plea- 
sures, and enjoy the advantages as well as avoid 
the inconveniences of each revolving season 
built twelve villas in different temperatures, and 
dedicated to the twelve greater gods : the ruins 
of some of them are still to be seen. The odium 
attached to the memory of Tiberius proved fatal 
to his favorite abode ; scarcely was his death pro- 
claimed at Rome, when the senate issued orders 
for the demolition of every fabric he had raised 
on the island, which, by way of disgrace, was 




thenceforward destined to be a state prison. The 
wife and sister of Commodus were banished to 
its inhospitable rocks, which were soon stained 
with their blood. In the middle ages Capreae 
became an appendage of the Amalfitan republic, 
and, after the downfall of that state, fell to the 
duchy of Naples. There stood a pharos on this 
island, which, a few days before the death of 
Tiberius, was overthrown by an earthquake. See 

CAP'REOLATE, adj. from the Lat. capreolus, 
a vine tendril. 

Such plants as turn, wind, and creep along the 
ground, by means of tendrils, as gourds, melons, and 
cucumbers, are termed, in botany, capreolate plants. 


CAPREOLI, in botany, the tendrils by which 
vines, peas, and other creeping plants, fasten 
themselves to any thing near them. See BOTANY. 

CAPREOLUS, in anatomy, the helix, or outer 
ambit of the ear. 

CAPRI, an island at the entrance of the Gulf 
of Naples, anciently called Caprea, seven miles 
long, and two broad. A large portion of its sur- 
face is unfit for cultivation ; but every spot that 
will admit the hoe, is industriously tilled, and 
richly laden with the best productions of the 
earth. It exhibits some relics of its ancient 
grandeur. Two broken columns show the en- 
trance of Tiberius's court (see CAPREA) ; at 
Santa Maria there are extensive vaults and reser- 
voirs ; and, on an adjacent hill, the remains of a 
light house. The island is much frequented by 
quails, forming the principal revenue of the 
bishop, whence he is called the bishop of quails. 

CAPRI, the capital of the above isle, seated on 
a high rock at the west end of it, twenty-seven 
miles from Naples. Long. 14 8' E., lat. 4011' N. 

CAPRI'CE, -v Fr. caprice; Ital. CO- 
CA PRI'CHIO, I priccio ; Span, capricho; 

CAPRI'CIOUS, vfrom Lat. coper, a goat; 

CAPRI'CIOUSLY, i allusively to the wanton- 

CAPRI'CIOUSNESS. J ness and freakishness of 
that animal. Serenius, on the other hand, traces 
caprice to the Gothic kepra, corrugare frontem. 
' Caprichio,' says Sherwood, is ' a fantasticall hu- 
mour ;' and the word caprice, in the French, he 
defines to be a' humour, caprichio, giddy thought, 
fantasticall conceit ; a sudden will, desire, or 
purpose to do a thing, for which one hath no (ap- 
parent) reason.' This is so full and correct that 
it is unnecessary to add anything to it. The de- 
rivatives from the primary word need no explana- 

Will this capricio hold in thee, art sure ? 

Shakspeare. All'* Well. 

TonCH. I am hare with thee and thy goats as 
the most capricious p*ct, honest Ovid, was among 
the Goths. 

JAO. O knowledge ill inhabited! worse than 
Jove in a thatched-house ! 

Id. At You Like It. 

Act freely, carelessly, and capriciously , as if our 
veins ran with quicksilver. Ben Jonson. 

Capricious, wanton, bold and brutal lust, 
Is meanly selfish ; when resisted cruel, 
And, like the blast of pestilential winds, 
Taints the sweet bloom of Nature's fairest forms. 
Milton'i Comiu. 

It is a pleasant spectacle to behold the shifts, wind- 
ings, and unexpected coprichios of distressed Nature, 
when pursued by a close and well-managed experi- 
ment. Glanoille, Preface to the Scepsis. 
We are not be guided in the sense of that book, 
either by the misreports of some ancients, or the ca- 
prichios of one or two neoterics. Grew. 

Quoth Hudibras, 'tis a caprich 
Beyond the infliction of a witch ; 
So cheats to play with those still aim, 
That do not understand 'he game. Hudibrat. 
Heaven's great view is one, and that the whole j 
That counterworks each folly and caprice, 
That disappoints the effect of every vice. Pope. 
A subject ought to suppose that there are reasons, 
although he be not apprised of them ; otherwise, he 
must tax his prince of capriciousneis, inconstancy, or ill 
design. Swift. 

Love's a capricious power ; I've known it hold, 
Out, though a fever caused by its own heat, 
But be much puzzled by a cough and cold. 
And find a quinsy very hard to treat. Byron. 

CAP'RICORN, n. Lat. capricornus. One of 
the zodiacal signs ; the winter solstice. 

But when the golden spring reveals the year, 
And the white bird returns, whom serpents fear ; 
That season deem the best to plant thy vines : 
Next that, is when autumnal warmth declines ; 
Ere heat is quite decayed, or cold begun, 
Or Capricorn admits the winter sun. 

Dryden. Georgics, b. ii. 

Let the longest night in Capricorn be of fifteen hours, 
the day consequently must be of nine. 

Notes to Creech's Manilius. 

CAPRICORN, one of the signs of the zodiac, 
marked thus yj>. The ancients accounted Capri- 
corn the tenth sign; and it made the winter 
solstice with regard to our hemisphere : but the 
stars having advanced a whole sign towards the 
east, Capricorn is now rather the eleventh sign ; 
and it is at the sun's entry into Sagittarius, that 
the solstice happens, though the ancient manner 
of speaking is still retained. This sign is repre- 
sented on ancient monuments, medals, &c. as 
having the fore part of a goat, and the hind part 
of a fish, which is the form of an JEgipan : some- 
times simply under the form of a goat. The 
stars in this constellation are 0-0-3'3-9'35- in all 
fifty of the first six magnitudes. 

CAPRICORN, TROPIC OF, a lesser circle of the 
sphere, which is parallel to the equinoctial, pass- 
ing through the beginning of Capricorn. See 

CAPRIFICATION, n. Lat. caprificatio. An 
operation performed to ripen the fruit of the fig- 

The process of caprification being unknown to these 
savages, the figs come to nothing. Bruce. 

CAPRIFICATION, a method used in the Le- 
vant, for ripening the fruit of the domestic fig 
tree, by means of insects bred in that of the wild 
fig tree. The most ample and satisfactory 
accounts of this curious operation in gardening 
are those of Tournefort and Pontedera : the for- 
mer, in his Voyage to the Levant, and in a 
Memoir delivered to the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris in 1705; the latter, in his Anthologia. 
The caprification of the ancient Greeks and Ro- 
mans, described by Theophrastus, Plutarch, Pliny, 
and other authors of antiquity, corresponds in 
every circumstance with what is practised at this 




day in the Archipelago and in Italy. These all 
agree in declaring, that the wild fig tree, caprifi- 
cus, never ripened its fruit ; but was absolutely 
necessary for ripening that of the garden or 
domestic fig, over which the husbandmen sus- 
pended its branches. The reason has been sup- 
posed to be that by the punctures of these 
insects the vessels of the fruit are lacerated, and 
thereby a greater quantity of nutritious juice 
derived thither ; or that, in depositing their eggs, 
the gnats leave behind them some sort of liquor 
proper to ferment gently with the milk of the figs, 
and to make their flesh tender. The figs in Pro- 
vence, and even at Paris, ripen much sooner for 
having their buds pricked with a straw, dipped 
in olive oil. Plums and pears likewise pricked 
by some insects, ripen much faster, and the flesh 
round such puncture is better tasted than the 
rest. Linnaeus explained the operation, by sup- 
posing that the insects brought the farina from 
the wild fig, which contained the male flowers 
only, to the domestic fig, which contained the 
female ones. Hasselquist, from what he saw in 
Palestine, seemed to doubt of this mode of fruc- 
tification. M. Bernard, in the Memoirs of the 
Society of Agriculture, opposes it more decidedly. 
He could never find the insect ii. the cultivated 
fig ; and, in reality, it appeared to leave the wild 
fig after the stamina were mature, and their 
pollen dissipated : besides, he adds, what they 
may have brought on their wings must be rubbed 
away, in the little aperture which they would 
form for themselves. 

CA'PRIFOLE, Lat. caprifolium. Minsheu 
spells it caprifoile. The honey-suckle. See Lo- 

With wanton yvie-twine entrayled athwart, 

And eglantine and caprifole emong. 

Spenser. Faerie Queen. 

CAPRIMULGUS, the goat-sucker, or fern- 
owl, in ornithology, a genus of birds of 
the order passeres. The beak is incurvated, 
small, tapering, and depressed at the base; the 
mouth opens very wide. They lay two eggs, 
which they deposit on the naked ground ; the 
lateral toes are connected by a small membrane 
to the middle one. There are several species or 
varieties in different countries, but all nearly 
similar to one or other of the following : C. 
Americanus has the tubes of the nostrils very 
conspicuous. It is a night bird, and is found in 
America. C. Europaeus has the tubes of the 
nostrils hardly visible. It feeds on insects. This 
bird makes but a short stay with us ; appearing 
the latter end of May, and disappearing in Sep- 
tember. Scopoli seems to credit the report of 
their sucking the teats of goats, an error delivered 
down from the days of Aristotle. Its notes are 
most singular. The loudest so much resembles 
that of a large spinning wheel, that the Welsh 
call this bird aderyn y droell, or the wheel bird. 
It lays its eggs on the bare ground; usually two; 
they are of a long form, of a whitish hue, prettily 
marbled with a reddish brown. Its plumage is 
a beautiful mixture of white, black, ash-color, 
and ferruginous, disposed in lines, bars, and spots. 
The male is distinguished from the female by a 
great oval white spot near the end of the three 
first quill-feathers, and another on the outmost 

feathers of the tail. A variety, only eight inches 
in length, inhabits Virginia, in summer : arrives 
there towards the middle of April, and frequents 
the mountainous parts, but will frequently ap- 
proach the houses in the evening, crying several 
times very loud, somewhat like the word, whip- 
eriwhip, or whip-poor-will, the first and last 
syllables pronounced loudest. Its eggs are of a 
dull green, with dusky spots and streaks. 
Another variety, larger, inhabits Virginia and 
Carolina ; where it is called the rain-bird, be. 
cause it nerer appears in the day-time, except 
when the sky, being obscured with clouds, 
betokens rain. 

CAPRIOLE', n. Fr. capriole, cabriole: in 
horsemanship, a peculiar kind of leap, also call- 
ed the goats' leap. The word was also formerly 
descriptive of springing up in dancing ; but is 
no longer used in that sense. 

Caprioles are leaps such as a horse makes in one 
and the same place, without advancing forwards, and 
in such a manner that when he is in the air, and 
height of his leap, he yerks or strikes out with his 
hinder legs even and near. A capriole is the most 
difficult of all the high menage, or raised airs. It is 
different from the cioupade in this, that the horse 
does not show his shoes ; and from a balotade, in that 
he does not yerk out in a balotade. 

Farrier's Dictionary 

A gallant dance, that lively doth bewray 
A spirit and a virtue masculine, 

Impatient that her house on earth should stay. 
Since she herself is fiery and divine ; 
Oft doth she make her body upward fine k 

With lofty turns and caprioles in the air, 

With which the lusty tunes accordeth fair. 

Davies. Orchestra. 

CAPRIOLE. To make this air perfect, the horse 
should raise his fore and hind parts equally high, and 
when he strikes out behind, his croupe should be 
level with his withers. In rising and coming down 
his head should be quite steady, and his forehead 
presented quite straight ; in rising, his fore legs 
should be equally and a good deal bent; he 
ought to strike out with all his force with his 
hind legs ; his feet should be of an equal height ; 
and, lastly, he should, at every leap, fall a foot 
and a-half or two feet distant from the spot where 
he rose. 

CAPSARIUS, from capsa, a chest, among the 
Roman bankers, was he who had the care of the 
money-chest or coffer; also a servant who 
attended the Roman youth to school, carrying a 
satchel with their books in it; sometimes also 
called librarius. 

CAPSICUM, in botany, Cayenne or Guinea 
pepper, a genus of the monogynia order, and 
pentandria class of plants ; natural order twenty- 
eighth, luridae : con. verticillated ; fruit, a sap- 
less berry. Species four, viz.: C. annuum, 
with oblong fruit, the common long-podded cap- 
sicuni, commonly cultivated in the gardens. Of 
this there is one variety with red, and another 
with yellow fruit ; and of these there are several 
sub-varieties, differing only in the size and figure 
of their fruit. From the pods of this plant is 
produced the Guinea pepper of the shops. C. 
frutescens, Barbary pepper, with small pyrami- 
dal fruit growing erect. C. boccatum, having 
dark green leaves, white flowers, and roundish 


red berries, from the powder of which is made 
the common Cayenne pepper. C. sinense, hav- 
ing soft red fruit, and longer dark shining green 

CAPSQUARES, strong plates of iron which 
cover the trunnions of a gun, and keep it in the 
carriage. They are fastened by a hinge to the 
prize-plate, that they may lift up and down, and 
form the part of an arch in the middle to receive 
a third part of the thickness of the trunnions ; 
for two-thirds are let into the carriage, and the 
other end is fastened by two iron wedges called 
the forelocks and keys. 

CAP'STAN, 7i. ) Fr. cabestan ; Span, cubes- 
CAP'STAN-BAR. J trante, or cabrestante ; Belg. 
kapstand. It is sometimes erroneously called 
capstern. A cylinder, which is made to revolve 
by means of levers, for the purpose of raising 
any great weight, particularly the anchors of 
ships. The capstan-bar is the lever. 

The weighing of anchors by the capstan is also new. 
Sir Walter Raleigh. 

No more behold thee turn my watch's key, 
As seamen at the capstan anchors weigh. 


The CAPSTAN usually consists of a strong cy- 
linder of wood, with a truncated cone proceeding 
from the under extremity of its head. Jt is con- 
structed on the principle of the wheel and axle, 
and is put in motion by bars or levers, called 
hand-spikes. An apparatus of this description 
is generally employed on ship-board for the 
raising of anchors and other violent manipula- 

There are commonly two capstans in a ship of 
war; the main-capstan, placed behind the main- 
mast, standing on the first deck, and reaching 
four or five feet above the second ; this is also 
called the double-capstan, because it has two 
drum-heads, and serves two decks for drawing of 
anchors, and because its force may be doubled 
by applying hands on each deck. It has bars, 
whelps, &c., for turning and stopping it. The 
other is the jeer-capstan, or little capstan : this 
stands on the second deck, between the main- 
mast and the mizen : its use is, chiefly, to heave 
up the jeer-rope, or to heave up the viol, to hold 
off by when the anchor is weighed, and on other 
occasions where a less force is required than to 
weigh the anchors, &c. 

The parts of a capstan are the foot, which is 
the lowest part ; the spindle, the smallest part of 
which turns round in an iron socket, called the 
saucer ; the whelps, a sort of brackets set into 
the body of the capstan close under the bars, 
and reaching downwards from the lower part of 
the drum-head to the deck ; the barrel, the main 
body of the whole ; the drum-head, which is a 
broad cylindric piece of wood fixed above the 
barrel and whelps, in which are the holes for the 
bars to be put into ; the bars, which are small 
pieces of timber by which the men heave ; the 
pins, which are little bolts of iron, thrust perpen- 
dicularly through the holes of the drum-head, 
and through a correspondent hole in the end of 
the bar made to receive them when the bars are 
fixed ; the pawls, which are pieces of iron bolted 
to one ecd of the beams of .the deck, close to the 

142 CAP 

body of the capstan, but so a* that it has liberty 
to turn about every way ; and against them do the 
whelps of the capstan bear ; so that the capstan 
may be stopped from turning back. There are 
also hanging pawls, which reach from the deck 
above to the drum-head immediately beneath it ; 
and, lastly, the swifter, which is a rope passed 
horizontally through holes in the outer ends o. 
the bars, and, being drawn tight, is designed to 
keep the men steady whilst they work, and to 
afford room for a greater number to work at 

An important improvement has been suggested 
in the capstan by captain Hamilton of the royal 
navy, which is that of reducing the number of 
whelps from six to five, making the lower part 
more obtuse, and filling it up circular by the 
chocks, and also making the upper part more 
perpendicular in the sides, and open, the whelps 
being a portion of a circle. 

There is a simple and powerful capstan which 
may now be noticed. It consists of a compound 
barrel, or rather of two cylinders of different ra- 
dii. If a rope be attached to one extremity of 
the smaller cylinder, and then, after passing 
round a pulley be made to coil on a large one, 
so that as the one rope unwinds the other is 
rolled up, the apparatus may be considered, as 

In describing a capstan of this kind, Dr Ro- 
bison asserts, that when the diameters of the 
cylinders which compose the double barrel are 
as 16 to 17, and their circumferences as 48 to 51, 
the pulley is brought nearer to the capstan by 
about three inches for each revolution of the bar. 
This, however, is a mistake, as the pufley is brought 
only an inch and a half nearer the axis. This 
will be evident if we conceive a quantity of rope, 
equal to the circumference of the larger cylinder, 
to be wound up all at once, and a quantity equal 
to the circumference of the lesser one, to be un- 
wound all at once. In the present case 51 
inches of rope will be coiled round the larger 
part of the barrel by one revolution of the cap- 
stan bar, and consequently the load would be 
raised 25 feet, the rope being doubled. Let 
48 inches of rope be now unwound from the 
lesser cylinder, and the load will sink 24 feet ; 
therefore 25 J 24 1J feet is the whole height 
or distance through which the weight has be&n 
moved. See MECHANICS. 

CAP'SULE, n. -\ Lat. capsula, the dimi- 
CAP'SOLAR, adj. I nutiveofcapsrt,fromra^a, 
CAP'SULARY, adj. V a little chest. The cell, 
CAP'SULATE, adj. i or ear, in plants, which 
CAP'SULATED, adj. J holds the seeds. The 
first two of the adjectives, derived from the 
noun, signify hollow, like a chest ; the last two, 
enclosed, as in a chest. 

It ascendeth not directly into- the throat, but as- 
cending first into a capsulary reception of the breast- 
bone, it ascendeth again into the neck. 

Browne's Vulgar Errouri. 

Such (seeds) as are corrupted and state, will swim ; 
and this agreeth unto the seeds of plants locked up 
and capsiilated in their husks. Id. 

The heart lies immersed, or capsidated, in a carti- 
lage, which Includes the h6art, as the skull doth the 
brain. Derham. 




On threshing, I found things as I expected ; the 
cars not filled, some of the capsules quite empty, and 
several others containing only withered hungry grain, 
inferior to the appearance of rye. 

Burke on Scarcity. 

The capsule of the geranium and the beard of wild 
oats are twisted for a similar purpose, and dislodge 
their seeds on wet days, when the ground is best 
fitted to receive them. Hence, one of these, with its 
adhering capsule, or beard, fixed on a stand, serves 
the purpose of an hygrometer, twisting itself, more or 
less, according to the moisture of the air. 


CAP'TAIN, n&cs. ^ Fr. capitaine; Ital. 

Span, capi- 
Dut. kapitein ; 
kapten. ' In 
says Johnson, 
'capitaneus, being one of those who, by tenure in 
capite, were obliged to bring soldiers to the war.' 
Skinner, however, derives it from caput. Todd 
supposes it to be a hybrid word, from caput, and 
thane, an ancient title of honor. It was anciently 
the title of a chief commander; but this use of 
the word is now nearly, if not quite, obsolete. 
Connected with this, it implied a man skilled in 
war; and it is still occasionally thus used. Its 
common acceptation is a commander of a ship, 
or of a company in a regiment ; but it is also 
employed in some civilcases, as in the captain of a 
class at school. The captain-general of an army 
is a general in chief, says Johnson ; but the term 
has a larger scope, extending to authority over 
various bodies of forces. The British monarch 
is captain-general, or generalissimo, of all the 
troops in his dominions. Captainry is chieftain- 
ship, or power over a certain district. Captain- 
ship, besides its obvious meaning, also denotes 
skill in military affairs. 

Nashan shall be captain of Judah. Numbers. 
He sent unto him a captain of fifty. Kinys. 
Awhile they fled, but soone returned againe 
With greater fury than before was found ; 
And evermore their cruell capitaine 
Sought with his rascal routs t' enclose them round, 
And, overcome, to tread them on the ground. 


There snould be no rewards taken for captainries of 
countries, no shares of bishoprics for nominating 
bishops. Id. 

Dismayed not this 
Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ? 

Shakspeare. Macbeth. 

A captain! these villains will make the name of 
captain as odious as the word occupy ; therefore cap- 
tains had need look to it. Id. Henry IV. 

Therefore, so please you to return with us, 
And of our Athens, thine and ours, to take 
The captainship. 

The lieutenant of the colonel's company might well 
pretend to the next vacant captainship in the same re- 
giment. Wotton. 
To diminish the Irish lords, he did abolish their 
pretended and usurped captainships. Davies on Ireland. 

The grim captain, in a surly tone, 
Cries cut Pack up, you rascals, and begone. 


So the sweet lark, high poised in air, 
Shuts close his oinions to his breast, 

If chance his mate's shrill calls he hear, 

And drops at once into her nest. 

The noblest captain in the British fleet 

Might envy William's lip those kisses sweet. Ga;i. 

There's Captain Pannel, absent half his life, 
Comes back, and is the kinder to his wife ; 
Yet Pannel's wife is brown, compared to me, 
And Mistress Biddel sure is fifty-three. Id. 

Turkish high admiral. He holds the third office in 
the empire, and is invested with the same power at 
sea that the vizier has on shore. He has absolute 
authority over the officers of the marine and ar- 
senal, whom he may punish, cashier, or put to 
death, as soon as he is without the Dardanelles. 
He commands in chief in all the maritime coun- 
tries, cities, castles, &c. ; and at Constantinople, 
is the first magistrate of police in the villages on 
the side of the Porte, and the canal of the Black 
Sea. The mark of his authority is a large Indian 
cane, which he carries in his hand, both in the 
arsenal and with the army. His chief revenue 
arises from a capitation -of the islands in the Ar- 
chipelago, and certain governments in Natolia 
and Gallipoli. He also receives the pay of all 
men who die during a campaign ; a fifth of all 
prizes made by the begs ; and he exacts contri- 
butions in all places where he passes. 

CAPTAIN LIEUTENANT, an officer, who, with 
the rank of captain, but the pay of lieutenant, 
commands a troop or company in the name of 
some other person, who is dispensed with on 
account of his quality from performing the func- 
tions of his post. Thus the colonel being usually 
captain of the first company of his regiment, that 
company is commanded by his deputy as captain 

missioned officer, who commands a company of 
foot, or a troop of horse, under a colonel. The 
duty of this officer is to be careful to keep his 
company full of able bodied soldiers; to visit 
their tents and lodgings, to see what is wanting ; 
to cause them to keep themselves neat and clean 
in their clothes, and their arms bright. He has 
power in his own company to make Serjeants 
and corporals, and lance-corporals. In the horse 
and foot-guards, the captains have the rank of 
lieutenant-colonels of the army. 

the direction of the ship, her crew, lading, &c. 
In small ships, and short voyages, he is more 
ordinarily called the master. In the Mediterra- 
nean, he is called the patroon. The proprietor 
of the vessel appoints thp captain or master ; and 
he is to form the crew, and choose and hire the 
pilots, mates, and seamen ; though when the 
proprietor and master reside on the same spot, they 
generally act in concert together. 

CAPTAIN, POST, an officer commanding any 
vessel of war from a ship of the line down to a 
ship-rigged sloop. Formerly, a twenty -gunned 
ship was the smallest that gave post rank, but by 
a late regulation of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, the largest class of ship sloops 
has been added to the list of post-ships, and 
post-captains under three years standing are now 
appointed to them, unless they happened to be se- 
lected as flag-captains to admirals' ships ; after 




being three years posted, they are appointed to 
frigates, which they may continue to command 
fill they are of ten years standing, when they 
^e generally removed to fifty or sixty-four gun 
ships, preparatory to their taking the command 
cf ships of the line. 

CAPTATION, n. Old Fr. captation; from 
Lat. capto. The practice of catching favor or ap- 
plause ; courtship ; flattery. 

I am content my heart should be discovered, with- 
out any of those dresses, or popular captations, which 
some men use in their speeches. King Charles, 

CA'PTION, n. Lat capio, to take. A legal 
term, which has various meanings in the English 
and Scotch law. In England, when any com- 
mission at law or in equity is executed, the com- 
missioners subscribe the names to a certificate, 
testifying when and where the commission was 
executed ; and this is called a caption. There 
is likewise the caption of an indictment, setting 
forth of the style of the court before which the 
jurors made their presentment. The act of ar- 
resting a man is also called the caption. In 
Scotch law, caption is a writ issuing under his 
majesty's signet, commanding messengers at 
arms to apprehend and detain a debtor ; and 
likewise a writ issued by the court of session, 
to compel agents of the court to return pa- 
pers belonging to processes or law suits, under 
penalty of being sent to prison in case of diso- 

There is also an obsolete English use of the 
word, signifying to take a person unawares by 
some trick or cavil. It is thus used by Chilling- 
worth, in his Religion of Protestants. 

CA'PTIOUS, adj. } Fr. captieux ; Ital. cap- 

CA'PTIOUSLY, adv. > zioso ; Span, capcioso ; 

CA'PTIOUSNESS, n.J Lat. captiosus. ' Of catch- 
ing,' says Minsheu, ' because captious men catch 
at others.' To be captious is to be prone to 
cavil ; ready to take sudden and unexpected of- 
fence, where none is intended to be given. The 
captious man is one of the most unpleasant 
of companions. There is no probability of avoid- 
ing a quarrel with him. He raises a dispute on 
everything that is said, and, by a sinister sort of 
transmutation, converts the most innocent words 
and actions into premeditated affront. He will 
even go beyond Hotspur, for he will ' cavil on 
the ninth part of a hair,' though there be nothing 
in ' the way of bargain ' to excite him to it. 
Captious also means insidious, ensnaring ; as 
will be seen in the quotation from Bacon ; but 
is less frequently used in this -sense: 

She taught him likewise to avoid sundry captious 
and tempting questions, which were like to be asked 
of him. Bacon. 

If he show a forwardness to be reasoning about 
things, take care that nobody check this inclination, 
or mislead it by captious or fallacious ways of talking 
with him. Locke. 

Use your words as captiotuly as you can, in your 
arguing on one side, and apply distinctions on the 
other. Id. 

Cautiousness is a fault opposite to civility ; it often 
produces misbecoming and provoking expressions and 
carriage. Id. 

Friend, quoth the Cur, I meant no harm ; 
Then why so captious, why so warm ? 
My words, in common acceptation, 
Could never give this provocation. Gay. 

CAPTIVATE, v. & adj.^ Fr. captive, cap 
CAPTIVA'TION, n. lif; Ital. cattivare, 

CAPTA'TION, n. \ cattivo; Span, cap- 

CAP'TIVE, v. n. & adj. \tivar ; captivo ; mo- 
CAP'TIVAUNCE, n. I dern Span, cauti- 

CAP'TURE, ti. & n. var, cautivo ; Lat. 

CAP'TOR, n. J captivo, captivus ; 

from capio. To make prisoner ; to reduce to 
slavery ; to enthral or subjugate, mentally or 
corporeally. Captivate and captivation were 
once used in the sterner sense of to take pri- 
soner; they are now applied only to the 
victorious ascendancy which is acquired over 
the mind by beauty and the fine arts; the 
willing thraldom of the heart. Mr. Todd ob- 
serves, that to captive ' was used formerly with 
the accent on the last syllable, but now it is on 
the first. The old accent seems to have been 
discontinued in Milton's time ; for Dryden, it 
appears, places the accent on the first syllable.' 
This, however, may be disputed ; as instances of 
the accent being thrown on the first syllable are to 
be found in Shakspeare and other writers, who 
preceded Milton. Captive takes to before the 
captor. Captivaunce is synonymous with cap- 
tivity. In the quotation from the Psalms, capti- 
vity is put, by a bold figure, a personification, 
for those who had led others captive. Capture, 
as a verb, is of modern introduction. 

Thou hast ascended on high, though hast led cap- 
tivity captive, thou hast received gifts for men. 

Psalm Ixviii. 18. 

Love, that liveth and reigneth in my thought, 
That built his seat within my captive breast. 
Clad in the armes, wherein with me he fought, 

Oft in my face he doth his banner rest. 
She that methought to love, and suffer pain, 

My doubtfull hope, and eke my hot desire, 
With shamfast cloke to shadow and restrain. 
Her smiling grace converteth straight to ire. 


But being all defeated save a few, 
Rather than fly, or be captived, herself she slew. 


How ill beseeming is it in thy sex, 
To triumph, like an Amazonian trull, 
Upon their woes, whom fortune captivates. 


Thou hast by tyranny these many years 
Wasted our country, slain our citizens 
And sent our sons and husbands captivate. Id. 

You have the captives, 
Who were the opposites of this day's strife. Id. 

If thou say Antony lives, 'tis well, 
Or friends with Caesar, or not captive to him. 


My woman's heart 
Grossly grew captive to his honey words. Id. 

This is the Serjeant, 

Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought 
'Gainst my captivity. Id. 

For men to be tied, and led by authority, as it were 
with a kind of captivity of judgment ; and though there 
be reason to the contrary, not to listen to it. 





Then when I am thy captive talk of chains, 
Proud limitary cherub; but ere then 
Far heavier load thyself expect to feel 
From my prevailing arm, though heaven's king 
Ride oil thy wings, and thou with thy compeers, 
Used to the yoke, draws't his triumphant wheels 
In progress through the road of heaven star-paved. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. 

There in captivity he lets them dwell 
The space of seventy years, then brings them back. 


Thou leavest them to hostile sword 
Of heathen and profane, their carcasses 
To dogs and fowls a prey, or else captived. 

Id. Satnson Agonittes. 

lie deserves to be a slave that is content to have 
the rational sovereignty of his soul, and the. liberty of 
his will so captivated. King Charles I. 

Now nothing more at Chatam's left to burn, 
The Holland squadron leisurely return ; 
And, spite of Ruperts and of Albermarles, 
To Ruyter's triumph led the captive Charles. 


To make a final conquest of all me, 
Love did compose so sweet an enemy, 
In whom both beauties to my death agree, 
Joining themselves in fatal harmony ; 
That, while she with eyes my heart doth bind, 
She with her voice might captivate my mind. Id. 

What further fear of danger can there be ? 
Beauty, which captives all things, sets me free. 


But Fate forbids ; the Stygian floods oppose, 
A nd with nine circling streams the captive souls enclose. 


The name of Ormond will be more celebrated in his 
captivity than in his greatest triumphs. H- 

They stand firm, keep out the enemy truth, that 
would captivate, or disturb them. Locke. 

They lay a trap for themselves, and captivate their 
understandings to mistake, falsehood, and error. 


Wisdom enters the last, and so captivates him with, 
her appearance, that he gives himself up to her. 


When love's well-timed, 'tis not a fault to love ; 
The strong, the brave, the virtuous, and the wise, 
Sink in the soft captivity together. Id* 

Still lay the god : the nymph surprised, 
Yet mistress of herself, devised 
How she the vagrant mi^ht enthrall, 
A ad captive him who captives all. Prior. 

The great sagacity, and many artifices, used by 
birds, in the investigation and capture of their prey. 


Free from shame, 
They captive : I ensure the penal claim. 

Pope's Odyssey. 
Yet the wise captive, meeting art with art, 

Pretends great love to princely Hubert's side ; 
And offers many a secret to impart, 
Which may against his foe's strong arms provide. 


When Congreve's favoured pantomime to grace, 
She comes a captive queen of Moorish race. 


The unequal conflict was terminated in fifteen days ; 

and it was with extreme reluctance that Mahomet 

yielded to the importunities of his allies, and con- 

ientrd to spare the lives of the captives. Gib/ion. 

VOL. V. 

Alas ! full oft on guilt's victorious car, 

The spoils of virtue are in triumph borne, 

While the fair captive, marked with many a scar, 
In long obscurity oppressed, forlorn. 

Resigns to tears her angel form. Bcattie. 

Hope not, thoxigh all that captivates the wise, 
All that endears the good, exalt thy praise, 

Hope not to taste repose, for envy's eyes 

At fairest worth still point her deadly rays. Id. 

Though fairest captives daily met his eye, 
He shunned, not sought, but coldly passed them by. 

Byron' t Corsair. 

CAPTIVES formerly became the slaves of those 
who took them; and though slavery, such as 
obtained among the ancients, is now abolished, 
some shadow of it still remains in respect of 
prisoners of war, who are accounted the pro- 
perty of their captors. The Romans used their 
captives with great barbarity ; their necks were 
exposed to the soldiers to be trampled on, and 
their persons afterwards scd by public auction. 
Captives were frequently burnt in the funeral 
piles of the ancient wari;'oi i, as a sacrifice to the 
funeral gods. Those of royal or noble blood had 
their heads shaven, and their hair sent to Rome 
to serve as decorations for female toys, &c. They 
were led in triumph, loaded with chains, as far 
as the foot of the Capitoline Mount, for they 
were not permitted to ascend the sacred hill, but 
carried thence to prison. Those of quality were 
honored with golden chains on their hands and 
feet, and golden collars on their necks. If they 
made their escape, or killed themselves, to avoid 
the ignominy of being carried in triumph, their 
effigies were frequently carried in their place. 

CAPTURE is particularly applied to a ship 
taken at sea. Captures made at sea were for- 
merly held to be the property of the captors after 
a possession of twenty-four hours; but the mo- 
dern authorities require, that before the property 
can be changed, the goods must have been 
brought into port, and have continued a night 
intra prasidia, in a place of safe custody, so that 
all hope of recovering them was lost. Capture 
is likewise used for an arrest or seizure of a cri- 
minal, debtor, &c. at land. 

CAPUA, in ancient geography, a very ancient 
city of Italy, in Campania, anil capital of that 
district. It was a settlement of the Osci before 
the foundation of Rome, and as the amazing fer- 
tility of the land, and a lucrative commerce, 
poured immense wealth upon its inhabitants, it 
became one of the most extensive and magnifi- 
cent cities in the world. With riches excessive 
luxury crept in, and the Capuans soon lost the 
power of repelling those nations whom their in- 
solence had exasperated. Roman aid was asked 
and granted, but the soldiers sent to defend it 
wished to make it their prey. Jealous of the 
avarice and ambition of Rome, the Capuans 
warmly espoused the quarrel of Carthage, and 
Hannibal made Capua his winter quarters after 
the battle of Cannae; and there his hitherto in- 
vincible soldiers were enervated by pleasure arid 
indolence. When, through a failure of supplies 
from Carthage, Hannibal was under the necessity 
of leaving the Capuans to defend themselves, this 
city, which had long been invested, was surren- 
dered at discretion to the consuls Appius Clau- 
dius and Q. Fulvius Flaccus. The senators 




were put to death, the nobles imprisoned for life, 
and all the citizens sold and dispersed, except 
Yibius and his friends, who killed themselves. 
The buildings were spared by the victor ; and 
Capua was left to be a harbour for the husband- 
men, a warehouse for goods, and a granary for 
corn. Colonies were sent to inhabit it, and in 
process of time it regained a degree of its impor- 
tance. But Genseric the Vandal was more cruel 
than the Romans, for he massacred the inhabi- 
tants, and burned the town. Narses rebuilt it ; 
but in 841 it was totally destroyed by the Sara- 
cens, and the inhabitants driven to the moun- 
tains. Since the foundation of the new city, the 
ancient Capua has remained in ruins. 

CAPUA, in modern geography, is a neat little city 
of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, built on part of the 
site of old Capua. It owes its origin to the Lom- 
bard inhabitants of the old city, who, some time 
after the departure of the Saracens, ventured 
down again into the plain ; but, not deeming their 
force equal to the defence of their former exten- 
sive circuit, built a smaller town on the banks 
of the Volturno, and on the site of the ancient 
Casilinum. In 856 Landulph formed here an 
independent earldom, and in the course of a few 
generations Capua acquired the title of a princi- 
pality. In the eleventh century the Normans 
of Aversa expelled the Lombard race of princes, 
and Richard their chief became prince of Capua. 
The grandson of Tancred of Hauteville drove 
out the descendants of Richard, and united this 
state to the rest of his possessions. Capua is at 
present fortified according to the rules of modern 
art, and may be considered as the key of the 
kingdom ; though far removed from the frontier, 
it is the only fortification that really covers the 
approach to Naples. It was, however, taken by 
the French, under general Championnet, on the 
1 1 th January, 1797. It is fifteen miles north- 
east of Naples, and 100 south-east of Rome. 
Long. 15 7' E., lat. 11 26' N. 

CAPUCHINS, religious of the order of St. 
Francis in its strictest observance ; deriving their 
name from capuce, or capuchon, a stuff cowl, 
wherewith they cover their heads. They are 
clothed with brown or gray ; always bare-footed ; 
never go in a coach, nor ever shave their beards. 
They are a reform from the order of Minors, 
commonly called cordeliers, set on foot in the six- 
teenth century by Matthew Baschi, who pretended 
to have been advised from heaven to practise the 
rule of St. Francis to the letter. Pope Clement 
VII, in 1525, gave him permission to retire into 
solitude, with as many others as chose to embrace 
the strict observance, and in 1 528 they obtained 
his bull. In 1529 the order was brought into 
complete form ; Matthew was elected general, 
and the chapter made constitutions. 

CAPUENA, in icthyology, a fish caught in the 
American seas, and esteemed very delicate. It is 
round shaped, and usually about five inches 

CAPURA, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order, belonging to the hexandria class of 
plants. C.purpurata, is a nativeof the East Indies. 

CAPUT, the head. See HEAD, SKULL, FACE, 

CAPUT BARONIJE, the head of the barony, or 

CAPUT HONORIS, the head of the honor, in ancient 
customs, denoted the chief seat of a nobleman, 
where he made his usual residence, and held his 
court. It could not be settled in dowry ; nor 
could be divided among the daughters, in case 
there were no son to inherit; but was to descend 
entire to the eldest daughter, caeteris filiabus 
aliunde satisfactis. 

CAPUT GALLINAGINIS, in anatomy, is a kind 
of septum, or spongious border, at the extremi- 
ties or apertures of each of the vesiculae seminales; 
serving to prevent the semen coming from one 
side, from rushing upon, and so stopping the 
discharge of the other. 

CAPUT LUPINUM, a term anciently applied to 
an outlawed felon, who might be knocked on the 
head like a wolf, by any one that met him ; be- 
cause, having renounced all law, he was to be 
dealt with as in a state of nature, when every one 
that should find him might slay him. But now 
it is holden that no man is entitled to kill him 
wantonly and wilfully; but in so doing he is 
guilty of murder, unless it is done in the endea- 
vour to apprehend him. 

CAPUT MORTUUM, a name given by old che- 
mists to fixed and exhausted residuums remaining 
in retorts after distillations. As these residuums 
are very different, according to the substances dis- 
tilled, and the degree of heat employed, they are 
by the more accurate modern chemists particu- 
larly specified. 

CAQUETA, a river of South America, which 
rises in the province of Quito, near the ancient 
city of Macao at the western base of the Andes, 
in the lat. of 2 N., from whence it runs in an 
E. S. E. direction towards the equator. Before 
it crosses the equator it communicates with 
another stream or channel of .waters, running in 
a north-east direction ; this channel is called the 
Negro, and is supposed to communicate with the 
Orinoco, whilst the main branch runs in a south- 
east direction to the Amazons, into which it falls 
in the lat. of 4 S. ; this branch of the Caquetais 
sometimes called the Japura Yupina, and some 
Portuguese adventurers in 1744 are said to have 
reached the Orinoco from the Amazons by this 
stream and that of the Negro ; a circumstance 
which the Prussian traveller Humboldt has since 
said to have confirmed as practicable; having 
himself passed from one river to another in a 
canoe, he no doubt believes that there is a union 
of the waters of those two noble rivers ; but high 
as his authority stands, further evidence is still 
wanting, as the Negro after running north-east 
for about 160 miles, then runs east, bearing a 
little south for upwards of 100 miles, when it 
takes a course parallel with the Japura into the 
Amazons about eighty miles lower down, first 
receiving the waters of lake Parima ; this branch 
in its south-east course is called the Great Negro, 
and, being far more capacious than the Japura, 
has probably been mistaken for the Orinoco. 
It is not impossible, however, but that some of 
the collateral streams of this branch may in the 
rainy season communicate with some of the col- 
lateral branches of the Orinoco in the lat. of about 
3 N. From the point where the Negro branches 
off to- the north-east, another stream diverges 
more to the west, and runs parallel with the 



Japura at a distance of about eighty miles into 
the Amazons. 

CAR, CHAR, in the names of places, seems to 
have relation to the Britisn caer, a city. Gib- 
son's Camden. 

CAR, n. \ Lat. carrus ; Fr. char; Ital. 
CAR'MAN, s. } and Sp. carro ; Welsh and Ar- 
mor, car ; Sw. karra ; Ger. and Dut. karre. A 
small carriage of burden, says Johnson, usually 
drawn by one horse or two. I suspect that the 
word is now seldom employed in this sense in Eng- 
land ; its diminutive, cart, being the denomination 
of such vehicles; though the name is still retained in 
the compound, car-man. In Ireland, however, car 
is in common use, and is applied to various sorts 
of conveyances; among which is the jaunting 
car, a kind of carriage for excursions of plea- 
sure. The word is more extensively known in 
its poetical meaning, that of a dignified or 
splendid vehicle ; a war or triumphal chariot. 
The car of day is the solar luminary ; the ' silver 
car' of Cynthia is the moon. Dryden gives the 
name of the northern car to the constellation, 
Charles' wain, or the bear. 

Henry is dead, and never shall revive : 
Upon a wooden coffin we attend, 
And death's dishonorable victory, 
We with our stately presence glorify, 
Like victors bound to a triumphal car. 


Wilt thou aspire to guide the heavenly car, 
And with thy daring folly burn the world ? Id. 

And the gilded car of day, 
His glowing axle doth allay 
In the sfeep Atlantic stream. Milton. 

Every fixt and every wandering star, 
The Pleiads, Hyads, and the Northern Car. 


See where he comes, the darling of the war ! 
See millions crowding round the gilded car. 


When a lady comes in a coach to our shop, it must 
be followed by a car loaded with Wood's money. 


If the strong cane support thy walking hand, 
Chairmen no longer shall the wall command j 
Even sturdy carmen shall thy nod obey, 
And rattling coaches stop to make a way. 

Gay. Trivia. 

Now Venus mounts her car ; she shakes the reins, 
And steers her turtles to Cythera's plains ; 
Straight to the grot with graceful step she goes, 
Her loose ambrosiac hair behind her flows. Gay. 

And many a band of ardent youths were seen, 

Some in rapture fired by glory's charms ; 
Or hurled the thundering car along the green, 
Or march'd embattled on in glittering arms. 


CAR, in archaeology, a sort of carriage drawn 
by beasts of burden; a war chariot. In different 
ancient examples, cars are represented either with 
two or four wheels, drawn by different animals ; as 
horses, mules, elephants, lions, panthers, &c. The 
invention of cars is attributed by someto Erichtho- 
nius, king of Athens, whose distorted legs pre- 
vented his walking ; by others to Triptolemus, or 
Trochilus. The Athenians dedicated them to Pal- 
las. The coursing cars or chariots were also used 
in public festivities and games; these were in the 
form of a shell mounted upon two wheels, higher 

before than behind, and ornamented with painting 
and sculpture. When they were drawn by two 
horses, they were called bigae, wher with three 
trigae, and quadrigae when they were drawn by 
four horses, which were always abreast. 

The covered cars (currus arcuati), which were 
in use among the Romans, differed from the 
others only by having an arched covering above 
Some of the eastern nations used, in their wars, 
cars armed with scythes and other cutting instru- 
ments on the wheels ; they were drawn by strong 
horses, and made dreadful havoc in the army of 
their enemies. Triumphal cars were often exe- 
cuted in marble. One is preserved in the museum 
of the Vatican at Rome. The use of triumphal 
cars was introduced, according to some, by 
Romulus, and to others by Tarquin the elder, o"r 
Valerius Poplicola. 

The cars of the different divinities are drawn 
by those animals which are sacred to each ; as 
that of Mercury by rams, of Minerva by owls, 
that of Venus by swans or doves, that of Apollo 
by griffins, of Juno by peacocks, and that of 
Diana by stags. 

CARA, a river of European Russia, which, 
directs its course towards the Arctic Ocean, and 
forms the boundary between Asia and Europe, 
for the space of about 140 miles ; the Arabian 
chain terminating so far from the sea of Cara- 
skoi, or Karskoi. 

CAR'ABINE,or-\ Fr. carabine; Ital. ca- 

CAR'BINE, n. f rabino ; Ger. carabiner ; 

CARABIN'IER, or f Swed. karbin; diminutive, 

CAREIN'IER, n. J says Thompson, of carraba- 
listan, a field bow mounted on a carriage, at- 
tached formerly to cavalry. The carabine, called 
also a petronel, is a small sort of fire arm, shorter 
than a fusil, and carrying a ball of twenty-four 
in the pound, hung by the light horse at a belt 
over the left shoulder. It is a kind of medium 
between the pistol and the musket, having its barrel 
two feet and a half long. It is generally rifled. 

He with his whole troop advanced from the gross 
of their horse, and discharging all their pistols on 
the ground, within little more than carabine shot of 
his own body, presented himself and his troop to 
Prince Rupert ; and immediately, with his highness, 
charged the enemy. Clarendon. 

CARABINS, otherwise called argoulets, were 
a species of hussars in the ancient French 
militia, and sometimes acted on foot. They 
were chosen and resolute men. All the princi- 
pal officers of the army used to have them as 
their guards. And they were often stationed at 
the outposts for the purpose of harassing the 
enemy, guarding narrow passes, &c. In action 
they generally engaged in front of the dragoons, 
or on the wings of the first line. The term 
comes from the Arabian word Karab, which sig- 
nifies generally a warlike instrument of any 

CARABUS, in zoology, a genus of insects of 
the order of coleoptera, or the beetle. The feelers 
are bristly ; the breast is shaped like a heart, and 
marginated ; and the elytra are likewise margi- 
nated. There are 324 known species of this 
genus, mostly distinguished by their color. The 
most remarkable is C. crepitans, the bombardier, 
with the breast, head, and legs, ferruginous or 

L 2 


C A R A C C A S. 

iron colored, and the elytra black. It keeps it- 
self concealed among stones, and seems to make 
little use of its wings : when it moves, it is by a 
sort of jump; and, whenever it is touched, one is 
surprised to hear a noise resembling the dis- 
charge of a musket, in miniature, during which a 
blue smoke may be perceived to proceed from its 
anus. It may be made at any time to play off 
its artillery, by scratching its back with a needle. 
Rolandet, who first made these observations, says 
it can give twenty discharges successively. A 
bladder placed near the anus is the arsenal whence 
it derives its store ; and this is its chief defence 
against an enemy, although the , smoke emitted 
seems to be altogether inoffensive, except by 
causing a fright, or concealing its course. Its 
chief enemy is another species of the same genus, 
but four times larger: when pursued and fatigued, 
the bombardier has recourse to this stratagem, 
by lying down in the path of the large carabus, 
which advances with open mouth and claws to 
seize it ; but, on this discharge of the artillery, 
suddenly draws back, and remains awhile con- 
fused : during which the bombardier conceals 
himself in some neighbouring crevice. If he 
does not find one, the large carabus returns, takes 
the insect "by the head, and tears it off. 

CARACALLA (M. Antoninus Bassianus), 
succeeded his father Severus, on the imperial 
throne of Rome, A. D. 2 1 1 , and put the physicians 
to death for not despatching him as he would 
have had them. He killed his brother Geta ; and 
put Papinianus to death because he would not 
defend his parricides. He married Julia, his 
father's widow. Going to Alexandria, he mas- 
sacred almost the whole of the inhabitants. See 
ALEXANDRIA. In short, no fewer than 20,000 
persons were murdered by his orders. At last, 
going from Edessa to Mesopotamia, one of his 
captains slew him in the seventh year of his 

CARACALLA, in antiquity, a long garment, 
having a sort of capuchin, or hood a-top, and 
reaching to the heels ; worn among the Romans 
by both men and women, in the city and the 
camp. Spartian and Xiphilin represent the em- 
peror Caracalla as the inventor of this garment, 
and hence suppose that appellation was first 
given him. Others, with more probability, make 
the caracalla originally a Gallic habit brought to 
Rome by that emperor, who first enjoined the 
soldiery to wear it, and from whom the people 
also called it antoninian. St. Jerome informs us 
that the caracalla, with a retrenchment of the 
capuchin, became an ecclesiastical garment. It 
is described as made of several pieces cut and 
sewed together, and hanging down to the feet. 

CARACCAS, or CARACAS, a department, pro- 
rince, and city, of Colombia, South America. 
The department of Caraccas includes the pro- 
vinces of Caraccas Proper and Barinas : the re- 
sidence of the intendancy or departmental go- 
Ternment being in the city of Caraccas. The 

population of this department is about 550,000' 
The province of Caraccas in its climate, natural 
scenery, and fertility, is nowhere transcended. 
On the coasts the heat is indeed, at particular 
seasons, almost overpowering to Europeans, La 
Guayra being, according to Humboldt's observa- 
tions, one of the hottest places on the earth ; but 
in the mountain valleys of the interior, and be- 
side its refreshing streams, the atmosphere is 
mild, pure, and exquisitely sweet. The soil 
yields all the usual productions of the West 
Indies in rich abundance, and is exceedingly 
favorable to cochineal, dye-woods, gums, resins, 
sarsaparilla, sassafras, liquorice, squills, storax, 
cassia, aloes, and medicinal drugs : as also to 
maize, vanilla, cotton, indigo, sugar, tobacco, 
and coffee ; but its staple article is cocoa, of a 
very superior quality. Immense herds of cattle, 
sheep, and deer, graze on the plains of the in- 
terior, where also horses and mules are found in 
considerable numbers, and all kinds of game. The 
forests produce every kind of useful and orna- 
mental wood black, red, and yellow ebony; 
mahogany and cedar are very common, so that 
the last is used for door-posts and window- 
frames as frequently as deal with us. The Spa- 
niards first introduced cocoa-trees and indigo 
here ; the former at an early period of their con- 
quest; the latter in 1774. 

La Guayra is the principal port of the pro- 
vince, and only five leagues from the capital, 
with which it communicates by a noble road. A 
chain of mountains, which separate it from the 
high valley of Caraccas, descends directly into 
the sea ; so that the houses of La Guayra are 
backed with almost perpendicular rocks, and 
stones rolling from them frequently occasion 
accidents to the town. It contains but two pa- 
rallel streets, running east and west, and about 
7000 inhabitants. The streets are ill-paved arid 
narrow, and the houses generally mean. The 
only singular objects here are the batteries, which 
are well disposed and kept in good order : that of 
Cerrocoloredo commands the roadstead. This 
is open to all winds, never exceeds eight fathoms 
in depth at a quarter of a league from the beach, 
and the sand so quickly buries the anchors of 
vessels remaining here, that they are obliged to be 
removed every eight days. The annual amount 
of its exports is said to be about 347,000, in 
cocoa, indigo, coffee, and hides; and the im- 
ports about 520,000, all the goods being pur- 
chased as well as sold at Caracas, and only loaded 
or unloaded here. The men who carry the cocoa 
on board the ships are remarkable for their mus- 
cular strength ; and, though they frequently wade 
up to their breasts in the water, are never mo- 
lested by the sharks that are so abundant in 
this part. The inhabitants say that a bishop 
once gave his benediction to all who should 
appear here, and thus tamed their nature ! We 
are indebted to colonel Hale's interesting little 
work entitled Colombia, for the following : 




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C A R A C C A S. 

II. Revenue of the Port of La Guayra, from the 
1st of January to the 31st of October, 1823, 
taken from the OFFICIAL RETURN. 


Import Duties 515,609 

Export ditto 153,101 3 

Tonnage ditto 5,778 3 

Salt ditto 4,083 1$ 

Anchorage ditto 414 

Prizes 105,552 3 

Duties appropriated to the Military 

Hospital . 6,038 OJ 

790,576 2 

The city of Caraecas is situate in 10 30' 15" 
N. lat., and 67 4' 45" W. long., at the entrance 
of the plain of Chacao, which extends three 
leagues east towards Cauriman and the Cuesta 
de Auyamas, and is two leagues and a half 
broad. This plain, through which runs the river 
Guayra, is 414 toises above the level of the sea ; 
three other rivers (very small) cross the town 
from north to south. Its climate has been called 
a perpetual spring. - The temperature is gene- 
rally between 20 and 26 in the day, and 16 
and 18 at night. But this general mildness is 
connected with great fluctuations in the weather. 
Humboldt sometimes, among the vapors of No- 
vember and December, could scarcely think him- 
self in one of the temperate valleys of the torrid 
zone ; but rather in the north of Germany, among 
the pines and the larches overshadowing the 
mountains of the Hartz. The following have 
been given as the differences of climate between 
Caraecas and La Guayra : 




Level of 

454 Toises. 

the Sea. 

Mean temp, of the year 

21 to 22 


Mean temp, of the hot 

season . . . 



Mean temp, of the cold 

season . . . 



Maximum .... 



Minimum .... 



The streets of Caraecas are straight, well paved, 
and well built, intersecting each other at right 
angles, and at a distance of about three hundred 
feet : there are eight squares, if such they may 
be called, five of them being very irregular enclo- 
sures ; but the plaa major, occupying about 300 
square feet, and the great market of the city, is a 
respectable collection of buildings, public and 
private. On the east is the cathedral, and on 
the same side begin the barracks, continued 
round to the south. In the market abundance of 
every kind of provision is to be found. Fruits, 
vegetables, meat, salted provisions, poultry, fish, 
game, bread, monkeys, parrots, &c. The churches 
of Candelana and St. Paul are the only distinc- 
tions of the other squares worth naming. The 
houses of many individuals are well built, and of 
Jiandsome appearance ; being generally of ma- 

sonry, with frame-work, after the Roman man- 
ner, or of brick. Humboldt thought them only 
too high in a region so subject to earthquakes as 
Caraecas. Those of the respectable inhabitants 
are neatly and even superbly furnished. ' We 
behold in them,' says an anonymous, but re- 
spectable description of Colombia, '. beautiful 
glasses; at the windows, and over the inside 
doors, elegant curtains of crimson damask ; 
chairs, and sofas made of wood, the seats of 
which, covered with leather or damask, are 
stuffed with hair and adorned with Gothic work, 
but overloaded with gilding; bedsteads with 
deep headboards, showing nothing but gold, co- 
vered by superb damask counterpanes, and a 
number of down pillows in fine muslin cases, 
trimmed with lace. There is seldom, it is true, 
more than one bed of this magnificence in each 
house, which is in general the nuptial couch, 
and afterwards serves as a bed of state. The eye 
wanders also over tables with gilded feet ; chests 
of drawers, on which the gilder has exhausted all 
the resources of his art; brilliant lustres, sus- 
pended in the principal apartments; cornices, 
which seem to have been dipped in gold ; and 
rich carpets, covering at least ail that part of the 
room where the seats of honor are placed : for 
the parlour furniture is disposed in such a man- 
ner, that the sofa, which constitutes the most 
essential article of household attire, is situate at 
one end, with the chairs arranged on the right 
and left ; and opposite, the principal bed of the 
house, placed at the other extremity of the room, 
in a chamber, the door of which is open, unless 
it be fixed in an alcove equally open, and by the 
side of the seats of honor, 

' Except the barracks,Caraccas possesses scarce- 
ly any public edifices but those dedicated to reli- 
gion, viz. eight churches and five convents. The 
barracks, which will hold 2000 men, are hand- 
some, and situate on a spot commanding beau- 
tiful views. They are storied, with a double 
yard, and occupied by the troops of the line 
alone. The militia have their barracks in the 
opposite part of the city. Here is also a college, 
founded in 1778 by the bishop Antonio Gon- 
zalez d'Acuna, and converted into a university 
in 1792 ; and a theatre, which will hold 1500 or 
1800 persons.- The population in 1812 was 
50,000, when, in the great earthquake on the 
12th of March, 12,000 are supposed at once to 
have perished. The late political convulsions 
are supposed to have farther reduced the present 
population of the city to 20,000. 

' It is divided between whites, negroes, and a 
few Indians. The first are either merchants, 
planters, professional, or military men ; very 
proud, and disdaining all kinds of labor. ' The 
women of Caraecas are seldom - blondes ; but, 
with hair of the blackness of jet, they have the 
white of alabaster. Their eyes, large and finely 
shaped, speak, in an expressive manner, that 
language which is of all countries. The carna- 
tion of their lips is finely softened by the white- 
ness of their skins, and concurs to form that 
ensemble which we denominate beauty. Their 
stature does not correspond with their shape: we 
see few above the middle size, many below. It 
would be losing time to search for pretty feet : 




as they pass a great portion of their lives at their 
windows, one would say, that nature had wished 
to embellish only that part of their bodies which 
they expose to view. Their gait also is deficient 
in grace.' 

The luxury of European capitals is by no 
means unattainable at CaYaccas. The Spanish gra- 
vity and the Creole voluptuousness are seen in 
singular combination. The inhabitants of this 
and the other towns of Colombia seldom dine 
with each other, and are on the whole temperate ; 
but they give frequent collations of coffee, cho- 
colate, tea, cakes, and wine, when they display 
their porcelain and fine glass, and the ladies, 
both old and young, appear in all their attrac- 

Before the revolution every house of respec- 
tability was encumbered by a vast train of do- 
mestic slaves. Religious festivals are so frequent 
at Caraccas, that there are very few days in the 
year on which they do net celebrate some saint, 
and what multiplies them almost to infinity is, 
that every festival is preceded by a neuvaine, or 
succession of nine days, consecrated to prayer ; 
and followed by an octave, or succession of eight 
days, during which to their prayers the faithful 
join public amusements, such as fire-works, 
concerts, &c. : the most brilliant part of their 
festivals is the procession of the saint who is cele- 
brated. \Vhen the men go to church they must 
always wear a coat, great coat, or cloak, and the 
women, rich or poor, especially the whites, are 
rigorously rtquired to be in black. Their dress 
on this occasion generally consists in a petticoat 
and veil of black. Negroes only have a white 
veil. Posts are now forwarded regularly and 
periodically, from the capital only, for Mara- 
caibo, Porto Cavello, Santa Fe, Cumana, and 
Guiana. All the towns lying on the road to 
these places enjoy the advantages of the mail. 
All the roads of the country are under the d